Clinical outcomes between calcium channel blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers in hypertensive patients without established cardiovascular diseases during a 3-year follow-up.
ABSTRACT: Although both angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are all suitable for the initiation of antihypertensive treatment, studies investigating efficacy and safety between ARBs and CCBs are limited, and there is no previous study comparing their clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up periods in real world setting. We compared cardiovascular (CV) events between ARBs and CCBs in 464,948 hypertensive adults using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database during a 3-year follow-up. The patients with hypertension without heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease were enrolled. The CV events between only single prescription of CCBs and ARBs were finally compared. The primary endpoint for this study was the first occurrence of a major adverse CV events, defined as the composite of all-cause death, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. ARB was significantly more administered in male and patients with higher income, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney diseases, and higher Charlson comorbidity index. The primary endpoints occurred in 10,526 patients (5.2%) in the ARB group and in 19,363 patients (7.3%) in the CCB group (p?
Project description:PURPOSE:We investigated the impact of four types of antihypertensive medications, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta blockers (BBs; both selective and non-selective), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and thiazide diuretics (TDs) on survival outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:A single-institutional retrospective chart review of 878 patients with EOC was performed. Survival was compared according to use of the four antihypertensive medications during primary treatment. Propensity score matching (ratio 1:3) was performed to control possible associated covariates, such as age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, residual status after primary debulking surgery, and co-morbidity. RESULTS:Among 878 patients, 56 patients (6.4%) were ARB users, 62 (7.1%) were BB users, 107 (12.2%) were CCBs users and 32 (3.6%) used TDs. Median progression-free survival (PFS) for ARB, BB, and CCB users was 37.8, 27.2, and 23.6 months compared with 33.6 months for non-users. ARB was associated with 35% decreased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.99; p=0.046) in multivariate analysis. After propensity score matching, median PFS for ARB users was 37.8 months and ARB use remained to be associated with lower recurrence rate in univariate (p=0.035) and multivariate analysis (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.93; p=0.022). CONCLUSION:In this study, ARBs use during primary treatment is associated with lower recurrence in EOC patients. However, CCBs, BBs, and TDs did not show beneficial impact.
Project description:Background:The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) carries a risk of renal function deterioration in cirrhotic patients with ascites. However, whether the long-term use of ACEis/ARBs is safe in cirrhotic patients without ascites remains unknown. Methods:In this nationwide cohort study, we identified 311,361 newly diagnosed cirrhotic patients between January 1997 and December 2013. To avoid indication and immortal time biases, patients receiving regular ACEi/ARB therapy, defined as the ACEi/ARB cohort, were matched to patients receiving regular calcium channel blockers (CCBs), defined as the CCB cohort, at a ratio of 1?:?1 by age, sex, and propensity scores for comorbidities and medications (2,188 patients in each cohort). Cumulative incidence rates and multivariate analyses of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk were adjusted for competing mortality. Results:The 10-year cumulative incidence rates of ESRD were 2.32% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-3.20) in the ACEi/ARB cohort and 1.70% (95% CI: 1.03-2.36) in the CCB cohort (P = 0.610). In multivariate analyses, ACEi/ARB use was not associated with a higher risk of ESRD in cirrhotic patients (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.69-1.94, P = 0.591). In the sensitivity test, the 10-year cumulative incidence rates of ESRD in cirrhotic patients with ascites were 6.50% (95% CI: 0.54-12.46) and 1.24% (95% CI: 0.00-2.71) in ACEi/ARB and CCB cohorts, respectively (P = 0.090). Conclusions:Long-term ACEi/ARB use was not associated with a higher risk of ESRD in cirrhotic patients. However, the risk of ESRD tended to increase in cirrhotic patients with ascites.
Project description:Combination therapy using two or three classes of drugs is often required to treat hypertension to prevent cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined combination therapies administered following initial therapy with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in hypertensive Japanese patients. To determine which classes of antihypertensives are being prescribed as second- or third-line treatments for patients who were initially treated with a single ARB, we analyzed prescription claims data from two Japanese health-care databases for 2008 to 2015. Among the 26?998 patients who were initially treated with a single ARB (from one database), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were the most frequently prescribed second-line antihypertensive, as these medicines were added for >20% of patients within 1 year of ARB prescription initiation. The addition rates of CCBs as a second-line therapy differed depending on the initial ARB type. In contrast, <10% of patients received a diuretic as a second-line antihypertensive. Among the 48?813 patients who were prescribed an ARB in combination with a CCB (as shown in the other database), diuretics were prescribed as third-line antihypertensives more frequently than increased doses of CCBs or ARBs. Diuretics were added for 8% of patients within 2 years of CCB addition, and the addition rates differed based on the CCB dose used for combination therapy. We also found that the addition rates of diuretics differed depending on patient clinical histories among ARB and CCB recipients.
Project description:Calcium channel blocker (CCB) or two renin angiotensin aldosterone system blockades (RAAS), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), are major potent and prevalently used as initial antihypertensive agents for mild to moderate hypertension, but no uniform agreement as to which antihypertensive drugs should be given for initial therapy, especially among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing CCBs and the two RAAS blockades for hypertensive patients with CKD stage 3 to 5D. The inclusion criteria for this systematic review was RCT that compared the effects of CCBs and the two RAAS blockades in patients with hypertension and CKD. The exclusion criteria were (1) renal transplantation, (2) CKD stage 1 or 2, (3) combined therapy (data cannot be extracted separately). Outcomes were blood pressure change, mortality, heart failure, stroke or cerebrovascular events, and renal outcomes.21 randomized controlled trials randomized 9,492 patients with hypertensive and CKD into CCBs and the two RAAS blockades treatments. The evidence showed no significant differences in blood presser change, mortality, heart failure, stroke or cerebrovascular events, and renal outcomes between CCBs group and the two RAAS blockades group. The publication bias of pooled mean blood presser change that was detected by Egger's test was non-significant.CCBs has similar effects on long term blood pressure, mortality, heart failure, stroke or cerebrovascular events, and renal function to RAAS blockades in patients CKD stage 3 to 5D and hypertension.
Project description:Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is commonly present in patients with hypertension (HT). According to the expert consensus document from American, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were recommended as 1st-line therapeutic drugs. However, none noticed the different efficacy between fat-soluble and selective ?1-receptor blockers (FS-?-B) and other ?-blockers on regression of LVH before. The aim of this analysis was to compare the efficacy of FS-?-B with the other 4 different classes of antihypertensive drugs (ACEI, ARBs, calcium channel blockers [CCBs], and diuretics) on regression of LVH.Relative trials were identified in the PubMed, Web of Science, OVID EBM Reviews and Cochrane databases, and the relevant papers were examined. We performed both traditional and Bayesian meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the regression of LVH. Sensitivity analysis and regression analysis were performed to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. Inconsistency analysis was performed to check whether the analysis of the trials in the network was indeed consistent.A total of 41 RCTs involving 2566 patients with HT and LVH were included in this analysis. Bayesian network meta-analysis indicated no statistically significant differences between these groups: FS-?-B and ACEI (MD, -7.09; 95% CI, -14.99, 1.27); FS-?-B and ARB (MD, -2.66; 95% Cl, -12.02, 6.31). Although FS-?-B showed greater efficacy when compared with diuretic (MD, 13.04; 95% CI, 3.38, 22.59) or CCB (MD, 10.90; 95% CI, 1.98, 19.49). The probabilities of being among the most efficacious treatments were: FS-?-B (72%), ARB (27%), ACEI (0.01%), CCB (0.00%), and diuretic (0.00%).Evidence from our analysis reveals that FS-?-B have potential to become 1st-line therapeutic drugs in HT and LVH patients. However, the real efficacy of FS-?-B on regression of LVH should be confirmed by further large, high quality trials considering the limitation of the study number.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been postulated to affect susceptibility to COVID-19. Observational studies so far have lacked rigorous ascertainment adjustment and international generalisability. We aimed to determine whether use of ACEIs or ARBs is associated with an increased susceptibility to COVID-19 in patients with hypertension.<h4>Methods</h4>In this international, open science, cohort analysis, we used electronic health records from Spain (Information Systems for Research in Primary Care [SIDIAP]) and the USA (Columbia University Irving Medical Center data warehouse [CUIMC] and Department of Veterans Affairs Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership [VA-OMOP]) to identify patients aged 18 years or older with at least one prescription for ACEIs and ARBs (target cohort) or calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics (THZs; comparator cohort) between Nov 1, 2019, and Jan 31, 2020. Users were defined separately as receiving either monotherapy with these four drug classes, or monotherapy or combination therapy (combination use) with other antihypertensive medications. We assessed four outcomes: COVID-19 diagnosis; hospital admission with COVID-19; hospital admission with pneumonia; and hospital admission with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or sepsis. We built large-scale propensity score methods derived through a data-driven approach and negative control experiments across ten pairwise comparisons, with results meta-analysed to generate 1280 study effects. For each study effect, we did negative control outcome experiments using a possible 123 controls identified through a data-rich algorithm. This process used a set of predefined baseline patient characteristics to provide the most accurate prediction of treatment and balance among patient cohorts across characteristics. The study is registered with the EU Post-Authorisation Studies register, EUPAS35296.<h4>Findings</h4>Among 1?355?349 antihypertensive users (363?785 ACEI or ARB monotherapy users, 248?915 CCB or THZ monotherapy users, 711?799 ACEI or ARB combination users, and 473?076 CCB or THZ combination users) included in analyses, no association was observed between COVID-19 diagnosis and exposure to ACEI or ARB monotherapy versus CCB or THZ monotherapy (calibrated hazard ratio [HR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·84-1·14) or combination use exposure (1·01, 0·90-1·15). ACEIs alone similarly showed no relative risk difference when compared with CCB or THZ monotherapy (HR 0·91, 95% CI 0·68-1·21; with heterogeneity of >40%) or combination use (0·95, 0·83-1·07). Directly comparing ACEIs with ARBs demonstrated a moderately lower risk with ACEIs, which was significant with combination use (HR 0·88, 95% CI 0·79-0·99) and non-significant for monotherapy (0·85, 0·69-1·05). We observed no significant difference between drug classes for risk of hospital admission with COVID-19, hospital admission with pneumonia, or hospital admission with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or sepsis across all comparisons.<h4>Interpretation</h4>No clinically significant increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis or hospital admission-related outcomes associated with ACEI or ARB use was observed, suggesting users should not discontinue or change their treatment to decrease their risk of COVID-19.<h4>Funding</h4>Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Janssen Research & Development, IQVIA, South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare Republic, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and European Health Data and Evidence Network.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are the first choice for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) should be considered in patients intolerant to ACEIs. Although previous studies support the use of ARBs as an alternative to ACEIs, these studies showed inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the clinical impact of ARBs as an alternative to ACEIs in patients with AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:The CardiOvascular Risk and idEntificAtion of potential high-risk population in AMI (COREA-AMI) registry enrolled all consecutive patients with AMI undergoing PCI. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization due to heart failure. RESULTS:Of the 3,328 eligible patients, ARBs replaced ACEIs in 816 patients, while 824 patients continued to use ACEIs and 826 patients continued to use ARBs. The remaining 862 patients did not receive ACEIs/ARBs. After the adjustment with inverse probability weighting, the primary endpoints in the first groups were similar (7.5% vs. 8.0%, hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.05; P = 0.164). Composite events were less frequent in the ACEI to ARB group than no ACEI/ARB group (7.5% vs. 11.8%, HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.90; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION:The alternative use of ARBs following initial treatment with ACEIs demonstrates comparable clinical outcomes to those with continued use of ACEIs and is associated with an improved rate of composite events compared to no ACEI/ARB use in patients with AMI undergoing PCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02385682.
Project description:<h4>Background/aims</h4>Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are the most widely prescribed medication for patients with vasospastic angina (VA). However, few studies have compared the prognosis of VA patients who are prescribed different CCBs.<h4>Methods</h4>We enrolled 2,960 patients who received provocation test prospectively in 11 university hospitals in Korea. We divided 1,586 patients received four major CCBs into two groups: a first generation CCB (diltiazem and nifedipine) group and a second generation CCB (amlodipine and benidipine) group. Primary outcome was time to events of composite of death from any cause, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and symptomatic arrhythmia during 3-year follow-up. We also compared the effect of each CCB on the control of angina symptoms.<h4>Results</h4>There was no difference of the primary outcome among the two groups with a cumulative incidence rate of 5.4%, 2.9%, and a person-month incidence rate of 2.33 and 1.26, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 1.17; p = 0.120, as reference with the 1st generation CCBs). The incidence of ACS was significantly lower in 2nd generation CCBs group with a person-month incidence rate of 1.66 vs. 0.35 (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.89; p = 0.034). Use of benidipine showed a significant better control of angina symptom compared with diltiazem for 3 years (odds ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.32; p < 0.0001 at 3rd year).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The first and second generation CCB groups did not differ in terms of composite outcome occurrence. However, the ACS incidence rate was significantly lower in the users of the 2nd generation CCBs.
Project description:Background:To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of different antihypertensive drugs in stable patients after acute hemorrhagic stroke (HS). Methods:From January 2001 to December 2013, patients with first-ever primary HS were identified in the National Health Insurance Research Database, Taiwan. Patients with traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and secondary HS were excluded. Those with first-ever HS were recruited and classified into three groups: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB); (2) calcium channel blocker (CCB); and (3) other antihypertensive drugs (comparison) groups. Propensity score matching was used to balance the distribution of baseline characteristics, stroke severity, and medications between any two of the three groups. A validation study was performed using the databank of the Stroke Registry in Chang-Gung Healthcare System to reduce the bias. Primary outcomes were recurrent HS, ischemic stroke, any stroke, and all-cause mortality. Results:Compared to the comparison group, the ACEI/ARB group [35.4% versus 39.3%; hazard ratio (HR), 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.95] and CCB group (33.0% versus 41.9%; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64-0.81) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality during long-term follow up. The CCB group had a similar risk of all-cause mortality to the ACEI/ARB group. Risks of recurrent HS, ischemic stroke, or any stroke were not different between the study groups. Conclusions:Antihypertensive drug class could be important to long-term outcomes in HS patients in addition to the target control of blood pressure. Both ACEIs/ARBs and CCBs are associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality. Our results may be applied to inform future research on hypertensive control in HS patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis. However, approximately half of AVFs fail to mature. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) exerts favorable endothelial effects and may promote AVF maturation. We tested associations of ACE-I and ARBs, CCBs, beta-blockers, and diuretics with the maturation of newly created AVFs. METHODS:We evaluated 602 participants from the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study, a multi-center, prospective cohort study of AVF maturation. We ascertained the use of each medication class within 45 days of AVF creation surgery. We defined maturation outcomes by clinical use within 9 months of surgery or 4 weeks of initiating hemodialysis. RESULTS:Unassisted AVF maturation failure without intervention occurred in 54.0% of participants, and overall AVF maturation failure (with or without intervention) occurred in 30.1%. After covariate adjustment, CCB use was associated with a 25% lower risk of overall AVF maturation failure (95% CI 3%-41% lower) but a non-significant 10% lower risk of unassisted maturation failure (95% CI 23% lower to 5% higher). ACE-I/ARB, beta-blocker, and diuretic use was not significantly associated with AVF maturation outcomes. None of the antihypertensive medication classes were associated with changes in AVF diameter or blood flow over 6 weeks following surgery. CONCLUSIONS:CCB use may be associated with a lower risk of overall AVF maturation failure. Further studies are needed to determine whether CCBs might play a causal role in improving AVF maturation outcomes.