Procyanidin B2 improves endothelial progenitor cell function and promotes wound healing in diabetic mice via activating Nrf2.
ABSTRACT: One of the major reasons for the delayed wound healing in diabetes is the dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induced by hyperglycaemia. Improvement of EPC function may be a potential strategy for accelerating wound healing in diabetes. Procyanidin B2 (PCB2) is one of the major components of procyanidins, which exhibits a variety of potent pharmacological activities. However, the effects of PCB2 on EPC function and diabetic wound repair remain elusive. We evaluated the protective effects of PCB2 in EPCs with high glucose (HG) treatment and in a diabetic wound healing model. EPCs derived from human umbilical cord blood were treated with HG. The results showed that PCB2 significantly preserved the angiogenic function, survival and migration abilities of EPCs with HG treatment, and attenuated HG-induced oxidative stress of EPCs by scavenging excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). A mechanistic study found the protective role of PCB2 is dependent on activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). PCB2 increased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant genes to attenuate the oxidative stress induced by HG in EPCs, which were abolished by knockdown of Nrf2 expression. An in vivo study showed that intraperitoneal administration of PCB2 promoted wound healing and angiogenesis in diabetic mice, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in ROS level and an increase in circulating EPC number. Taken together, our results indicate that PCB2 treatment accelerates wound healing and increases angiogenesis in diabetic mice, which may be mediated by improving the mobilization and function of EPCs.
Project description:Lack of vascularization is directly associated with refractory wound healing in diabetes mellitus (DM). Enrichment of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) is a promising but challenging approach for the treatment of diabetic wounds. Herein, we investigate the action of nicotinamide riboside (NR) on EPC function for improved healing of diabetic wounds. <i>Db/db</i> mice that were treated with NR-supplemented food (400 mg/kg/d) for 12 weeks exhibited higher wound healing rates and angiogenesis than untreated <i>db/db</i> mice. In agreement with this phenotype, NR supplementation significantly increased the number of blood EPCs and bone marrow (BM)-derived EPCs of <i>db/db</i> mice, as well as the tube formation and adhesion functions of BM-EPCs. Furthermore, NR-supplemented BM-EPCs showed higher expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), and lower expression of acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1α) than BM-EPCs isolated from untreated <i>db/db</i> mice. Knockdown of Sirt1 in BM-EPCs significantly abolished the tube formation and adhesion function of NR as well as the expression of p-AMPK and deacetylated PGC-1a. Inhibition of AMPK abolished the NR-regulated EPC function but had no effect on Sirt1 expression, demonstrating that NR enhances EPC function through the Sirt1-AMPK pathway. Overall, this study demonstrates that the oral uptake of NR enhances the EPC function to promote diabetic wound healing, indicating that NR supplementation might be a promising strategy to prevent the progression of diabetic complications.
Project description:Background & Aims:Endothelial precursor cell (EPC) dysfunction is one of the risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) which results in delayed wound healing. Rosiglitazone (RSG) is a frequently prescribed oral glucose-lowering drug. Previous studies have shown the positive effects of RSG on ameliorating EPC dysfunction in diabetic patients. Interestingly, knowledge about RSG with regard to the wound healing process caused by DM is scarce. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possible actions of RSG on wound healing and the related mechanisms involved in db/db diabetic mice. Methods:Db/db mice with spontaneous glucose metabolic disorder were used as a type 2 DM model. RSG (20 mg/kg/d, i.g.,) was administered for 4 weeks before wound creation and bone marrow derived EPC (BM-EPC) isolation. Wound closure was assessed by wound area and CD31 staining. Tubule formation and migration assays were used to judge the function of the BM-EPCs. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) and insulin signaling was determined by ELISA. Cell viability of the BM-EPCs was measured by CCK-8 assay. Results:RSG significantly accelerated wound healing and improved angiogenesis in db/db mice. Bioactivities of tube formation and migration were decreased in db/db mice but were elevated by RSG. Level of both VEGF and SDF-1? was increased by RSG in the BM-EPCs of db/db mice. Insulin signaling was elevated by RSG reflected in the phosphorylated-to-total AKT in the BM-EPCs. In vitro, RSG improved impaired cell viability and tube formation of BM-EPCs induced by high glucose, but this was prevented by the VEGF inhibitor avastin. Conclusion:Our data demonstrates that RSG has benefits for wound healing and angiogenesis in diabetic mice, and was partially associated with improvement of EPC function through activation of VEGF and stimulation of SDF-1? in db/db mice.
Project description:Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) seeded on biomaterials can effectively promote diabetic ischemic wound healing. However, the function of transplanted EPCs is negatively affected by a high-glucose and ischemic microenvironment. Our experiments showed that EPC autophagy was inhibited and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was increased in diabetic patients, while adenosine treatment decreased the energy requirements and increased the autophagy levels of EPCs. In animal experiments, we transplanted a biomaterial seeded with EPCs onto the surface of diabetic wounds and found that adenosine-stimulated EPCs effectively promoted wound healing. Increased microvascular genesis and survival of the transplanted cells were also observed in the adenosine-stimulated groups. Interestingly, our study showed that adenosine increased the autophagy of the transplanted EPCs seeded onto the biomaterial and maintained EPC survival at 48 and 96?hours. Moreover, we observed that adenosine induced EPC differentiation through increasing the level of autophagy. In conclusion, our study indicated that adenosine-stimulated EPCs seeded onto a biomaterial significantly improved wound healing in diabetic mice; mechanistically, adenosine might maintain EPC survival and differentiation by increasing high glucose-inhibited EPC autophagy and maintaining cellular energy metabolism.
Project description:Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are essential in vasculogenesis and wound healing, but their circulating and wound level numbers are decreased in diabetes. This study aimed to determine mechanisms responsible for the diabetic defect in circulating and wound EPCs. Since mobilization of BM EPCs occurs via eNOS activation, we hypothesized that eNOS activation is impaired in diabetes, which results in reduced EPC mobilization. Since hyperoxia activates NOS in other tissues, we investigated whether hyperoxia restores EPC mobilization in diabetic mice through BM NOS activation. Additionally, we studied the hypothesis that impaired EPC homing in diabetes is due to decreased wound level stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), a chemokine that mediates EPC recruitment in ischemia. Diabetic mice showed impaired phosphorylation of BM eNOS, decreased circulating EPCs, and diminished SDF-1alpha expression in cutaneous wounds. Hyperoxia increased BM NO and circulating EPCs, effects inhibited by the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester. Administration of SDF-1alpha into wounds reversed the EPC homing impairment and, with hyperoxia, synergistically enhanced EPC mobilization, homing, and wound healing. Thus, hyperoxia reversed the diabetic defect in EPC mobilization, and SDF-1alpha reversed the diabetic defect in EPC homing. The targets identified, which we believe to be novel, can significantly advance the field of diabetic wound healing.
Project description:Autologous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) therapy is commonly used to stimulate angiogenesis in ischemic repair and wound healing. However, low total numbers and functional deficits of EPCs make autologous EPC therapy ineffective in diabetes. Currently, no known ex vivo culture techniques can expand and/or ameliorate the functional deficits of EPCs for clinical usage. Recently, we showed that a quality-quantity culture (QQc) system restores the vasculogenic and wound-healing efficacy of murine diabetic EPCs. To validate these results and elucidate the mechanism in a translational study, we evaluated the efficacy of this QQc system to restore the vasculogenic potential of diabetic human peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells. CD34+ cells purified from PB of diabetic and healthy patients were subjected to QQc. Gene expression, vascular regeneration, and expression of cytokines and paracrine mediators were analyzed. Pre- or post-QQc diabetic human PB-CD34+ cells were transplanted into wounded BALB/c nude mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice to assess functional efficacy. Post-QQc diabetic human PB-CD34+ cell therapy significantly accelerated wound closure, re-epithelialization, and angiogenesis. The higher therapeutic efficacy of post-QQc diabetic human PB-CD34+ cells was attributed to increased differentiation ability of diabetic CD34+ cells, direct vasculogenesis, and enhanced expression of angiogenic factors and wound-healing genes. Thus, QQc can significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of human PB-CD34+ cells in diabetic wounds, overcoming the inherent limitation of autologous cell therapy in diabetic patients, and could be useful for treatment of not only wounds but also other ischemic diseases. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:428-438.
Project description:Diabetic ischemic wound treatment remains a critical clinical challenge. Neovascularization plays a significant role in wound healing during all stages of the tissue repair process. Strategies that enhance angiogenesis and neovascularization and improve ischemic pathology may promote the healing of poor wounds, particularly diabetic wounds in highly ischemic conditions. We previously identified a cyclic peptide LXW7 that specifically binds to integrin αvβ3 on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), activates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, and promotes EC growth and maturation. In this study, we designed and synthesized a multi-functional pro-angiogenic molecule by grafting LXW7 and collagen-binding peptides (SILY) to a dermatan sulfate (DS) glycosaminoglycan backbone, named LXW7-DS-SILY, and further employed this multi-functional molecule to functionalize collagen-based extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds. We confirmed that LXW7-DS-SILY modification significantly promoted EPC attachment and growth on the ECM scaffolds in vitro and supported EPC survival in vivo in the ischemic environment. When applied in an established Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat ischemic skin flap model, LXW7-DS-SILY-functionalized ECM scaffolds loaded with EPCs significantly improved wound healing, enhanced neovascularization and modulated collagen fibrillogenesis in the ischemic environment. Altogether, this study provides a promising novel treatment to accelerate diabetic ischemic wound healing, thereby reducing limb amputation and mortality of diabetic patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) dysfunction contributes to vascular disease in diabetes mellitus. However, the molecular mechanism underlying EPC dysfunction and its contribution to delayed reendothelialization in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. Our study aimed to illustrate the potential molecular mechanism underlying diabetic EPC dysfunction in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of EPC transplantation on endothelial regeneration in diabetic rats.<h4>Methods</h4>Late outgrowth EPCs were isolated from the bone marrow of rats for in vivo and in vitro studies. In vitro functional assays and Western blotting were conducted to reveal the association between C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7) expression and diabetic EPC dysfunction. To confirm the association between cellular CXCR7 levels and EPC function, CXCR7 expression in EPCs was upregulated and downregulated via lentiviral transduction and RNA interference, respectively. Western blotting was used to reveal the potential molecular mechanism by which the Stromal-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR7 axis regulates EPC function. To elucidate the role of the SDF-1/CXCR7 axis in EPC-mediated endothelial regeneration, a carotid artery injury model was established in diabetic rats. After the model was established, saline-treated, diabetic, normal, or CXCR7-primed EPCs were injected via the tail vein.<h4>Results</h4>Diabetic EPC dysfunction was associated with decreased CXCR7 expression. Furthermore, EPC dysfunction was mimicked by knockdown of CXCR7 in normal EPCs. However, upregulating CXCR7 expression reversed the dysfunction of diabetic EPCs. The SDF-1/CXCR7 axis positively regulated EPC function by activating the AKT-associated Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (keap-1)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) axis, which was reversed by blockade of AKT and Nrf2. Transplantation of CXCR7-EPCs accelerated endothelial repair and attenuated neointimal hyperplasia in diabetes mellitus more significantly than transplantation of diabetic or normal EPCs. However, the therapeutic effect of CXCR7-EPC transplantation on endothelial regeneration was reversed by knockdown of Nrf2 expression.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Dysfunction of diabetic EPCs is associated with decreased CXCR7 expression. Furthermore, the SDF-1/CXCR7 axis positively regulates EPC function by activating the AKT/keap-1/Nrf2 axis. CXCR7-primed EPCs might be useful for endothelial regeneration in diabetes-associated vascular disease.
Project description:Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) increase the risks of infection and amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The impaired function and senescence of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and high glucose-induced ROS likely exacerbate DFUs. We assessed EPCs in 60 patients with DM in a hospital or primary care setting. We also evaluated the therapeutic effects of exosomes secreted from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on stress-mediated senescence of EPCs induced by high glucose. Additionally, the effects of exosomes and Nrf2 overexpression in ADSCs were investigated in vitro and in vivo in a diabetic rat model. We found that ADSCs that secreted exosomes promoted proliferation and angiopoiesis in EPCs in a high glucose environment and that overexpression of Nrf2 increased this protective effect. Wounds in the feet of diabetic rats had a significantly reduced ulcerated area when treated with exosomes from ADSCs overexpressing Nrf2. Increased granulation tissue formation, angiogenesis, and levels of growth factor expression as well as reduced levels of inflammation and oxidative stress-related proteins were detected in wound beds. Our data suggest that exosomes from ADSCs can potentially promote wound healing, particularly when overexpressing Nrf2 and therefore that the transplantation of exosomes may be suitable for clinical application in the treatment of DFUs.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) dysfunction causes impaired wound healing, which can be rescued by delivery of large numbers of 'normal' EPCs onto such wounds. The principal challenges herein are (a) the high number of EPCs required and (b) their sustained delivery onto the wounds. Most of the currently available scaffolds either serve as passive devices for cellular delivery or allow adherence and proliferation, but not both. This clearly indicates that matrices possessing both attributes are 'the need of the day' for efficient healing of diabetic wounds. Therefore, we developed a system that not only allows selective enrichment and expansion of EPCs, but also efficiently delivers them onto the wounds. Murine bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) were seeded onto a PolyCaprolactone-Gelatin (PCG) nano-fiber matrix that offers a combined advantage of strength, biocompatibility wettability; and cultured them in EGM2 to allow EPC growth. The efficacy of the PCG matrix in supporting the EPC growth and delivery was assessed by various in vitro parameters. Its efficacy in diabetic wound healing was assessed by a topical application of the PCG-EPCs onto diabetic wounds. The PCG matrix promoted a high-level attachment of EPCs and enhanced their growth, colony formation, and proliferation without compromising their viability as compared to Poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) and Vitronectin (VN), the matrix and non-matrix controls respectively. The PCG-matrix also allowed a sustained chemotactic migration of EPCs in vitro. The matrix-effected sustained delivery of EPCs onto the diabetic wounds resulted in an enhanced fibrosis-free wound healing as compared to the controls. Our data, thus, highlight the novel therapeutic potential of PCG-EPCs as a combined 'growth and delivery system' to achieve an accelerated fibrosis-free healing of dermal lesions, including diabetic wounds.
Project description:Wound healing is delayed in diabetic patients. Increased apoptosis and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) dysfunction are implicated in delayed diabetic wound healing. Melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, promotes diabetic wound healing; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, EPCs were isolated from the bone marrow of mice. Treatment of EPCs with melatonin alleviated advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced apoptosis and cellular dysfunction. We further examined autophagy flux after melatonin treatment and found increased light chain 3 (LC3) and p62 protein levels in AGE-treated EPCs. However, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 expression was decreased, indicating that autophagy flux was impaired in EPCs treated with AGEs. We then evaluated autophagy flux after melatonin treatment and found that melatonin increased the LC3 levels, but attenuated the accumulation of p62, suggesting a stimulatory effect of melatonin on autophagy flux. Blockage of autophagy flux by chloroquine partially abolished the protective effects of melatonin, indicating that autophagy flux is involved in the protective effects of melatonin. Furthermore, we found that the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway is involved in autophagy flux stimulation by melatonin. An in vivo study also illustrated that melatonin treatment ameliorated impaired wound healing in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic wound healing model. Thus, our study shows that melatonin protects EPCs against apoptosis and dysfunction via autophagy flux stimulation and ameliorates impaired wound healing in vivo, providing insight into its mechanism of action in diabetic wound healing.