A Deep Intronic Variant Activates a Pseudoexon in the MTM1 Gene in a Family with X-Linked Myotubular Myopathy.
ABSTRACT: We report a novel intronic variant in the MTM1 gene in 4 males in a family with severe X-linked myotubular myopathy. The A>G variant in deep intronic space activates a cryptic 5' donor splice site resulting in the inclusion of a 48-bp pseudoexon into the mature MTM1 mRNA. The variant is present in all affected males, absent in unaffected males, and heterozygous in the mother of the affected males. The included intronic sequence contains a premature stop codon, and experiments using a translational inhibitor indicate that the mutant mRNAs undergo nonsense-mediated decay. We conclude that affected males produce no, or low, levels of MTM1 mRNA likely leading to a significant reduction of myotubularin-1 protein resulting in the severe neonatal myopathy present in this family. The study highlights the need to consider noncoding variants in genomic screening in families with X-linked myotubular myopathy.
Project description:Myotubular myopathy is a subtype of centronuclear myopathy with X-linked inheritance and distinctive clinical and pathologic features. Most boys with myotubular myopathy have MTM1 mutations. In remaining individuals, it is not clear if disease is due to an undetected alteration in MTM1 or mutation of another gene. We describe a boy with myotubular myopathy but without mutation in MTM1 by conventional sequencing. Array-CGH analysis of MTM1 uncovered a large MTM1 duplication. This finding suggests that at least some unresolved cases of myotubular myopathy are due to duplications in MTM1, and that array-CGH should be considered when MTM1 sequencing is unrevealing.
Project description:X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a severe congenital muscle disorder caused by mutations in the MTM1 gene and characterized by severe hypotonia and generalized muscle weakness in affected males. It is generally a fatal disorder during the neonatal period and early infancy. The diagnosis is based on typical histopathological findings on muscle biopsy, combined with suggestive clinical features. We experienced a case of a newborn who required intubation and ventilator care because of profound hypotonia and respiratory difficulty. The preliminary diagnosis at the time of request for retrieval was hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, but the infant was clinically reevaluated for generalized weakness and muscle atrophy. Muscle biopsies showed variability in fiber size and centrally located nuclei in nearly all the fibers. We detected an MTM1 gene mutation of c.1261-1C>A in the intron 10 region, and diagnosed the neonate with myotubular myopathy. The same mutation was detected in his mother.
Project description:Mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a well-defined subtype of human centronuclear myopathy. Seven male Labrador Retrievers, age 14-26 wk, were clinically evaluated for generalized weakness and muscle atrophy. Muscle biopsies showed variability in fiber size, centrally placed nuclei resembling fetal myotubes, and subsarcolemmal ringed and central dense areas highlighted with mitochondrial specific reactions. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the centrally located nuclei, abnormal perinuclear structure, and mitochondrial accumulations. Wild-type triads were infrequent, with most exhibiting an abnormal orientation of T tubules. MTM1 gene sequencing revealed a unique exon 7 variant in all seven affected males, causing a nonconservative missense change, p.N155K, which haplotype data suggest derives from a recent founder in the local population. Analysis of a worldwide panel of 237 unaffected Labrador Retrievers and 59 additional control dogs from 25 other breeds failed to identify this variant, supporting it as the pathogenic mutation. Myotubularin protein levels and localization were abnormal in muscles from affected dogs, and expression of GFP-MTM1 p.N155K in COS-1 cells showed that the mutant protein was sequestered in proteasomes, where it was presumably misfolded and prematurely degraded. These data demonstrate that XLMTM in Labrador Retrievers is a faithful genetic model of the human condition.
Project description:Congenital and inherited myopathies in dogs are faithful models of human muscle diseases and are being recognized with increasing frequency. In fact, canine models of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy and X-linked myotubular myopathy are of tremendous value in the translation of new and promising therapies for the treatment of these diseases. We have recently identified a family of Australian Rottweilers in which male puppies were clinically affected with severe muscle weakness and atrophy that resulted in early euthanasia or death. X-linked myotubular myopathy was suspected based on the early and severe clinical presentation and histopathological changes within muscle biopsies. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic basis for myopathy in these dogs and compare and contrast the clinical presentation, histopathology, ultrastructure, and mutation in this family of Rottweiler dogs with the previously described myotubular myopathy in Labrador retrievers.Histopathology, histochemistry, and ultrastructural examination of muscle biopsies from affected Rottweiler puppies were consistent with an X-linked myotubular myopathy. An unusual finding that differed from the previously reported Labradors and similar human cases was the presence of excessive autophagy and prominent autophagic vacuoles. Molecular investigations confirmed a missense mutation in exon 11 of MTM1 that was predicted to result in a non-functional phosphatase activity. Although the clinical presentations and histopathology were similar, the MTM1 p.(Q384P) mutation is different from the p.(N155K) mutation in exon 7 affecting Labrador retrievers with X-linked myotubular myopathy.Here we describe a second pathogenic mutation in MTM1 causing X-linked myotubular myopathy in dogs. Our findings suggest a variety of MTM1 mutations in dogs as seen in human patients. The number of MTM1 mutations resulting in similar severe and progressive clinical myopathy and histopathological changes are likely to increase as canine myopathies are further characterized.
Project description:Mutations in the MTM1 gene cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), characterized by neonatal hypotonia and respiratory failure, and are responsible for a premature mortality in affected males. Female carriers are usually asymptomatic but they may present with muscular weakness because of a hypothesized skewed pattern of X-chromosome inactivation. By combining next generation sequencing (NGS) and CGH array approaches, we have investigated the role of MTM1 variants in a large cohort of undiagnosed patients with a wide spectrum of myopathies. Seven novel XLMTM patients have been identified, including two girls with an unremarkable family history for myotubular myopathy. Moreover, we have detected and finely mapped a large deletion causing a myotubular myopathy with abnormal genital development. Our data confirm that the severe neonatal onset of the disease in male infants is sufficient to address the direct molecular testing toward the MTM1 gene and, above all, suggest that the number of undiagnosed symptomatic female carriers is probably underestimated.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to report the findings of clinical and genetic evaluation of a 3-month old male Boykin spaniel (the proband) that presented with progressive weakness. The puppy underwent a physical and neurological examination, serum biochemistry and complete blood cell count, electrophysiological testing, muscle biopsy and whole genome sequencing. Clinical evaluation revealed generalized neuromuscular weakness with tetraparesis and difficulty holding the head up and a dropped jaw. There was diffuse spontaneous activity on electromyography, most severe in the cervical musculature. Nerve conduction studies were normal, the findings were interpreted as consistent with a myopathy. Skeletal muscle was grossly abnormal on biopsy and there were necklace fibers and abnormal triad structure localization on histopathology, consistent with myotubular myopathy. Whole genome sequencing revealed a premature stop codon in exon 13 of MTM1 (ChrX: 118,903,496 C > T, c.1467C>T, p.Arg512X). The puppy was humanely euthanized at 5 months of age. The puppy's dam was heterozygous for the variant, and 3 male puppies from a subsequent litter all of which died by 2 weeks of age were hemizygous for the variant. This naturally occurring mutation in Boykin spaniels causes a severe form of X-linked myotubular myopathy, comparable to the human counterpart.
Project description:Mutations impacting on the splicing of pre-mRNA are one important cause of genetically inherited diseases. However, detection of splice mutations, that are mainly due to intronic variations, and characterization of their effects are usually not performed as a first approach during genetic diagnosis. X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy is a severe congenital myopathy due to mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin. Here, we screened a male patient showing an unusually mild phenotype without respiratory distress by western blot with specific myotubularin antibodies and detected a strong reduction of the protein level.The disease was subsequently linked to a hemizygous point mutation affecting the acceptor splice site of exon 8 of MTM1, proven by protein, transcript and genomic DNA analysis. Detailed analysis of the MTM1 mRNA by RT-PCR, sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed multiple abnormal transcripts with retention of a truncated exon 8, and neighboring exons 7 and 9 but exclusion of several other exons, suggesting a complex effect of this mutation on the splicing of non-adjacent exons. We conclude that the analysis of RNA by RT-PCR and sequencing is an important step to characterize the precise impact of detected splice variants. It is likely that complex splice aberrations due to a single mutation also account for unsolved cases in other diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a form of the severest congenital muscle diseases characterized by marked muscle weakness, hypotonia, and feeding and breathing difficulties in male infants. It is caused by mutations in the myotubularin gene (MTM1). METHODS:Evaluation of clinical history and examination of muscle pathology of three patients and comprehensive genome analysis on our original targeted gene panel system for muscular diseases. RESULTS:We report three patients, each of whom presents distinct muscle pathological features. The three patients have novel hemizygous MTM1 variants, including c.527A>G (p.Gln176Arg), c.595C>G (p.Pro199Ala), or c.688T>C (p.Trp230Arg). CONCLUSIONS:All variants were assessed as "Class 4 (likely pathogenic)" on the basis of the guideline of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. These distinct pathological features among the patients with variants in the second cluster of PTP domain in MTM1 provides an insight into microheterogeneities in disease phenotypes in XLMTM.
Project description:X-linked myotubular myopathy (MTM) is a severe neuromuscular disease of infancy caused by mutations of MTM1, which encodes the phosphoinositide lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. The Mtm1 knockout (KO) mouse has a severe phenotype and its short lifespan (8 weeks) makes it a challenge to use as a model in the testing of certain preclinical therapeutics. Many MTM patients succumb early in life, but some have a more favorable prognosis. We used human genotype-phenotype correlation data to develop a myotubularin-deficient mouse model with a less severe phenotype than is seen in Mtm1 KO mice. We modeled the human c.205C>T point mutation in Mtm1 exon 4, which is predicted to introduce the p.R69C missense change in myotubularin. Hemizygous male Mtm1 p.R69C mice develop early muscle atrophy prior to the onset of weakness at 2 months. The median survival period is 66 weeks. Histopathology shows small myofibers with centrally placed nuclei. Myotubularin protein is undetectably low because the introduced c.205C>T base change induced exon 4 skipping in most mRNAs, leading to premature termination of myotubularin translation. Some full-length Mtm1 mRNA bearing the mutation is present, which provides enough myotubularin activity to account for the relatively mild phenotype, as Mtm1 KO and Mtm1 p.R69C mice have similar muscle phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate levels. These data explain the basis for phenotypic variability among human patients with MTM1 p.R69C mutations and establish the Mtm1 p.R69C mouse as a valuable model for the disease, as its less severe phenotype will expand the scope of testable preclinical therapies.
Project description:X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a severe congenital disorder in male infants that leads to generalized skeletal muscle weakness and is frequently associated with fatal respiratory failure. XLMTM is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MTM1 gene, which encodes myotubularin, the founder member of a family of 15 homologous proteins in mammals. We recently demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous delivery of rAAV vectors expressing MTM1 in animal models of myotubular myopathy. Here, we tested whether the closest homologues of MTM1, MTMR1, and MTMR2 (the latter being implicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 4B1) are functionally redundant and could represent a therapeutic target for XLMTM. Serotype 9 recombinant AAV vectors encoding either MTM1, MTMR1, or MTMR2 were injected into the tibialis anterior muscle of Mtm1-deficient knockout mice. Two weeks after vector delivery, a therapeutic effect was observed with Mtm1 and Mtmr2, but not Mtmr1; with Mtm1 being the most efficacious transgene. Furthermore, intravenous administration of a single dose of the rAAV9-Mtmr2 vector in XLMTM mice improved the motor activity and muscle strength and prolonged survival throughout a 3-month study. These results indicate that strategies aiming at increasing MTMR2 expression levels in skeletal muscle may be beneficial in the treatment of myotubular myopathy.