The complete mitochondrial genome of Bullanga florida (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae).
ABSTRACT: The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bullanga florida (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) was determined. The entire sequence is 15,937?bp in length which contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs and one non-coding AT-rich region. The overall A?+?T content of mitogenome is 73.3%. The gene order and arrangement are similar to other Neuroptera mitogenomes. Thirteen PCGs start with standard ATN initiation codons and stop with termination codons TAA or T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf secondary structure except for tRNASer (AGN), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm do not form a stable stem-loop structure. Two rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) are 1325?bp and 776?bp in size, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis is based on the amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs indicates that B. florida is a sister group to Epacanthaclisis banks, and Myrmeleontiformia is the monophyletic group.
Project description:In the holometabolous insect order Neuroptera (lacewings), the cosmopolitan Myrmeleontidae (antlions) are the most species-rich family, while the closely related Nymphidae (split-footed lacewings) are a small endemic family from the Australian-Malesian region. Both families belong to the suborder Myrmeleontiformia, within which controversial hypotheses on the interfamilial phylogenetic relationships exist. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of an antlion (Myrmeleon immanis Walker, 1853) and a split-footed lacewing (Nymphes myrmeleonoides Leach, 1814), representing the first mt genomes for both families. These mt genomes are relatively small (respectively composed of 15,799 and 15,713 bp) compared to other lacewing mt genomes, and comprise 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes). The arrangement of these two mt genomes is the same as in most derived Neuroptera mt genomes previously sequenced, specifically with a translocation of trnC. The start codons of all PCGs are started by ATN, with an exception of cox1, which is ACG in the M. immanis mt genome and TCG in N. myrmeleonoides. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN). The secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS are similar with those proposed insects and the domain I contains nine helices rather than eight helices, which is common within Neuroptera. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mt genomic data for all Neuropterida sequenced thus far, supports the monophyly of Myrmeleontiformia and the sister relationship between Ascalaphidae and Myrmeleontidae.
Project description:The higher-level phylogeny of Neuroptera is explored here based on the newly determined mitochondrial genomic data, with a special focus on the interfamilial relationships of this group. Despite considerable progress in our understanding of neuropteran relationships, several mutually exclusive hypotheses have come out according to morphology-based analyses and molecular sequence data. The evaluation of these hypotheses is hampered by the limited taxonomic coverage of previous studies. In this paper, we sequenced four mitochondrial genomes to improve the taxonomic sampling for families: Myrmeleontidae, Ascalaphidae and outgroup Corydalidae. Phylogenetic analyses were run using various inference methods to (1) confirm that Coniopterygidae is sister to all other Neuroptera; (2) place Hemerobiidae as sister to Chrysopidae; (3) support the monophyly of Myrmeleontiformia and define its interfamilial relationships; and (4) recover Myrmeleontidae as paraphyletic due to the nested Ascalaphidae.
Project description:The complete circular mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of <i>Rhadinosa nigrocyanea</i> was 17,965?bp in length, which contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 1 non-coding AT-rich region with the length of 3002?bp. All of the 22 tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure, with the exception of tRNA<sup>Ser</sup> (TCT). 12 PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for ND1 started with TTG. Only six PCGs used the typical stop codon 'TAA' and 'TGA', while seven PCGs terminated with incomplete stop codons (TA or T). Phylogenetic analysis showed that <i>R. nigrocyanea</i> grouped with Cassidinae species, sister to Clytrinae?+?Cryptocephalinae.
Project description:The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of scale insects are less known in comparison to other insects, which hinders the phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of Coccoidea and higher taxa. Herein, the complete mitogenomes of Unaspis yanonensis, Planococcus citri and Ceroplastes rubens were sequenced for Coccoidea. The 15,220-bp long mitogenome of U. yanonensis contained the typical set of 37 genes including 13 PCGs, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes; the 15,549-bp long mitogenome of P. citri lacked the tRNA gene trnV; the 15,387-bp long mitogenome of C. rubens exhibited several shortened PCGs and lacked five tRNA genes. The mitochondrial gene arrangement of the three mitogenomes was different from other scale insects and Drosophila yakuba. Most PCGs used standard ATN (ATA, ATT, ATC and ATG) start codons and complete TAN (TAA or TAG) termination codons. The ND4L had the highest evolutionary rate but COX1 and CYTB were the lowest. Most tRNA genes had cloverleaf secondary structures, whereas the reduction of dihydrouridine (DHU) arms and T?C arms were detected. Tandem repeats, stem-loop (SL) structures and poly-[TA]n stretch were found in the control regions (CRs) of the three mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood methods (ML) showed identical results, both supporting the inner relationship of Coccoidea as Coccidae + (Pseudococcidae + Diaspididae).
Project description:In this study, we sequenced the mitogenome of <i>Habrobracon hebetor</i>, and obtained almost complete mitogenome of it. The mitogenome contains 14,629 bp which consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 20 transfer RNA genes (<i>trnI</i> and <i>trnM</i> are absent), and 2 ribosomal RNA genes (GenBank accession no. MT558946). Gene rearrangement events occurred in this species, five tRNA genes with changes in positions or/and directions are found. All of 13 PCGs started with ATN. Eight PCGs used the typical stop codon 'TAA', five PCGs terminated with incomplete stop codons (T). Phylogenetic analyses within the Cyclostomes were performed based on mitochondrial PCGs.
Project description:The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of <i>Poecilocoris druraei</i> was sequenced and analyzed. The 16,524 bp mitogenome of <i>P. druraei</i> contained 21 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and a control region. Most PCGs used standard ATG start codons and complete TAA ermination codons. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that <i>P. druraei</i> is closed related with <i>P. nepalensis</i>.
Project description:The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Nemoura nankinensis (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) was sequenced as the first reported mitogenome from the family Nemouridae. The N. nankinensis mitogenome was the longest (16,602 bp) among reported plecopteran mitogenomes, and it contains 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Most PCGs used standard ATN as start codons, and TAN as termination codons. All tRNA genes of N. nankinensis could fold into the cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnSer (AGN), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm was reduced to a small loop. There was also a large non-coding region (control region, CR) in the N. nankinensis mitogenome. The 1751 bp CR was the longest and had the highest A+T content (81.8%) among stoneflies. A large tandem repeat region, five potential stem-loop (SL) structures, four tRNA-like structures and four conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) were detected in the elongated CR. The presence of these tRNA-like structures in the CR has never been reported in other plecopteran mitogenomes. These novel features of the elongated CR in N. nankinensis may have functions associated with the process of replication and transcription. Finally, phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that Nemouridae was the sister-group of Capniidae.
Project description:Abstract Mitochondria are important organelles with independent genetic material of eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the complete mitogenome of a small cyprinid fish, Microphysogobioelongatus (Yao & Yang, 1977). The mitogenome of M.elongatus is a typical circular molecule of 16,612 bp in length containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a 930 bp control region. The base composition of the M.elongatus mitogenome is 30.8% A, 26.1% T, 16.7% G, and 26.4% C. All PCGs used the standard ATG start codon with the exception of COI. Six PCGs terminate with complete stop codons, whereas seven PCGs (ND2, COII, ATPase 6, COIII, ND3, ND4, and Cyt b) terminate with incomplete (T or TA) stop codons. All tRNA genes exhibited typical cloverleaf secondary structures with the exception of tRNASer(AGY), for which the dihydrouridine arm forms a simple loop. The phylogenetic analysis divided the subfamily Gobioninae in three clades with relatively robust support, and that Microphysogobio is not a monophyletic group. The complete mitogenome of M.elongatus provides a valuable resource for future studies about molecular phylogeny and/or population genetics of Microphysogobio.
Project description:The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana Moore (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a species with closest relationship with Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina, and the genetic information of R. menciana is important for understanding the diversity of the Bombycidae. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. menciana was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The mitogenome of R. menciana was determined to be 15,301?bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an AT-rich region. The A+T content (78.87%) was lower than that observed for other Bombycidae insects. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons and terminated with the canonical stop codons, except for coxII, which was terminated by a single T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The length of AT-rich region (360?bp) of R. menciana mitogenome is shorter than that of other Bombycidae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. menciana was clustered on one branch with B. mori and B. mandarina from Bombycidae.
Project description:A complete mitogenome of Trachys auricollis is reported, and a mitogenome-based phylogenetic tree of Elateriformia with all protein-coding genes (PCGs), rRNAs, and tRNAs is presented for the first time. The complete mitochondrial genome of T. auricollis is 16,429 bp in size and contains 13 PCGs, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and an A + T-rich region. The A + T content of the entire genome is approximately 71.1%, and the AT skew and GC skew are 0.10 and -0.20, respectively. According to the the nonsynonymous substitution rate to synonymous substitution rates (Ka/Ks) of all PCGs, the highest and lowest evolutionary rates were observed for atp8 and cox1, respectively, which is a common finding among animals. The start codons of all PCGs are the typical ATN. Ten PCGs have complete stop codons, but three have incomplete stop codons with T or TA. As calculated based on the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, UUA(L) is the codon with the highest frequency. Except for trnS1, all 22 tRNA genes exhibit typical cloverleaf structures. The A + T-rich region of T. auricollis is located between rrnS and the trnI-trnG-trnM gene cluster, with six 72-bp tandem repeats. Both maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BI) trees suggest that Buprestoidea is close to Byrrhoidea and that Buprestoidea and Byrrhoidea are sister groups of Elateroidea, but the position of Psephenidae is undetermined. The inclusion of tRNAs might help to resolve the phylogeny of Coleoptera.