Screening and identification of hub genes in bladder cancer by bioinformatics analysis and KIF11 is a potential prognostic biomarker.
ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer (BC) is the ninth most common lethal malignancy worldwide. Great efforts have been devoted to clarify the pathogenesis of BC, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To screen for the genes associated with the progression and carcinogenesis of BC, three datasets were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. A total of 37 tumor and 16 non-cancerous samples were analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Subsequently, 141 genes were identified, including 55 upregulated and 86 downregulated genes. The protein-protein interaction network was established using the Search Tool for Retrieval of Interacting Genes database. Hub gene identification and module analysis were performed using Cytoscape software. Hierarchical clustering of hub genes was conducted using the University of California, Santa Cruz Cancer Genomics Browser. Among the hub genes, kinesin family member 11 (KIF11) was identified as one of the most significant prognostic biomarkers among all the candidates. The Kaplan Meier Plotter database was used for survival analysis of KIF11. The expression profile of KIF11 was analyzed using the ONCOMINE database. The expression levels of KIF11 in BC samples and bladder cells were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative pCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. In summary, KIF11 was significantly upregulated in BC and might act as a potential prognostic biomarker. The present identification of DEGs and hub genes in BC may provide novel insight for investigating the molecular mechanisms of BC.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to identify hub genes and signaling pathways associated with bladder cancer (BC) utilizing centrality analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened from the ArrayExpress database between normal subjects and BC patients. Co-expression networks of BC were constructed using differentially co-expressed genes and links, and hub genes were investigated by degree centrality analysis of co-expression networks in BC. The enriched signaling pathways were investigated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database analysis based on the DEGs. The hub gene expression in BC tissues was validated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. A total of 329 DEGs were screened, including 147 upregulated and 182 downregulated genes. The co-expression network constructed between BC and normal controls consisted of 182 nodes and 434 edges, and the two genes in each gene pair were differentially co-expressed genes. Centrality analysis of co-expression networks suggested that the top 5 hub genes with high degree included lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 4 (LGALS4), protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type N2 (PTPRN2), transmembrane protease, serine 11E (TMPRSS11E), tripartite motif containing 31 (TRIM31) and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3 (KCND3). Pathway analysis revealed that the 329 DEGs were significantly enriched in 5 terms (cell cycle, DNA replication, oocyte meiosis, p53 signaling pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway). According to RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, 4/5 hub genes were significantly expressed, including LGALS4, PTPRN2, TMPRSS11E, TRIM31; however, KCND3 was not significantly expressed. In the present study, 5 hub genes were successfully identified (LGALS4, PTPRN2, TMPRSS11E, TRIM31 and KCND3) and 5 biological pathways that may be underlying biomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment associated with bladder cancer were revealed.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to identify key genes and investigate the related molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer (BC) progression. From the Gene Expression Omnibus database, the gene expression dataset GSE7476 was downloaded, which contained 43 BC samples and 12 normal bladder tissues. GSE7476 was analyzed to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed for the DEGs using the DAVID database, and a protein?protein interaction (PPI) network was then constructed using Cytoscape software. The results of the GO analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in cell division, nucleoplasm and protein binding, while the downregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in 'extracellular matrix organization', 'proteinaceous extracellular matrix' and 'heparin binding'. The results of the KEGG pathway analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in the 'cell cycle', whereas the downregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in 'complement and coagulation cascades'. JUN, cyclin?dependent kinase 1, FOS, PCNA, TOP2A, CCND1 and CDH1 were found to be hub genes in the PPI network. Sub?networks revealed that these gene were enriched in significant pathways, including the 'cell cycle' signaling pathway and 'PI3K?Akt signaling pathway'. In summary, the present study identified DEGs and key target genes in the progression of BC, providing potential molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers for the treatment of BC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the genitourinary tract. We employed the GSE13507 data set from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database in order to identify key genes related to tumorigenesis, progression, and prognosis in BC patients.<h4>Methods</h4>The data set used in this study included 10 normal bladder mucosae tissue samples and 165 primary BC tissue samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the 2 types of samples were identified by GEO2R. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the online website DAVID. The online website STRING was used to construct a protein-protein interaction network. Moreover, the plugins in MCODE and cytoHubba in Cytoscape were employed to find the hub genes and modules in these DEGs.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 154 DEGs comprising 135 downregulated genes and 19 upregulated genes. The GO enrichment results were mainly related to the contractile fiber part, extracellular region part, actin cytoskeleton, and extracellular region. The KEGG pathway enrichment results mainly comprised type I diabetes mellitus, asthma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and allograft rejection. A module was identified from the protein-protein interaction network. In total, 15 hub genes were selected and 3 of them comprising CALD1, CNN1, and TAGLN were associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival.<h4>Conclusion</h4>CALD1, CNN1, and TAGLN may be potential biomarkers for diagnosis as well as therapeutic targets in BC patients.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the main histologic form of lung cancer that affects human health, but biomarkers for therapeutic diagnosis and prognosis of the disease are currently lacking. The gene expression profile GSE18842 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database in this prospective study, which consisted of 46 tumors and 45 controls. After screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we conducted functional enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis with upregulated differentially expressed genes (uDEGs) and downregulated differentially expressed genes (dDEGs), respectively. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks among DEGs and corresponding coding protein complexes, constructed using the STRING database, were analyzed using Cytoscape. Kaplan-Meier method was used to verify survival associated with hub genes. The GEPIA webserver was used to plot the gene expression level heat map of hub genes between NSCLC and adjacent lung tissues in the TCGA database. We identified 368 DEGs (168 uDEGs and 200 dDEGs) in NSCLC samples relative to control samples after gene integration. We established a PPI network for the DEGs, which had 249 nodes and 1472 edges protein pairs. Ten undefined hub genes with the highest connectivity degree (CDK1, UBE2C, AURKA, CCNA2, CDC20, CCNB1, TOP2A, ASPM, MAD2L1, and KIF11) were verified by survival analysis, and 9 of them were associated with poorer overall survival in NSCLC. The expression reliability of hub genes was verified by use of the GEPIA web tool. The results suggested that UBE2C, AURKA, CCNA2, CDC20, CCNB1, TOP2A, ASPM, MAD2L1, and KIF11 are inherent key biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, while KEGG analysis results showed the mitotic cell cycle pathway is a probable signaling pathway contributing to NSCLC progression. These genes could be promising biomarkers for diagnosis and provide a new approach for developing targeted therapeutic NSCLC drugs.
Project description:Proliferation is one of the significant hallmarks of gallbladder cancer, which is a relatively rare but fatal malignance. Aim of this study was to examine the biological impact and molecular mechanism of the candidate hub-gene on the proliferation and tumorigenesis of gallbladder cancer. We analyzed the differentially expressed genes and the correlation between these genes with MKI67, and showed that KIF11 is one of the major upregulated regulators of proliferation in gallbladder cancer (GBC). The Gene Ontology, Gene Sets Enrichment Analysis and KEGG Pathway analysis indicated that KIF11 may promote GBC cell proliferation through the ERBB2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function assay demonstrated that KIF11 regulated GBC cell cycle and cancer cell proliferation in vitro. GBC cells exhibited G2M phase cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation and clone formation ability reduction after treatment with Monastrol, a specific inhibitor of KIF11. Xenograft model showed that KIF11 promotes GBC growth in vivo. Rescue experiments showed that KIF11-induced GBC cell proliferation dependented on ERBB2/PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, we found that H3K27ac signals are enriched among the promoter region of KIF11 in the UCSC Genome Browser Database. Differentially expressed analysis showed that EP300, a major histone acetyltransferase modifying H3K27ac signal, is highly expressed in gallbladder cancer and correlation analysis illustrated that EP300 is positively related with KIF11 in almost all the cancer types. We further found that KIF11 was significantly downregulated in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner after histone acetylation inhibitor treatment. The present results highlight that high KIF11 expression promotes GBC cell proliferation through the ERBB2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The findings may help deepen our understanding of mechanism underlying GBC cancer development and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Project description:Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a highly aggressive soft tissue tumor with high risk of local recurrence and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying SS metastasis are still largely unclear. The purpose of this study is to screen metastasis-associated biomarkers in SS by integrated bioinformatics analysis. Two mRNA datasets (GSE40018 and GSE40021) were selected to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs. Then, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed via the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database. The module analysis of the PPI network and hub genes validation were performed using Cytoscape software. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the hub genes were performed using WEB-based GEne SeT AnaLysis Toolkit (WebGestalt). The expression levels and survival analysis of hub genes were further assessed through Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) and the Kaplan-Meier plotter database. In total, 213 overlapping DEGs were identified, of which 109 were upregulated and 104 were downregulated. GO analysis revealed that the DEGs were predominantly involved in mitosis and cell division. KEGG pathways analysis demonstrated that most DEGs were significantly enriched in cell cycle pathway. GSEA revealed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in oocyte meiosis, cell cycle and DNA replication pathways. A key module was identified and 10 hub genes (CENPF, KIF11, KIF23, TTK, MKI67, TOP2A, CDC45, MELK, AURKB, and BUB1) were screened out. The expression and survival analysis disclosed that the 10 hub genes were upregulated in SS patients and could result in significantly reduced survival. Our study identified a series of metastasis-associated biomarkers involved in the progression of SS, and may provide novel therapeutic targets for SS metastasis.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>This study was carried out to identify potential key genes associated with the pathogenesis and prognosis of breast cancer (BC).<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Seven GEO datasets (GSE24124, GSE32641, GSE36295, GSE42568, GSE53752, GSE70947, GSE109169) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between BC and normal breast tissue samples were screened by an integrated analysis of multiple gene expression profile datasets. Hub genes related to the pathogenesis and prognosis of BC were verified by employing protein-protein interaction (PPI) network.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Ten hub genes with high degree were identified, including CDK1, CDC20, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, BUB1, BUB1B, CDCA8, KIF11, and TOP2A. Lastly, the Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM plotter) online database demonstrated that higher expression levels of these genes were related to lower overall survival. Experimental validation showed that all 10 hub genes had the same expression trend as predicted.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>The findings of this research would provide some directive significance for further investigating the diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to facilitate the molecular targeting therapy of BC, which could be used as a new biomarker for diagnosis and to guide the combination medicine of BC.
Project description:Objective:The aim of this study was to identify the key microRNAs (miRNAs) and their regulatory networks in bladder cancer (BC). Materials and methods:Three miRNA and three gene expression microarray datasets were downloaded for analysis from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were accessed by the use of GEO2R. Gene ontology process and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed by using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery program. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) and miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were established by using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins and Cytoscape tool. Besides, the results and clinical significance were validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Results:A total of 18 significant DEMs, 121 upregulated DEGs and 199 downregulated DEGs were identified. Functional enrichment analysis showed that significant DEGs were related to cell cycle and MAPK pathway in BC. Key DEGs such as CDK1, CCNB1, VGL and PRKCA were found as the hub genes in PPI networks. TCGA analysis supported our results, and the miRNAs were correlated with the pathological stages and survival of BC patients. Conclusion:In this study, we found 18 DEMs that may play key roles in the regulatory networks of BC. The higher expression of miR-99a, miR-100, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-214 and miR-487b or the lower expression of miR-138 and miR-200a can indicate poor survival in the prognosis of BC. Further experimental studies are required to test our results.
Project description:Background:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and the mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis remain elusive. Objective:This study aims to mine hub genes associated with HCC using multiple databases. Methods:Data sets GSE45267, GSE60502, GSE74656 were downloaded from GEO database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and control in each set were identified by limma software. The GO term and KEGG pathway enrichment of the DEGs aggregated in the datasets (aggregated DEGs) were analyzed using DAVID and KOBAS 3.0 databases. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the aggregated DEGs was constructed using STRING database. GSEA software was used to verify the biological process. Association between hub genes and HCC prognosis was analyzed using patients' information from TCGA database by survminer R package. Results:From GSE45267, GSE60502 and GSE74656, 7583, 2349, and 553 DEGs were identified respectively. A total of 221 aggregated DEGs, which were mainly enriched in 109 GO terms and 29 KEGG pathways, were identified. Cell cycle phase, mitotic cell cycle, cell division, nuclear division and mitosis were the most significant GO terms. Metabolic pathways, cell cycle, chemical carcinogenesis, retinol metabolism and fatty acid degradation were the main KEGG pathways. Nine hub genes (TOP2A, NDC80, CDK1, CCNB1, KIF11, BUB1, CCNB2, CCNA2 and TTK) were selected by PPI network and all of them were associated with prognosis of HCC patients. Conclusion:TOP2A, NDC80, CDK1, CCNB1, KIF11, BUB1, CCNB2, CCNA2 and TTK were hub genes in HCC, which may be potential biomarkers of HCC and targets of HCC therapy.
Project description:Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common urogenital malignancies. However, present studies of its multiple gene interaction and cellular pathways remain unable to accurately verify the genesis and the development of BC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic signatures of BC and identify its potential molecular mechanisms. The gene expression profiles of GSE31189 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The GSE31189 dataset contained 92 samples, including 52 BC and 40 non-cancerous urothelial cells. To further examine the biological functions of the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed, and a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was mapped using Cytoscape software. In total, 976 DEGs were identified in BC, including 457 upregulated genes and 519 downregulated genes. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses indicated that upregulated genes were significantly enriched in the cell cycle and the negative regulation of the apoptotic process, while the downregulated genes were mainly involved in cell proliferation, cell adhesion molecules and oxidative phosphorylation pathways (P<0.05). From the PPI network, the 12 nodes with the highest degrees were screened as hub genes; these genes were involved in certain pathways, including the chemokine-mediated signaling pathway, fever generation, inflammatory response and the immune response nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor signaling pathway. The present study used bioinformatics analysis of gene profile datasets and identified potential therapeutic targets for BC.