Ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute-phase decompression sickness.
ABSTRACT: A 53-year-old man, who performed a 44-minute dive to a depth of 21 meters, felt severe abdominal pain with dyspnea after surfacing. An ultrasound study showed a marked snowstorm pattern in the portal vein of the liver and right ventricle, and whole body computed tomography revealed multiple gas bubbles in the right ventricle, inferior vena cava, portal, mesenteric and femoral vein. He was thus diagnosed to have decompression sickness and was therefore transported to another hospital to undergo hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Patients who present with abdominal symptoms after diving should be immediately evaluated by ultrasound and computed tomography.
Project description:Portal vein thrombosis is an uncommon finding that typically arises in the context of cirrhosis. In the acute setting, it may present with abdominal pain, portal hypertension, ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding, or mesenteric ischemia. Local risk factors that predispose its formation include: cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatitis, and intraabdominal infection. Systemic factors, including hypercoagulable states and sepsis, also pose an increased risk. JAK2 V617F positive myeloproliferative disorders are associated with systemic prothrombotic states and are a less frequently identified cause of portal vein thrombosis. We present a case of acute unprovoked portal vein thrombosis diagnosed in a 59-year-old male without local disease factors. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and ultrasound demonstrated the presence of portal vein thrombosis with neighboring periportal and pancreatic head edema. Peripheral blood testing detected the presence of JAK2 V617F mutation. The patient was discharged on 6-month anticoagulation therapy and outpatient follow-up.
Project description:A 5-year-old Shih Tzu was presented with intermittent vomiting and anorexia. Microhepatica and reversed position of the abdominal organs were observed on radiography. Ultrasonographically, portosystemic shunt (PSS) was tentatively diagnosed. Computed tomography (CT) revealed that the distended portal vein drained into the left hepatic vein. The caudal vena cava (CdVC) split postrenally and converged at the renal level. Cranial to this, the azygos continuation of the CdVC was confirmed. In the thorax, a persistent left cranial vena cava (CrVC) was found along with right CrVC. This is the first report of a dog with persistent left CrVC and multiple abdominal malformations. CT angiography was useful in evaluating the characteristics of each vascular anomaly and determining the required surgical correction in this complex case.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We report a case study of fat embolism seen on ultrasound at right internal jugular vein during central venous cannulation in a patient diagnosed with fat embolism syndrome. This case demonstrates the importance of ultrasound for evaluation of trauma cases with suspicion of fat embolism. CASE PRESENTATION:A 23-year-old trauma patient with closed fracture of left femoral shaft and left humerus presented to our emergency department (ED). 11 h after admission to ED, patient became confused, hypoxic and hypotensive. He was then intubated for respiratory failure and mechanically ventilated. Transesophageal ultrasound revealed hyperdynamic heart, dilated right ventricle with no regional wall abnormalities and no major aorta injuries. Whole-body computed tomography was normal. During central venous cannulation of right internal jugular vein (IJV), we found free floating mobile hyperechoic spots, located at the anterior part of the vein. A diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome later was made based on the clinical presentation of long bone fractures and fat globulin in the blood. Despite aggressive fluid resuscitation, patient was a non-responder and needed vasopressor infusion for persistent shock. Blood aspirated during cannulation from the IJV revealed a fat globule. Patient underwent uneventful orthopedic procedures and was discharged well on day 5 of admission. CONCLUSIONS:Point-of-care ultrasound findings of fat embolism in central vein can facilitate and increase the suspicion of fat embolism syndrome.
Project description:Portal annular pancreas is a rare anatomic variation, where the uncinated process of the pancreas connects with the dorsal pancreas and the pancreas tissue encases the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV) or splenic vein (SV). Malignancies are quite uncommon in the patients, who have an annular pancreas especially portal annular pancreas. Ectopic common hepatic artery and absence of the celiac trunk (CT) are the other infrequent abnormalities.A 74-year-old man suffered from upper abdominal and back pain.Contrast enhanced computed tomography indicated a low-density mass in the body of the pancreas. Pathological report showed adenocarcinoma of the body of pancreas after radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS).In the operation, we found the superior vein and portal vein was surrounded by the pancreatic tissue. The left gastric artery and splenic artery originated respectively from abdominal aorta, and celiac trunk was not viewed. In addition, the common hepatic artery was a branch from the superior mesenteric artery.In general, this is a novel clinical case of pancreatic carcinoma happening in the portal annular pancreas which was accompanied with aberrant hepatic artery and absence of the celiac trunk at the same time. Confronted with the pancreatic neoplasms, the possibility of coexistent annular pancreas and arterial variations should be considered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autologous hepatocyte transplantation after ex vivo gene therapy is an alternative to liver transplantation for metabolic liver disease. Here we evaluate ex vivo gene therapy followed by transplantation of single-cell or spheroid hepatocytes. METHODS:Pig and mouse hepatocytes were isolated, labeled with zirconium-89 and returned to the liver as single cells or spheroids. Biodistribution was evaluated through positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient pig hepatocytes were isolated and transduced with a lentiviral vector containing the Fah gene. Animals received portal vein infusion of single-cell or spheroid autologous hepatocytes after ex vivo gene delivery. Portal pressures were measured and ultrasound was used to evaluate for thrombus. Differences in engraftment and expansion of ex vivo corrected single-cell or spheroid hepatocytes were followed through histologic analysis and animals' ability to thrive off 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione. RESULTS:Positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging showed spheroid hepatocytes with increased heterogeneity in biodistribution as compared with single cells, which spread more uniformly throughout the liver. Animals receiving spheroids experienced higher mean changes in portal pressure than animals receiving single cells (P < .01). Additionally, two animals from the spheroid group developed portal vein thrombi that required systemic anticoagulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of spheroid- and single-cell-transplanted animals showed similar engraftment and expansion rates of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-positive hepatocytes in the liver, correlating with similar weight stabilization curves. CONCLUSION:Ex vivo gene correction of autologous hepatocytes in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient pigs can be performed using hepatocyte spheroids or single-cell hepatocytes, with spheroids showing a more heterogeneous distribution within the liver and higher risks for portal vein thrombosis and increased portal pressures.
Project description:Cavernous transformation of the portal vein can be missed on color Doppler exam or arterial phase cross-sectional imaging due to their slow flow and delayed enhancement. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) offers many advantages over other imaging techniques and can be used to successfully detect cavernous transformations of the portal vein.A 10-month-old female was followed for repeat episodes of hematemesis. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance arteriogram (MRA) and portal venography were performed. Color Doppler exam of the portal vein was performed followed by administration of Lumason, a microbubble US contrast agent.Magnetic resonance arteriogram, CTA, and color Doppler exam at the time of initial presentation was unremarkable without obvious vascular malformation within the limits of motion degraded exam. At 8-month follow-up, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a vascular malformation in the distal esophagus which was sclerosed. At 6 month after sclerosis of the lesion, portal venography revealed occlusion of the portal vein with extensive collateralization. Color Doppler revealed subtle hyperarterialization and periportal collaterals. CEUS following color Doppler exam demonstrated extensive enhancement of periportal collaterals. Repeat color Doppler after contrast administration demonstrated extensive Doppler signal in the collateral vessels, suggestive of cavernous transformation.We describe a case of cavernous transformation of the portal vein missed on initial color Doppler, CTA and MRA, but detected with contrast-enhanced ultrasound technique.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clinical manifestations of pheochromocytoma (PCC) frequently are not specific and can be attributed to other pathologies. The most dreaded manifestation is catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. A prompt diagnosis, sometimes extremely problematic due to associated conditions of the patient, is essential for clinical outcomes, because early resection of PCC may prevent progression to irreversible cardiac remodelling.<h4>Case summary</h4>We present a case of 47-year-old woman with suspected acute coronary syndrome but intact coronary vessels. Electrocardiogram examination showed ST depression suggestive for coronary ischaemia. Echocardiography revealed reduced ejection fraction of left ventricle and global hypokinesis. Abdominal ultrasound examination determined multiple cysts in liver and both kidneys. The patient had unclear transient states of sudden sweating, pale skin, nausea, and vomiting accompanied by hypertensive crisis. Fractioned urinary metanephrines were considerably increased. Contrasted computed tomography of abdominal cavity and pelvis revealed in both liver lobes many cysts; both kidneys showed multiple cysts too; in the right adrenal gland was detected a filling defect. Computed tomography findings have established diagnosis of adrenal PCC of right gland associated with liver and kidney polycystic disease.<h4>Discussion</h4>Phechromocytoma, with primary manifestation as catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, in patient with polycystic kidney and liver disease could represent a really challenging diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of PCC frequently are not specific and can be explained by associated pathologies. This is the second case of adrenalectomy due to PCC associated with polycystic kidney and liver disease reported in the medical literature.
Project description:We report a case of anterior loculated pericardial effusion misinterpreted on point-of-care ultrasound as a dilated right ventricle, and suggesting diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), in a patient with renal failure. The compressed right ventricle from tamponade physiology appeared to be a thickened intraventricular septum. Heparin was given empirically for presumed PE. Later the same day, computed tomography of the chest showed the effusion, as did formal echocardiogram. The patient had drainage of 630 milliliters of fluid and recovered from tamponade. Loculated effusions comprise 15% of all pericardial effusions, and misdiagnosis of PE with heparin therapy could be fatal.
Project description:Idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) mimics liver cirrhosis in many aspects, and no efficient imaging method to differentiate the two diseases has been reported to date. In this study, the imaging and pathological characteristics were analysed for both IPH and cirrhosis. From January 2015 to March 2019, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and pathological results from 16 IPH and 16 liver cirrhosis patients, as well as imaging results of 16 normal patients as a control group, were retrospectively reviewed. The age of the patients was 39?±?20 years. There was a significant difference in the mean lumen diameter, wall thickness and ratio of thickness to diameter between the IPH and liver cirrhosis patients in the main and sagittal portal veins (P?<?0.05), as well as in the lumen diameter and ratio of thickness to diameter between the IPH and liver cirrhosis patients in the Segment 3 (S3) portal vein (P?<?0.05). In IPH patients, the main imaging changes were portal vein wall thickening, stenosis or occlusion, a low enhancement area along the portal vein in the delay phase in contrast-enhanced imaging, and a non-homogeneous change in T1WI. The corresponding pathological changes included interlobular vein thickening, stenosis, occlusion, portal area fibrosis, and atrophy or apoptosis of hepatocytes. The main imaging characteristic of liver cirrhosis was a nodular change in T1WI, and the related pathological change was pseudolobule formation. The imaging characteristics of IPH include thickening of the portal vein vascular wall, stenosis of the portal vein lumen and the absence of diffuse cirrhosis-like nodules. These imaging features have a definite pathological basis and could help make differential diagnoses between IPH and cirrhosis.
Project description:Purpose:This study aimed to retrospectively review the diagnosis and surgical treatment of uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL). Methods:The clinical data of 14 patients with uterine IVL admitted to our hospital between 2013 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed, including their demographics, imaging results, surgical procedures, perioperative complications, and follow-up results. Results:The tumors were confined to the pelvic cavity in 7 patients, 1 into the inferior vena cava, 4 into the right atrium, and 2 into the pulmonary artery (including 1 into the superior vena cava). Only one case was misdiagnosed as right atrial myxoma before the operation, which was found during the surgery and was treated by staging surgery; all the other patients underwent one-stage surgical resection. Three patients underwent complete resection of the right atrial tumor through the abdominal incision, and one patient died of heart failure in the process of resection of heart tumor without abdominal surgery. During the 6-60 months of follow-up, 4 patients developed deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity, and 1 patient developed ovarian vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. After anticoagulation treatment, the symptoms disappeared. One patient refused hysterectomy and the uterine fibroids recurred 4 years after the operation. Conclusion:Specific surgical plans for uterine IVL can be formulated according to cardiac ultrasound and computed tomography (CT). For the first type of tumor involving the right atrium, the right atrium tumor can be completely removed through the abdominal incision alone to avoid thoracotomy. The disease is at high risk of thrombosis and perioperative routine anticoagulation is required.