MiR-541-3p enhances the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer cells by inhibiting HSP27 expression and downregulating ?-catenin.
ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a regulator of cell survival, can enhance the resistance of cancer cells to radiotherapy. As microRNA-541-3p (miR-541-3p) was recently predicted to be a putative upstream modulator of HSP27, the present study was designed to investigate the function and mechanism underlying how miR-541-3p modulates the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa) cells by regulating HSP27. Through quantitative PCR, miR-541-3p was determined to be poorly expressed in PCa tissues relative to normal controls, whereas its expression was enhanced after radiotherapy. Consistently, miR-541-3p expression levels in PCa cells were elevated after radiation. Cell viability and proliferation and apoptosis under radiation were subsequently evaluated in response to loss-of-function of miR-541-3p. It was found that inhibition of miR-541-3p facilitated the viability and proliferation of PCa cells and promoted their apoptosis post radiation, hence reducing the radiosensitivity of LNCaP cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay identified that miR-541-3p negatively regulated the HSP27 mRNA expression by targeting its 3'-UTR. Meanwhile, miR-541-3p overexpression inhibited the ?-catenin expression by targeting HSP27. Furthermore, HSP27 or ?-catenin overexpression was noted to significantly reverse the miR-541-3p-mediated changes in the biological functions of PCa cells post radiation, suggesting that HSP27-dependent activation of ?-catenin might be the mechanism responsible for the promotive effect of miR-541-3p on radiosensitivity. Collectively, this study suggests that miR-541-3p specifically inhibits the HSP27 expression and downregulates ?-catenin, thereby enhancing the radiosensitivity of PCa cells. Our findings highlight the underlying mechanism of the miR-541-3p/HSP27/Wnt/?-catenin axis regarding radiotherapy for PCa.
Project description:Resistance to radiotherapy is the main reason causing treatment failure in locally advanced rectal cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been well demonstrated to regulate cancer development and progression. However, how miRNAs regulate radiotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer remains unknown. Herein, we established two human colorectal cancer cell lines resistant to radiotherapy, named HCT116-R and RKO-R, using the strategy of fractionated irradiation. The radioresistant phenotypical changes of the two cell lines were validated by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and apoptosis assay. The miRNA expression profilings of HCT116-R and RKO-R were determined using RNA-seq analyses, and further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Multiple miRNAs, including miR-423-5p, miR-7-5p, miR-522-3p, miR-3184-3p, and miR-3529-3p, were identified with altered expression in both of the radiotherapy-resistant cells, compared to the parental cells. The downregulation of miR-423-5p was further validated in the rectal cancer tissues from radiotherapy-resistant patients. Silencing of miR-423-5p in parental HCT116 and RKO cells decreased the sensitivity to radiation treatment, and inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis. In consistence, overexpression of miR-423-5p in HCT116-R and RKO-R cells partially rescued their sensitivity to radiotherapy, and promoted the radiation-induced apoptosis. Bcl-xL (Bcl-2-like protein 1) was predicted to be a potential target gene for miR-423-5p, and miR-423-5p/Bcl-xL axis could be a critical mediator of radiosensitivity in colorectal cancer cells. The current finding not only revealed a novel role of miR-423-5p in regulating the radiosensitivity in colorectal cancer, but also suggested miR-423-5p as a molecular candidate for combination therapy with radiation to treat colorectal cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that alter the stability and translation efficiency of messenger RNAs. Ionizing radiation (IR) induces rapid and selective changes in miRNA expression. Depletion of the miRNA processing enzymes Dicer or Ago2 reduces the capacity of cells to survive radiation exposure. Elucidation of critical radiation-regulated miRNAs and their target proteins offers a promising approach to identify new targets to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of the radiation treatment of cancer. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Expression of miR-525-3p is rapidly up-regulated in response to radiation. Manipulation of miR-525-3p expression in irradiated cells confirmed that this miRNA mediates the radiosensitivity of a variety of non-transformed (RPE, HUVEC) and tumor-derived cell lines (HeLa, U2-Os, EA.hy926) cell lines. Thus, anti-miR-525-3p mediated inhibition of the increase in miR-525-3p elevated radiosensitivity, while overexpression of precursor miR-525-3p conferred radioresistance. Using a proteomic approach we identified 21 radiation-regulated proteins, of which 14 were found to be candidate targets for miR-525-3p-mediated repression. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that nine of these were indeed direct targets of miR-525-3p repression. Individual analysis of these direct targets by RNAi-mediated knockdown established that ARRB1, TXN1 and HSPA9 are essential miR-525-3p-dependent regulators of radiation sensitivity. CONCLUSION:The transient up-regulation of miR-525-3p, and the resultant repression of its direct targets ARRB1, TXN1 and HSPA9, is required for cell survival following irradiation. The conserved function of miR-525-3p across several cell types makes this microRNA pathway a promising target for modifying the efficacy of radiotherapy.
Project description:Radiotherapy is frequently applied for clinically localized prostate cancer while its efficacy could be significantly hindered by radioresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators in mediating cellular responses to ionizing radiation (IR), and strongly associate with radiosensitivity in many cancers. In this study, enhancement of radiosensitivity by miR-29b-3p was demonstrated in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP in vitro. Results showed that miR-29b-3p expression was significantly upregulated in response to IR from both X-rays and carbon ion irradiations. Knockdown of miR-29b-3p resulted in radioresistance while overexpression of miR-29b-3p led to increased radiosensitivity (showing reduced cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation and decreased colony formation). In addition, miR-29b-3p was found to directly target Wnt1-inducible-signaling protein 1 (WISP1). Inhibition of WISP1 facilitated the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway through suppressing Bcl-XL expression while activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The results indicated that miR-29b-3p was a radiosensitizing miRNAs and could enhance radiosensitivity of LNCaP cells by targeting WISP1. These findings suggested a novel treatment to overcome radioresistance in prostate cancer patients, especially those with higher levels of the WISP1 expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND: B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) has long been recognized as a tumor suppressor gene. Recent reports demonstrated that BTG1 plays an important role in progression of cell cycle and is involved in cellular response to stressors. However, the microRNAs mediated regulatory mechanism of BTG1 expression has not been reported so far. MicroRNAs can effectively influence tumor radiosensitivity by preventing cell cycle progression, resulting in enhancement of the cytotoxicity of radiotherapy efficacy. This study aimed to demonstrating the effects of microRNAs on the BTG1 expression and cellular radiosensitivity. METHODS: The human renal carcinoma 786-O cells were treated with 5 Gy of X-rays. Expressions of BTG1 gene and miR-454-3p, which was predicted to target BTG1 by software algorithm, were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein expressions were assessed by Western blot. Luciferase assays were used to quantify the interaction between BTG1 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) and miR-454-3p. The radiosensitivity was quantified by the assay of cell viability, colony formation and caspase-3 activity. RESULTS: The expression of the BTG1 gene in 786-O cells was significantly elevated after treatments with X-ray irradiation, DMSO, or serum starvation. The up-regulation of BTG1 after irradiation reduced cellular radiosensitivity as demonstrated by the enhanced cell viability and colony formation, as well as the repressed caspase-3 activity. In comparison, knock down of BTG1 by siRNA led to significantly enhanced cellular radiosensitivity. It was found that miR-454-3p can regulate the expression of BTG1 through a direct interaction with the 3'-UTR of BTG1 mRNA. Decreasing of its expression level correlates well with BTG1 up-regulation during X-ray irradiation. Particularly, we observed that over-expression of miR-454-3p by transfection inhibited the BTG1 expression and enhanced the radiosensitivity. In addition, cell cycle analysis showed that over-expression of miR-454-3p shifted the cell cycle arrest from G2/M phase to S phase. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that BTG1 is a direct target of miR-454-3p. Down-regulation of BTG1 by miR-454-3p renders tumor cells sensitive to radiation. These results may shed light on the potential application in tumor radiotherapy.
Project description:Enhanced radiosensitivity at low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) (0.2 to 0.6 Gy) has been reported in several cell lines. This phenomenon, known as low doses hyper-radiosensitivity (LDHRS), appears as an opportunity to decrease toxicity of radiotherapy and to enhance the effects of chemotherapy. However, the effect of low single doses IR on cell death is subtle and the mechanism underlying LDHRS has not been clearly explained, limiting the utility of LDHRS for clinical applications. To understand the mechanisms responsible for cell death induced by low-dose IR, LDHRS was evaluated in DLD-1 human colorectal cancer cells and the expression of 80 microRNAs (miRNAs) was assessed by qPCR array. Our results show that DLD-1 cells display an early DNA damage response and apoptotic cell death when exposed to 0.6 Gy. miRNA expression profiling identified 3 over-expressed (miR-205-3p, miR-1 and miR-133b) and 2 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-122-5p, and miR-134-5p) upon exposure to 0.6 Gy. This miRNA profile differed from the one in cells exposed to high-dose IR (12 Gy), supporting a distinct low-dose radiation-induced cell death mechanism. Expression of a mimetic miR-205-3p, the most overexpressed miRNA in cells exposed to 0.6 Gy, induced apoptotic cell death and, more importantly, increased LDHRS in DLD-1 cells. Thus, we propose miR-205-3p as a potential radiosensitizer to low-dose IR.
Project description:Radioresistance remains to be a major obstacle in the management of patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). We have identified a mature miR-17-3p processed from the 3' arm of precursor miR-17, which appeared to be able to inhibit three major antioxidant enzymes located in mitochondria, i.e., manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2), and thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2). Here we show that upregulation of miR-17-3p remarkably sensitized PCa cells to ionizing radiation (IR). Reductions of the three antioxidants led to increasing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation as well as declining mitochondrial respiration. The miR-17-3p-mediated dysfunction of mitochondrial antioxidants apparently sensitizing IR therapy was manifested in vitro and in vivo. Substantially, the miR-17-3p effect on suppression of the antioxidants can be efficiently eliminated or attenuated by transfecting with either an miR-17-3p inhibitor or each of the related antioxidant cDNA expression constructs. Overall, in addition to the insights into the functional assessments for the duplex of miR-17-5p and miR-17-3p, the present study highlights the rigorous evidence that demonstrated suppression of multiple mitochondrial antioxidants by a single microRNA (miRNA), thereby providing a promising approach to improve radiotherapy for advanced PCa by targeting mitochondrial function.
Project description:Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a standard treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer. However, its therapeutic advantages are limited with the development of SBRT resistance. The SBRT-resistant cell lines (A549/IR and H1975/IR) were established after exposure with hypofractionated irradiation. The differential lncRNAs were screened by microarray assay, then the expression was detected in LUAD tumor tissues and cell lines by qPCR. The influence on radiation response was assessed via in vitro and in vivo assays, and autophagy levels were evaluated by western blot and transmission electron microscopy. Bioinformatics prediction and rescue experiments were used to identify the pathways underlying SBRT resistance. High expression of KCNQ1OT1 was identified in LUAD SBRT-resistant cells and tissues, positively associated with a large tumor, advanced clinical stage, and a lower response rate to concurrent therapy. KCNQ1OT1 depletion significantly resensitized A549/IR and H1975/IR cells to radiation by inhibiting autophagy, which could be attenuated by miR-372-3p knockdown. Furthermore, autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) and autophagy-related 12 (ATG12) were confirmed as direct targets of miR-372-3p. Restoration of either ATG5 or ATG12 abrogated miR-372-3p-mediated autophagy inhibition and radiosensitivity. Our data describe that KCNQ1OT1 is responsible for SBRT resistance in LUAD through induction of ATG5- and ATG12-dependent autophagy via sponging miR-372-3p, which would be a potential strategy to enhance the antitumor effects of radiotherapy in LUAD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatments that target cancer stem cells play an important role in the controlling and eliminating of tumor initiation as well as in development, progression, and chemotherapy/radiotherapy resistance. In our previous study, we cultured and harvested human laryngeal cancer stem cells (CSCs) and applied microRNA biochips to screen differentially expressed miRNAs that were related to radiation tolerance in irradiated human laryngeal CSCs. According to the predicted genes and pathways of differential miRNAs target, down-regulated expression of hsa-miR-138-2-3p under radiation was thought to play a key role in enhancing the radio-sensitivity in human laryngeal squamous cancer stem cells. METHOD:To investigate the radiational enhancement of hsa-miR-138-2-3p, we transfected hsa-miR-138-2-3p mimics that were synthesized based on the sequences of hsa-miR-138-2-3p in vitrointo human laryngeal CSCs (Hep-2, M2e, and TU212 cell lines) to make hsa-miR-138-2-3p overexpressed, and the tumorous specialities of CSCs, like cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and DNA damage were evaluated by CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, invasion assay, flow cytometry, and comet assay. Furthermore, we explored the signal transduction pathways that regulated the cancer stem cell initiation, development, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which were controlled by hsa-miR-138-2-3p. RESULT:Overexpressed hsa-miR-138-2-3p played a key role in many anti-cancer biological processes in human laryngeal CSCs: (1) it decreased laryngeal CSCs proliferation and invasion in response to radiotherapy; (2) it increased the proportion of early and late apoptosis in laryngeal CSCs after radiation, raised G1 phase arrest in laryngeal CSCs after radiation, and decreased the proportion of S stage cells of cell cycle that were related to radio-resistance in laryngeal CSCs; (3) it down-regulated the expression of ?-catenin in Wnt signal pathway that was related to the tolerance of laryngeal CSCs to radiotherapy; (4) it down-regulated the expression of YAP1 in Hippo signal pathway that regulated cell proliferation, invasion and apoptosis; (5) it up-regulated the expression of p38 and JNK1 in MAPK signal pathway that was concerned to radio-sensitivity. CONCLUSION:In the present study, it was found that hsa-miR-138-2-3p regulated the Wnt/?-catenin pathways, the Hippo/YAP1 pathways, and the MAPK/p38/JNK1 pathways that were involved in cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, radio-resistance and radio-sensitivity in laryngeal CSCs. These results will be useful for a better understanding of the cell biology of hsa-miR-138-2-3p in laryngeal CSCs, and for serving hsa-miR-138-2-3p as a promising biomarker and as a target for diagnosis and for novel anti-cancer therapies for laryngeal cancers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the progression of various cancers and affect the response to radiotherapy. This study focused on clarifying the underlying mechanism by which lncTUG1 affects the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS:lncTUG1, miR-144-3p and MET expression levels were detected in ESCC tissues and cells by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was used to examine the protein levels of MET, p-AKT and EGFR. The dual-luciferase reporter system and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were used to confirm the interaction between lncTUG1 and miR-144-3p or miR-144-3p and MET. MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry assays were applied to examine the behavioral changes in EC9706 and KYSE30 cells. RESULTS:lncTUG1 was upregulated in ESCC cells and tissues, and lncTUG1 expression was associated with an advanced pathological stage. The bioinformatics analysis revealed that lncTUG1 could specifically bind to miR-144-3p, which was downregulated in ESCC. There was a negative correlation between lncTUG1 and miR-144-3p. LncTUG1 inhibition retarded proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptosis in ESCC cells. Moreover, lncTUG1 knockdown dramatically improved the effect of radiotherapy on ESCC development both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, MET was revealed as a downstream target of miR-144-3p and is downregulated by it. LncTUG1 promoted the progression of ESCC and elevated radiotherapy resistance in ESCC cells, accompanied by a high level of MET expression. Moreover, we found that knockdown of lncTUG1 enhanced the radiosensitivity of ESCC cells via the p-AKT signaling pathway. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that lncTUG1 enhances the radiotherapy resistance of ESCC by lowering the miR-144-3p level and modulating the MET/EGFR/AKT axis.
Project description:Background:The development of radioresistance remains the obstacle for prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. Here, we explored the role and potential mechanism of circular RNA zinc finger protein 609 (circ-ZNF609) in the radioresistance of PCa cells. Materials and Methods:Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of circ-ZNF609, microRNA-501-3p (miR-501-3p) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) messenger RNA (mRNA). The viability, apoptosis, metastasis and radioresistance of PCa cells were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, transwell assays and colony formation assay. The glycolytic rate was assessed through measuring the glucose consumption and lactate production using fluorescence-based glucose and lactate assay kits. The target interaction between miR-501-3p and circ-ZNF609 or HK2 was predicted by StarBase software and confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay. The protein level of HK2 was detected by Western blot assay. In vivo tumor growth assay was used to explore the role of circ-ZNF609 in the radioresistance of PCa in vivo. Results:Circ-ZNF609 was abnormally up-regulated in PCa tissues and cell lines. Circ-ZNF609 silencing hampered the viability, metastasis, radioresistance and promoted the apoptosis through suppressing cell glycolysis. MiR-501-3p was a direct target of circ-ZNF609, and si-circ-ZNF609-induced influence in PCa cells was partly alleviated by the addition of anti-miR-501-3p. MiR-501-3p functioned through directly interacting with and down-regulating HK2. HK2 was modulated by circ-ZNF609/miR-501-3p axis in PCa cells. Circ-ZNF609 silencing enhanced the radiosensitivity of PCa cells in vivo. Conclusion:Circ-ZNF609 promoted the progression and radioresistance of PCa cells through accelerating the glycolysis via miR-501-3p/HK2 axis, providing promising targets for improving the prognosis of PCa patients.