Concomitant control of mechanical properties and degradation in resorbable elastomer-like materials using stereochemistry and stoichiometry for soft tissue engineering.
ABSTRACT: Complex biological tissues are highly viscoelastic and dynamic. Efforts to repair or replace cartilage, tendon, muscle, and vasculature using materials that facilitate repair and regeneration have been ongoing for decades. However, materials that possess the mechanical, chemical, and resorption characteristics necessary to recapitulate these tissues have been difficult to mimic using synthetic resorbable biomaterials. Herein, we report a series of resorbable elastomer-like materials that are compositionally identical and possess varying ratios of cis:trans double bonds in the backbone. These features afford concomitant control over the mechanical and surface eroding degradation properties of these materials. We show the materials can be functionalized post-polymerization with bioactive species and enhance cell adhesion. Furthermore, an in vivo rat model demonstrates that degradation and resorption are dependent on succinate stoichiometry in the elastomers and the results show limited inflammation highlighting their potential for use in soft tissue regeneration and drug delivery.
Project description:Guided bone regeneration (GBR) uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes as biological barriers. This study compared the differences in hard tissue stability between GBR using evidence-based digital titanium mesh and resorbable collagen membranes during implant placement. A total of 40 patients (65 implant sites) were enrolled and divided into two groups: resorbable membrane and digital titanium mesh groups. The alveolar bone was analyzed at two- and three-dimensional levels using cone-beam computed tomography and by reconstructing and superimposing the hard tissues at four time points: preoperatively, postoperatively, before second-stage surgery, and 1 year after loading. The use of digital titanium mesh showed less alveolar bone resorption in vertical and horizontal directions two-dimensionally before the second-stage surgery and 1 year after loading. Regarding volumetric stability, the percentage of resorption after 6 months of healing with resorbable membrane coverage reached 37.5%. However, it was only 23.4% with titanium mesh. Although postoperative bone volume was greater at all labial sites with resorbable membrane than with digital titanium mesh, after substantial bone resorption within 1 year of loading, the labial bone thickness at the upper part of implants was thinner with resorbable membrane than with digital titanium mesh. Furthermore, digital titanium meshes made according to ideal bone arch contour reduced soft tissue irritation, and the exposure rate was only 10%. Therefore, although both resorbable membrane and digital titanium mesh in GBR were able to successfully reconstruct the bone defect, digital titanium meshes were better at maintaining the hard tissue volume in the osteogenic space.
Project description:This study introduces the effect of the thickness of a bacterial cellulose membrane by comparing the bone regeneration effect on rat skulls when using a collagen membrane and different thicknesses of resorbable bacterial cellulose membranes for guided bone regeneration. Barrier membranes of 0.10 mm, 0.15 mm, and 0.20 mm in thickness were made using bacterial cellulose produced as microbial fermentation metabolites. Mechanical strength was investigated, and new bone formation was evaluated through animal experimental studies. Experimental animals were sacrificed after having 2 weeks and 8 weeks of recovery, and specimens were processed for histologic and histomorphometric analyses measuring the area of bone regeneration (%) using an image analysis program. In 2 weeks, bone-like materials and fibrous connective tissues were observed in histologic analysis. In 8 weeks, all experimental groups showed the arrangement of osteoblasts surrounding the supporting body on the margin and center of the bone defect region. However, the amount of new bone formation was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in bacterial cellulose membrane with 0.10 mm in thickness compared to the other experimental groups. Within the limitations of this study, a bacterial cellulose membrane with 0.10 mm thickness induced the most effective bone regeneration.
Project description:The development of alloplastic resorbable materials can revolutionize the field of implantation technology in regenerative medicine. Additional opportunities to colonize the three-dimensionally (3D) printed constructs with the patient's own cells prior to implantation can improve the regeneration process but requires optimization of cultivation protocols. Human platelet lysate (hPL) has already proven to be a suitable replacement for fetal calf serum (FCS) in 2D and 3D cell cultures. In this study, we investigated the in vitro biocompatibility of the printed RESOMER® Filament LG D1.75 materials as well as the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultivated on 3D printed constructs under the influence of different medium supplements (FCS, human serum (HS) and hPL). Additionally, the in vitro degradation of the material was studied over six months. We demonstrated that LG D1.75 is biocompatible and has no in vitro cytotoxic effects on hMSCs. Furthermore, hMSCs grown on the constructs could be differentiated into osteoblasts, especially supported by supplementation with hPL. Over six months under physiological in vitro conditions, a distinct degradation was observed, which, however, had no influence on the biocompatibility of the material. Thus, the overall suitability of the material LG D1.75 to produce 3D printed, resorbable bone implants and the promising use of hPL in the xeno-free cultivation of human MSCs on such implants for autologous transplantation have been demonstrated.
Project description:Porous scaffolds made of elastomeric materials are of great interest for soft tissue engineering. Poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL) is a bio-resorbable elastomeric copolymer with tailorable properties, which make this material an appropriate candidate to be used as scaffold for vascular, tendon, and nerve healing applications. Here, extrusion was applied to produce porous scaffolds of PLCL, using NaCl particles as a leachable agent. The effects of the particle proportion and size on leaching performance, dimensional stability, mechanical properties, and ageing of the scaffolds were analyzed. The efficiency of the particle leaching and scaffold swelling when wet were observed to be dependent on the porogenerator proportion, while the secant moduli and ultimate tensile strengths were dependent on the pore size. Porosity, swelling, and mechanical properties of the extruded scaffolds were tailorable, varying with the proportion and size of porogenerator particles and showed similar values to human soft tissues like nerves and veins (E = 7-15 MPa, ?u = 7 MPa). Up to 300-mm length micro-porous PLCL tube with 400-µm thickness wall was extruded, proving extrusion as a high-throughput manufacturing process to produce tubular elastomeric bio-resorbable porous scaffolds of unrestricted length with tunable mechanical properties.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recognition of some of the limitations of titanium plates and screws used for the fixation of bones has led to the development of plates manufactured from bioresorbable materials. Whilst resorbable plates appear to offer clinical advantages over metal plates in orthognathic surgery, concerns remain about the stability of fixation and the length of time required for their degradation and the possibility of foreign body reactions. This review compares the use of titanium versus bioresorbable plates in orthognathic surgery and is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2007.<h4>Objectives</h4>To compare the effects of bioresorbable fixation systems with titanium systems used during orthognathic surgery.<h4>Search methods</h4>Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 20 January 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 11) in the Cochrane Library (searched 20 January 2017); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 20 January 2017); and Embase Ovid (1980 to 20 January 2017). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov; searched 20 January 2017), and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (searched 20 January 2017) for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases.<h4>Selection criteria</h4>Randomised controlled trials comparing bioresorbable versus titanium fixation systems used for orthognathic surgery in adults.<h4>Data collection and analysis</h4>Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved disagreement by discussion. Clinical heterogeneity between the included trials precluded pooling of data, and only a descriptive summary is presented.<h4>Main results</h4>This review included two trials, involving 103 participants, one comparing titanium with resorbable plates and screws and the other titanium with resorbable screws. Both studies were at high risk of bias and provided very limited data for the primary outcomes of this review. All participants in one trial suffered mild to moderate postoperative discomfort with no statistically significant difference between the two plating groups at different follow-up times. Mean scores of patient satisfaction were 7.43 to 8.63 (range 0 to 10) with no statistically significant difference between the two groups throughout follow-up. Adverse effects reported in one study were two plate exposures in each group occurring between the third and ninth months. Plate exposures occurred mainly in the posterior maxillary region, except for one titanium plate exposure in the mandibular premolar region. Known causes of infection were associated with loosened screws and wound dehiscence with no statistically significant difference in the infection rate between titanium (3/196), and resorbable (3/165) plates.<h4>Authors' conclusions</h4>We do not have sufficient evidence to determine if titanium plates or resorbable plates are superior for fixation of bones after orthognathic surgery. This review provides insufficient evidence to show any difference in postoperative pain and discomfort, level of patient satisfaction, plate exposure or infection for plate and screw fixation using either titanium or resorbable materials.
Project description:Pediatric osteosynthesis has developed over the last 20 years, thereby reducing medical and economic burden, including long and expensive hospitalization. Currently, conventional and rigid alloying systems such as titanium are used for stabilization of bone fractures in children. In many cases, implants must be removed, as otherwise growth would be impeded. Biodegradable implant materials exhibit beneficial properties and would make a second removal surgery unnecessary. In the following article, we will give an overview of implant materials that are currently used in pediatric traumatology with a focus on Mg-based implants. Furthermore, we will discuss current scientific knowledge on resorbable implants, including results from pre-clinics and clinics.
Project description:The development of new biocompatible materials for application in the replacement of deteriorated tissues (due to accidents and diseases) has gained a lot of attention due to the high demand around the world. Tissue engineering offers multiple options from biocompatible materials with easy resorption. Chitosan (CS) is a biopolymer derived from chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, which has been highly used for cell regeneration applications. In this work, CS films and Ruta graveolens essential oil (RGEO) were incorporated to obtain porous and resorbable materials, which did not generate allergic reactions. An oil-free formulation (F1: CS) and three different formulations containing R. graveolens essential oil were prepared (F2: CS-RGEO 0.5%; F3: CS+RGEO 1.0%; and F4: CS+RGEO 1.5%) to evaluate the effect of the RGEO incorporation in the mechanical and thermal stability of the films. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses demonstrated the presence of RGEO. In contrast, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed that the crystalline structure and percentage of CS were slightly affected by the RGEO incorporation. Interesting saturation phenomena were observed for mechanical and water permeability tests when RGEO was incorporated at higher than 0.5% (v/v). The results of subdermal implantation after 30 days in Wistar rats showed that increasing the amount of RGEO resulted in greater resorption of the material, but also more significant inflammation of the tissue surrounding the materials. On the other hand, the thermal analysis showed that the RGEO incorporation almost did not affect thermal degradation. However, mechanical properties demonstrated an understandable loss of tensile strength and Young's modulus for F3 and F4. However, given the volatility of the RGEO, it was possible to generate a slightly porous structure, as can be seen in the microstructure analysis of the surface and the cross-section of the films. The cytotoxicity analysis of the CS+RGEO compositions by the hemolysis technique agreed with in vivo results of the low toxicity observed. All these results demonstrate that films including crude essential oil have great application potential in the biomedical field.
Project description:Silk fibers spun by silkworms and spiders exhibit exceptional mechanical properties with a unique combination of strength, extensibility and toughness. In contrast, the mechanical properties of regenerated silk materials can be tuned through control of the fabrication process. Here we introduce a biomimetic, all-aqueous process, to obtain bulk regenerated silk-based materials for the fabrication of functionalized orthopedic devices. The silk materials generated in the process replicate the nano-scale structure of natural silk fibers and possess excellent mechanical properties. The biomimetic materials demonstrate excellent machinability, providing a path towards the fabrication of a new family of resorbable orthopedic devices where organic solvents are avoided, thus allowing functionalization with bioactive molecules to promote bone remodeling and integration.
Project description:Synthetic bone cements are commonly used in orthopaedic procedures to aid in bone regeneration following trauma or disease. Polymeric cements like PMMA provide the mechanical strength necessary for orthopaedic applications, but they are not resorbable and do not integrate with host bone. Ceramic cements have a chemical composition similar to that of bone, but their brittle mechanical properties limit their use in weight-bearing applications. In this study, we designed oxidatively degradable, polymeric bone cements with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. We synthesized a novel thioketal (TK) diol, which was crosslinked with a lysine triisocyanate (LTI) prepolymer to create hydrolytically stable poly(thioketal urethane)s (PTKUR) that degrade in the oxidative environment associated with bone defects. PTKUR films were hydrolytically stable for up to 6 months, but degraded rapidly (<1 week) under simulated oxidative conditions in vitro. When combined with ceramic micro- or nanoparticles, PTKUR cements exhibited working times comparable to calcium phosphate cements and strengths exceeding those of trabecular bone. PTKUR/ceramic composite cements supported appositional bone growth and integrated with host bone near the bone-cement interface at 6 and 12 weeks post-implantation in rabbit femoral condyle plug defects. Histological evidence of osteoclast-mediated resorption of the cements was observed at 6 and 12 weeks. These findings demonstrate that a PTKUR bone cement with bone-like strength can be selectively resorbed by cells involved in bone remodeling, and thus represent an important initial step toward the development of resorbable bone cements for weight-bearing applications.
Project description:A paradigm shift for implantable medical devices lies at the confluence between regenerative medicine, where materials remodel and integrate in the biological milieu, and technology, through the use of recently developed material platforms based on biomaterials and bioresorbable technologies such as optics and electronics. The union of materials and technology in this context enables a class of biomedical devices that can be optically or electronically functional and yet harmlessly degrade once their use is complete. We present here a fully degradable, remotely controlled, implantable therapeutic device operating in vivo to counter a Staphylococcus aureus infection that disappears once its function is complete. This class of device provides fully resorbable packaging and electronics that can be turned on remotely, after implantation, to provide the necessary thermal therapy or trigger drug delivery. Such externally controllable, resorbable devices not only obviate the need for secondary surgeries and retrieval, but also have extended utility as therapeutic devices that can be left behind at a surgical or suturing site, following intervention, and can be externally controlled to allow for infection management by either thermal treatment or by remote triggering of drug release when there is retardation of antibiotic diffusion, deep infections are present, or when systemic antibiotic treatment alone is insufficient due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. After completion of function, the device is safely resorbed into the body, within a programmable period.