Enhancer-derived long non-coding RNAs CCAT1 and CCAT2 at rs6983267 has limited predictability for early stage colorectal carcinoma metastasis.
ABSTRACT: Up-regulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), colon-cancer associated transcript (CCAT) 1 and 2, was associated with worse prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Nevertheless, their role in predicting metastasis in early-stage CRC is unclear. We measured the expression of CCAT1, CCAT2 and their oncotarget, c-Myc, in 150 matched mucosa-tumour samples of early-stage microsatellite-stable Chinese CRC patients with definitive metastasis status by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay. Expression of CCAT1, CCAT2 and c-Myc were significantly up-regulated in the tumours compared to matched mucosa (p?
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>8q24.21 is a frequently amplified genomic region in colorectal cancer (CRC). This region is often referred to as a 'gene desert' due to lack of any important protein-coding genes, highlighting the potential role of noncoding RNAs, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) located around the proto-oncogene MYC. In this study, we have firstly evaluated the clinical significance of altered expression of lncRNAs mapped to this genomic locus in CRC.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>A total of 300 tissues, including 280 CRC and 20 adjacent normal mucosa specimens were evaluated for the expression of 12 lncRNAs using qRT-PCR assays. We analyzed the associations between lncRNA expression and various clinicopathological features, as well as with recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in two independent cohorts.<h4>Results</h4>The expression of CCAT1, CCAT1-L, CCAT2, PVT1, and CASC19 were elevated in cancer tissues (P?=?0.039,?<0.001, 0.018,?<0.001, 0.002, respectively). Among these, high expression of CCAT1 and CCAT2 was significantly associated with poor RFS (P?=?0.049 and 0.022, respectively) and OS (P?=?0.028 and 0.015, respectively). These results were validated in an independent patient cohort, in which combined expression of CCAT1 and CCAT2 expression was significantly associated with a poor RFS (HR:2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-6.06, P?=?0.042) and a poor OS (HR:8.38, 95%CI: 2.68-37.0, P?<?0.001). We established a RFS prediction model which revealed that combined expression of CCAT1, CCAT2, and carcinoembryonic antigen was a significant determinant for efficiently predicting RFS in stage II (P?=?0.034) and stage III (P?=?0.001) CRC patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Several lncRNAs located in 8q24.21 locus are highly over-expressed in CRC. High expression of CCAT1 and CCAT2 significantly associates with poor RFS and OS. The expression of these two lncRNAs independently, or in combination, serves as important prognostic biomarkers in CRC.
Project description:Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer related death in Europe, clinically relevant biomarkers for therapy guidance and prognosis are insufficiently reliable. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNAs over 200 nucleotides long that are not translated into proteins but can influence biological processes. There is emerging evidence for their involvement in solid cancer as oncogenes, tumour suppressors or regulators of cell proliferation and metastasis development. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of selected lncRNAs in a retrospective study on CRC patients from the Czech Republic. We used a quantitative PCR approach to measure the expression in paired non-malignant and tumour tissue samples of CRC patients of nine lncRNAs previously shown to be involved in cancer progression-ANRIL, CCAT1, GAS5, linc-ROR, MALAT1, MIR155HG, PCAT1, SPRY4-IT1 and TUG1. Associations between expression and expression ratios and clinical characteristics and survival were assessed by using univariable Cox proportional hazards models, Kaplan-Meier estimations with the Gehan-Wilcoxon test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's correlations. A comparison of expression in tumour tissue (TT) and non-malignant mucosa tissue (MT) showed significant upregulation of CCAT1 and linc-ROR in TT (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) and downregulation of ANRIL, MIR155HG and MALAT1 (p = 0.001, p = 0.010, p = 0.001, respectively). Linc-ROR was significantly associated with the presence of synchronous metastases (p = 0.033). For individual tissue types, lower MIR155HG expression in TT was correlated with both shorter overall survival (p = 0.008) and shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.040). In MT, expression ratios of CCAT1/ANRIL and CCAT1/MIR155HG were associated with overall survival (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006, respectively). Our results revealed that changes in expression of lncRNAs between MT and TT hold potential to be used as prognostic biomarkers in CRC patients. Moreover, the ratios of CCAT1 to ANRIL and MIR155HG in MT also exhibit potential for prognosis assessment without tumour sampling. Our results also indicate that cancer progression is associated with detrimental system-wide changes in patient tissue, which might govern patient survival even after successful elimination of tumour or cancerous cells.
Project description:Here, we investigated the clinicopathological and prognostic potential of the long noncoding RNA Colon Cancer-Associated Transcript 2 (CCAT2) in human colorectal cancer (CRC). We used qPCR to quantify CCAT2 levels in 44 pairs of CRC tissues and adjacent nontumor and healthy colon mucosa tissues, and in several CRC cell lines (SW620, SW480, HT-29, LOVO, HCT116 and DLD-1) and normal human colorectal epithelial cells (HFC). We assessed the effects of CCAT2 overexpression or knockdown on the proliferation, migration and invasion by SW620 and LOVO cells using CCK-8, transwell, and wound-healing assays, respectively. We also investigated the potential interaction between CCAT2 and TAF15 through RNA pull down and rescue experiments. Lastly, we evaluated the expression of the cell cycle progression markers and GSK3β signaling pathway proteins using Western blotting. Our results showed that CCAT2 was upregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines as com-pared to controls. Ectopic expression of CCAT2 promoted CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, likely through direct interaction with TAF15, transcriptional activation of RAB14, and activation of the AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway. <i>In vivo</i>, CCAT2 promoted CRC cell growth and metastasis in nude mice. Taken together, these results highlight the actions of CCAT2 as a CRC oncogene.
Project description:The impact of HULC rs7763881 on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility is not yet known. Also, the biological function of the cancer-related rs6983267 remains unclear. We investigated the association of these SNPs with the risk of CRC and adenomatous polyps (AP), their correlation with CCAT2 and HULC expression, and the potential of serum CCAT2 and HULC as biomarkers for CRC. 120 CRC patients, 30 AP patients, and 96 healthy controls were included. Genotyping and serum lncRNAs were assayed by qPCR. Studied SNPs were not associated with AP susceptibility. rs6983267 GG was associated with increased CRC risk, whereas rs7763881 AC was protective. rs7763881 and rs6983267 CT haplotype was protective. Serum CCAT2 and HULC were upregulated in CRC and AP patients versus controls and discriminated these groups by ROC analysis. rs6983267 GG and rs7763881 AA patients demonstrated higher serum CCAT2 and HULC compared with GT/TT and AC, respectively. rs6983267 and serum HULC predicted CRC diagnosis among non-CRC groups (AP?+?controls) by multivariate analysis. Studied SNPs or serum long noncoding RNAs weren't correlated with nodal or distant metastasis. In conclusion, rs6983267 and rs7763881 are potential genetic markers of CRC predisposition and correlate with serum CCAT2 and HULC, two novel potential non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for CRC.
Project description:RNA methylation at position N6 in adenosine (m<sup>6</sup>A) and its associated methyltransferase complex (MTC) are involved in tumorigenesis. We aimed to explore m<sup>6</sup>A biological function for long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in prostate cancer (PCa) and its clinical significance. m<sup>6</sup>A and MTC levels in PCa cells were characterized by ELISA and western blot. Putative m<sup>6</sup>A-regulated lncRNAs were identified and validated by lncRNA profiler qPCR array and bioinformatics analysis, followed by m<sup>6</sup>A/RNA co-immunoprecipitation. Impact of m<sup>6</sup>A depletion on RNA stability was assessed by Actinomycin D assay. The association of m<sup>6</sup>A-levels with PCa prognosis was examined in clinical samples. Higher m<sup>6</sup>A-levels and VIRMA overexpression were detected in metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC) cells (<i>p</i> < 0.05). VIRMA knockdown in PC-3 cells significantly decreased m<sup>6</sup>A-levels (<i>p</i> = 0.0317), attenuated malignant phenotype and suppressed the expression of oncogenic lncRNAs CCAT1 and CCAT2 (<i>p</i> < 0.00001). VIRMA depletion and m<sup>6</sup>A reduction decreased the stability and abundance of CCAT1/2 transcripts. Higher expression of VIRMA, CCAT1, and CCAT2 as a group variable was an independent predictor of poor prognosis (HR = 9.083, CI95% 1.911-43.183, <i>p</i> = 0.006). VIRMA is a critical factor sustaining m<sup>6</sup>A-levels in PCa cells. VIRMA downregulation attenuates the aggressive phenotype of PCa by overall reduction of m<sup>6</sup>A-levels decreasing stability and abundance of oncogenic lncRNAs.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to alter immune responses, thus contributing to the pathobiology of autoimmune conditions. We investigated the expression levels of ANRIL, PICART1, MALAT1, CCAT1, CCAT2, and CCHE1 lncRNAs in acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP and CIDP). ANRIL, PICART1, MALAT1, CCAT1, CCAT2, and CCHE1 lncRNAs were significantly downregulated in individuals with both AIDP and CIDP compared with unaffected individuals. Gender-based comparisons also verified such downregulations in both male and female subjects compared with sex-matched unaffected controls for all lncRNAs. There was no significant difference in the expression of any of the lncRNAs between cases with AIDP and cases with CIDP. While the expression levels of ANRIL and PICART1 were significantly correlated in healthy subjects (r = 0.86, <i>p</i> = 8.5E-16), similar analysis in cases with AIDP and CIDP revealed no significant correlation. The most robust correlation among patients was detected between ANRIL and MALAT1 lncRNAs (r = 0.59, <i>p</i> = 3.52E-6). ANRIL, MALAT1, and PICART1 had the diagnostic power of 0.96, 0.94, and 0.92 in distinguishing between cases with CIDP and controls, respectively. A combination of all lncRNAs resulted in 0.95 diagnostic power with a sensitivity of 0.85 and specificity of 0.96 for this purpose. Diagnostic power values of these lncRNAs in differentiation between cases with AIDP and controls were 0.98, 0.95, and 0.93, respectively. The combinatorial diagnostic power reached 0.98 for differentiation between cases with AIDP and controls. The six-lncRNA panel could differentiate combined cases with AIDP and CIDP from controls with area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity values of 0.97, 0.90, and 0.96, respectively. Collectively, the lncRNA panel is suggested as a sensitive and specific diagnostic panel for acquired immune-mediated polyneuropathies.
Project description:The perception of long non-coding RNAs as chunk RNA and transcriptional noise has been steadily replaced by their role as validated targets for a diverse set of physiological processes in the past few years. However, for the vast majority of lncRNAs their precise mode of action and physiological function remain to be uncovered. A large body of evidence has revealed their essential role in all stages of cancirogenesis and metastasis. In this review we focus on the role of lncRNAs in metastasis. We grouped selected lncRNAs into three categories based on in vitro and in vivo mode of action-related studies and clinical relevance for metastasis. Grouped according to their mode of action, in category I we discuss lncRNAs such as CCAT2, DREH, LET, NKILA, treRNA, HOTAIR, H19, FENDRR, lincROR, MALAT, GClnc1, BCAR4, SCHLAP1 and lncRNA ATP, all lncRNAs with in vitro and in vivo metastasis-related data and clinical significance. In category II we discuss lncRNAs CCAT1, PCAT1, PTENgp1, GPLINC, MEG3, ZEB2-AS, LCT13, ANRIL, NBAT1 and lncTCF7 all characterized by their mode of action in vitro and clinical significance, but pending or preliminary in vivo data. Finally, under category III, we discuss lncRNAs BANCR, FRLnc1, SPRY4-IT1 and LIMT with partially or poorly-resolved mode of action and varying degree of validation in clinical metastasis. Finally we discuss metastasis-related translational aspects of lncRNAs.
Project description:The vital roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in growing number of studies in tumor development. LncRNA CCAT1 has been recognized as associated with tumor development, yet its relation with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains elusive. Our study aimed at elucidating the function and mechanisms of long non-coding RNA CCAT1 in CRC. From a lncRNA profile dataset of 38 pairs of matched tumor-control colon tissues from colorectal patients housed in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we detected 10 upregulated and 10 down-regulated lncRNAs in CRC. Fifty cases of CRC patients were enrolled to analyze the correlation between the expression of CCAT1 and clinical pathology. The inverse correlation of expression and target relationship between CCAT1 and miR-181a-5p were verified using qRT-PCR and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Cell viability, colony formation ability, aggression and apoptosis were determined by MTT assay, colony formation assay, Transwell and wound healing assays and flow cytometry analysis. Furthermore, Xenograft model was used to show that knockdown of CCAT1 inhibits tumor growth in vivo. The expression of lncRNA CCAT1 was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues. The CCAT1 expression was positively associated with cancer stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, P<0.05). CCAT1 promoted cell proliferation, growth and mobility by targeting miR-181a-5p and the silence of CCAT1 increased the cell apoptosis. Same effect was observed in an in vivo xenograft model, which the tumor size and pro-tumor proteins were significantly diminished by knocking down of CCAT1.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a carcinogenesis event that promotes metastasis and resistance to therapy by unclear mechanisms. Expression of the colon cancer-associated transcript 2 gene (CCAT2), which encodes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), associates with CIN, but little is known about how CCAT2 lncRNA regulates this cancer enabling characteristic.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed cytogenetic analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines (HCT116, KM12C/SM, and HT29) overexpressing CCAT2 and colon organoids from C57BL/6N mice with the CCAT2 transgene and without (controls). CRC cells were also analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy, γ-H2AX, and senescence assays. CCAT2 transgene and control mice were given azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium to induce colon tumors. We performed gene expression array and mass spectrometry to detect downstream targets of CCAT2 lncRNA. We characterized interactions between CCAT2 with downstream proteins using MS2 pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation, and selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension analyses. Downstream proteins were overexpressed in CRC cells and analyzed for CIN. Gene expression levels were measured in CRC and non-tumor tissues from 5 cohorts, comprising more than 900 patients.<h4>Results</h4>High expression of CCAT2 induced CIN in CRC cell lines and increased resistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. Mice that expressed the CCAT2 transgene developed chromosome abnormalities, and colon organoids derived from crypt cells of these mice had a higher percentage of chromosome abnormalities compared with organoids from control mice. The transgenic mice given azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium developed more and larger colon polyps than control mice given these agents. Microarray analysis and mass spectrometry indicated that expression of CCAT2 increased expression of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. CCAT2 lncRNA interacted directly with and stabilized BOP1 ribosomal biogenesis factor (BOP1). CCAT2 also increased expression of MYC, which activated expression of BOP1. Overexpression of BOP1 in CRC cell lines resulted in chromosomal missegregation errors, and increased colony formation, and invasiveness, whereas BOP1 knockdown reduced viability. BOP1 promoted CIN by increasing the active form of aurora kinase B, which regulates chromosomal segregation. BOP1 was overexpressed in polyp tissues from CCAT2 transgenic mice compared with healthy tissue. CCAT2 lncRNA and BOP1 mRNA or protein were all increased in microsatellite stable tumors (characterized by CIN), but not in tumors with microsatellite instability compared with nontumor tissues. Increased levels of CCAT2 lncRNA and BOP1 mRNA correlated with each other and with shorter survival times of patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We found that overexpression of CCAT2 in colon cells promotes CIN and carcinogenesis by stabilizing and inducing expression of BOP1 an activator of aurora kinase B. Strategies to target this pathway might be developed for treatment of patients with microsatellite stable colorectal tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The feces of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients contain tumor colonocytes, which constantly shed into the lumen area. Therefore, stool evaluation can be considered as a rapid and low-risk way to directly determine the colon and rectum status. As long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) alterations are important in cancer cells fate regulation, we aimed to assess the level of a panel of cancer-related lncRNAs in fecal colonocytes.<h4>Methods</h4>The population study consisted of 150 subjects, including a training set, a validation set, and a group of 30 colon polyps. The expression levels of lncRNAs were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The NPInetr and EnrichR tools were used to identify the interactions and functions of lncRNAs.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 10 significantly dysregulated lncRNAs, including CCAT1, CCAT2, H19, HOTAIR, HULC, MALAT1, PCAT1, MEG3, PTENP1, and TUSC7, were chosen for designing a predictive panel. The diagnostic performance of the panel in distinguishing CRCs from the healthy group was AUC: 0.8554 in the training set and 0.8465 in the validation set. The AUC for early CRCs (I-II TNM stages) was 0.8554 in the training set and 0.8465 in the validation set, and for advanced CRCs (III-IV TNM stages) were 0.9281 in the training set and 0.9236 in the validation set. The corresponding AUC for CRCs vs polyps were 0.9228 (I-IV TNM stages), 0.9042 (I-II TNM stages), and 0.9362 (III-IV TNM stages).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data represented the application of analysis of fecal colonocytes lncRNAs in early detection of CRC.