Restoration of the reduced CLSP activity alleviates memory impairment in Alzheimer disease.
ABSTRACT: Calmodulin-like skin protein (CLSP), a secreted peptide, inhibits neuronal death in cell-based Alzheimer's disease (AD) models and transgenic overexpression of the CLSP gene suppresses synaptic loss and memory impairment in AD model mice, APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice (APP/PS1 mice). Despite the anticipated role of CLSP as an AD-suppressing factor, it remains unanswered whether the insufficiency of the CLSP activity is linked to the AD pathogenesis. In this study, we first show that adiponectin, a CLSP potentiator/protector, dominantly determines the CLSP activity in the central nervous system where there are sufficient concentrations of CLSP, higher concentrations of CLSP inhibitors such as apolipoprotein E, and smaller concentrations of adiponectin. We next show that both the levels of brain adiponectin and the intraneuronal levels of SH3BP5, an important effector of the CLSP signal, are reduced in both AD patients and APP/PS1 mice. Finally, the restoration of the CLSP activity by subcutaneous injection of a hybrid peptide named CLSPCOL consisting of CLSP(1-61) and the collagen-homologous region of adiponectin, which has more potent neuroprotective activity than CLSP, is insensitive to the suppression by the CLSP inhibitors, and is efficiently recruited into brains, alleviates dementia and synaptic loss in the aged APP/PS1 mice. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduction in the CLSP activity, likely caused by the reduction in the levels of adiponectin, leads to the insufficient protection of neurons from neurotoxicity in the AD brains and the restoration of the CLSP activity is a promising strategy for the treatment of AD.
Project description:Chemokines are important modulators of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in AD animal models, the chemokine CXCL10 is found in high concentrations, suggesting a pathogenic role for this chemokine and its receptor, CXCR3. Recent studies aimed at addressing the role of CXCR3 in neurological diseases indicate potent, but diverse, functions for CXCR3. Here, we examined the impact of CXCR3 in the amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mouse model of AD. We found that, compared with control APP/PSI animals, plaque burden and A? levels were strongly reduced in CXCR3-deficient APP/PS1 mice. Analysis of microglial phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that CXCR3 deficiency increased the microglial uptake of A?. Application of a CXCR3 antagonist increased microglial A? phagocytosis, which was associated with reduced TNF-? secretion. Moreover, in CXCR3-deficient APP/PS1 mice, microglia exhibited morphological activation and reduced plaque association, and brain tissue from APP/PS1 animals lacking CXCR3 had reduced concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines compared with controls. Further, loss of CXCR3 attenuated the behavioral deficits observed in APP/PS1 mice. Together, our data indicate that CXCR3 signaling mediates development of AD-like pathology in APP/PS1 mice and suggest that CXCR3 has potential as a therapeutic target for AD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease among the elderly. No effective treatment is available now in restricting the pathological progression of AD. The aim of this study is to determine the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) in aged APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice. SCF+G-CSF was subcutaneously injected for 12 days to 25-month-old male APP/PS1 mice. We observed that SCF+G-CSF treatment reduced the A? plaques in both the cortex and hippocampus. SCF+G-CSF treatment increased the association of TREM2<sup>+</sup>/Iba1<sup>+</sup> cells with A? plaques and enhanced A? uptake by Iba1<sup>+</sup> and CD68<sup>+</sup>cells in the brains of aged APP/PS1 mice. Importantly, cerebral expression area of P2RY12<sup>+</sup>and TMEM119<sup>+</sup> homeostatic microglia and the branches of P2RY12<sup>+</sup> homeostatic microglia were increased in the SCF+G-CSF-treated aged APP/PS1 mice. SCF+G-CSF treatment also decreased NOS-2 and increased IL-4 in the brains of aged APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, the loss of MAP2<sup>+</sup>dendrites and PSD-95<sup>+</sup>post-synapses and the accumulation of aggregated tau in the brains of aged APP/PS1 mice were ameliorated by SCF+G-CSF treatment. Furthermore, the density of P2RY12<sup>+</sup> microglia was negatively correlated with A? deposits, but positively correlated with the densities of MAP2<sup>+</sup> dendrites and PSD-95<sup>+</sup> puncta in the brains of aged APP/PS1 mice. These findings reveal the therapeutic potential of SCF+G-CSF treatment in ameliorating AD pathology at the late stage.
Project description:The impact of inflammation suppressor pathways on Alzheimer's disease (AD) evolution remains poorly understood. Human genetic evidence suggests involvement of the cardinal anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL10). We crossed the APP/PS1 mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis with a mouse deficient in Il10 (APP/PS1(+)Il10(-/-)). Quantitative in silico 3D modeling revealed activated A? phagocytic microglia in APP/PS1(+)Il10(-/-) mice that restricted cerebral amyloidosis. Genome-wide RNA sequencing of APP/PS1(+)Il10(-/-) brains showed selective modulation of innate immune genes that drive neuroinflammation. Il10 deficiency preserved synaptic integrity and mitigated cognitive disturbance in APP/PS1 mice. In vitro knockdown of microglial Il10-Stat3 signaling endorsed A? phagocytosis, while exogenous IL-10 had the converse effect. Il10 deficiency also partially overcame inhibition of microglial A? uptake by human Apolipoprotein E. Finally, the IL-10 signaling pathway was abnormally elevated in AD patient brains. Our results suggest that "rebalancing" innate immunity by blocking the IL-10 anti-inflammatory response may be therapeutically relevant for AD.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>This study assessed the hypothesis that circulating human amylin (amyloid-forming) cross-seeds with amyloid beta (A?) in early Alzheimer's disease (AD).<h4>Methods</h4>Evidence of amylin-AD pathology interaction was tested in brains of 31 familial AD mutation carriers and 20 cognitively unaffected individuals, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (98 diseased and 117 control samples) and in genetic databases. For functional testing, we genetically manipulated amylin secretion in APP/PS1 and non-APP/PS1 rats.<h4>Results</h4>Amylin-A? cross-seeding was identified in AD brains. High CSF amylin levels were associated with decreased CSF A?<sub>42</sub> concentrations. AD risk and amylin gene are not correlated. Suppressed amylin secretion protected APP/PS1 rats against AD-associated effects. In contrast, hypersecretion or intravenous injection of human amylin in APP/PS1 rats exacerbated AD-like pathology through disruption of CSF-brain A? exchange and amylin-A? cross-seeding.<h4>Discussion</h4>These findings strengthened the hypothesis of circulating amylin-AD interaction and suggest that modulation of blood amylin levels may alter A?-related pathology/symptoms.
Project description:The accumulation and deposition of beta-amyloid (A?) is a key neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of AD, while the specific HDAC isoforms associated with cognitive improvement are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the role of HDAC3 in the pathogenesis of AD. Nuclear HDAC3 is significantly increased in the hippocampus of 6- and 9-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice compared with that in age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Lentivirus -mediated inhibition or overexpression of HDAC3 was used in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice to investigate the role of HDAC3 in spatial memory, amyloid burden, dendritic spine density, glial activation and tau phosphorylation. Inhibition of HDAC3 in the hippocampus attenuates spatial memory deficits, as indicated in the Morris water maze test, and decreases amyloid plaque load and A? levels in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. Dendritic spine density is increased, while microglial activation is alleviated after HDAC3 inhibition in the hippocampus of 9-month-old APP/PS1 mice. Furthermore, HDAC3 overexpression in the hippocampus increases A? levels, activates microglia, and decreases dendritic spine density in 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice. In conclusion, our results indicate that HDAC3 negatively regulates spatial memory in APP/PS1 mice and HDAC3 inhibition might represent a potential therapy for the treatment of AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 was recently shown to control the phenotype switch of reactive astrogliosis (RA) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS:KCa3.1 channels expression and cell localization in the brains of AD patients and APP/PS1 mice model were measured by immunoblotting and immunostaining. APP/PS1 mice and KCa3.1-/-/APP/PS1 mice were subjected to Morris water maze test to evaluate the spatial memory deficits. Glia activation and neuron loss was measured by immunostaining. Fluo-4AM was used to measure cytosolic Ca2+ level in ?-amyloid (A?) induced reactive astrocytes in vitro. RESULTS:KCa3.1 expression was markedly associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in both A?-stimulated primary astrocytes and brain lysates of AD patients and APP/PS1 AD mice. The KCa3.1 channel was shown to regulate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) through an interaction with the Ca2+ channel Orai1 in primary astrocytes. Gene deletion or pharmacological blockade of KCa3.1 protected against SOCE-induced Ca2+ overload and ER stress via the protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway in astrocytes. Importantly, gene deletion or blockade of KCa3.1 restored AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling both in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with these in vitro data, expression levels of the ER stress markers 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, as well as that of the RA marker glial fibrillary acidic protein were increased in APP/PS1 AD mouse model. Elimination of KCa3.1 in KCa3.1-/-/APP/PS1 mice corrected these abnormal responses. Moreover, glial activation and neuroinflammation were attenuated in the hippocampi of KCa3.1-/-/APP/PS1 mice, as compared with APP/PS1 mice. In addition, memory deficits and neuronal loss in APP/PS1 mice were reversed in KCa3.1-/-/APP/PS1 mice. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, these results suggest that KCa3.1 is involved in the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis in astrocytes and attenuation of the UPR and ER stress, thus contributing to memory deficits and neuronal loss.
Project description:To date there is no effective therapy for Alzheimer disease (AD). High levels of circulating high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its main protein, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies show that plasma HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels are low in patients with AD. To investigate if increasing plasma apoA-I/HDL levels ameliorates AD-like memory deficits and amyloid-? (A?) deposition, we generated a line of triple transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing mutant forms of amyloid-? precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) as well as human apoA-I (AI). Here we show that APP/PS1/AI triple Tg mice have a 2-fold increase of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. When tested in the Morris water maze for spatial orientation abilities, whereas APP/PS1 mice develop age-related learning and memory deficits, APP/PS1/AI mice continue to perform normally during aging. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in the total level and deposition of A? in the brains of APP/PS1 and APP/PS1/AI mice, but cerebral amyloid angiopathy was reduced in APP/PS1/AI mice. Also, consistent with the anti-inflammatory properties of apoA-I/HDL, glial activation was reduced in the brain of APP/PS1/AI mice. In addition, A?-induced production of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines was decreased in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures expressing human apoA-I. Therefore, we conclude that overexpression of human apoA-I in the circulation prevents learning and memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice, partly by attenuating neuroinflammation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. These findings suggest that elevating plasma apoA-I/HDL levels may be an effective approach to preserve cognitive function in patients with AD.
Project description:The complement cascade not only is an innate immune response that enables removal of pathogens but also plays an important role in microglia-mediated synaptic refinement during brain development. Complement C3 is elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), colocalizing with neuritic plaques, and appears to contribute to clearance of A? by microglia in the brain. Previously, we reported that C3-deficient C57BL/6 mice were protected against age-related and region-specific loss of hippocampal synapses and cognitive decline during normal aging. Furthermore, blocking complement and downstream iC3b/CR3 signaling rescued synapses from A?-induced loss in young AD mice before amyloid plaques had accumulated. We assessed the effects of C3 deficiency in aged, plaque-rich APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice (APP/PS1;C3 KO). We examined the effects of C3 deficiency on cognition, A? plaque deposition, and plaque-related neuropathology at later AD stages in these mice. We found that 16-month-old APP/PS1;C3 KO mice performed better on a learning and memory task than did APP/PS1 mice, despite having more cerebral A? plaques. Aged APP/PS1;C3 KO mice also had fewer microglia and astrocytes localized within the center of hippocampal A? plaques compared to APP/PS1 mice. Several proinflammatory cytokines in the brain were reduced in APP/PS1;C3 KO mice, consistent with an altered microglial phenotype. C3 deficiency also protected APP/PS1 mice against age-dependent loss of synapses and neurons. Our study suggests that complement C3 or downstream complement activation fragments may play an important role in A? plaque pathology, glial responses to plaques, and neuronal dysfunction in the brains of APP/PS1 mice.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the accumulation and deposition of a beta-amyloid (??) peptide in the brain, resulting in increased neuroinflammation and synaptic dysfunction. Intranasal delivery of targeted drugs to the brain represents a noninvasive pathway that bypasses the blood-brain barrier and minimizes systemic exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intranasally delivered 9-cis retinoic acid (RA) on the neuropathology of an AD mouse model. Herein, we observed dramatically decreased ?? deposition in the brains of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) double-transgenic mice (APP/PS1) treated intranasally with 9-cis RA for 4 weeks compared to that in the brains of vehicle-treated mice. Importantly, intranasal delivery of 9-cis RA suppressed ??-associated astrocyte activation and neuroinflammation and ultimately restored synaptic deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. These results support the critical roles of ??-associated neuroinflammation responses to synaptic deficits, particularly during the deposition of ??. Our findings provide strong evidence that intranasally delivered 9-cis RA attenuates neuronal dysfunction in an AD mouse model and is a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of AD.
Project description:Aberrant increases in neuronal network excitability may contribute to the cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying hyperexcitability are not fully understood. Such overexcitation of neuronal networks has been detected in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. In the present study, using current-clamp recording techniques, we observed that 12 days in vitro (DIV) primary cultured pyramidal neurons from P0 APP/PS1 mice exhibited a more prominent action potential burst and a lower threshold than WT littermates. Moreover, after treatment with A?1-42 peptide, 12 DIV primary cultured neurons showed similar changes, to a greater degree than in controls. Voltage-clamp recordings revealed that the voltage-dependent sodium current density of neurons incubated with A?1-42 was significantly increased, without change in the voltage-dependent sodium channel kinetic characteristics. Immunohistochemistry and western blot results showed that, after treatment with A?1-42, expressions of Nav and Nav1.6 subtype increased in cultured neurons or APP/PS1 brains compared to control groups. The intrinsic neuronal hyperexcitability of APP/PS1 mice might thus be due to an increased expression of voltage-dependent sodium channels induced by A?1-42. These results may illuminate the mechanism of aberrant neuronal networks in AD.