Biocontrol Potential of Grapevine Endophytic and Rhizospheric Fungi Against Trunk Pathogens.
ABSTRACT: Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTDs) are a major challenge to the grape industry worldwide. GTDs are responsible for considerable loss of quality, production, and vineyard longevity. Seventy-five percent of Chilean vineyards are estimated to be affected by GTDs. GTDs are complex diseases caused by several fungi species, including members of the Botryosphaeriaceae family and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, considered some of the most important causal agents for these diseases in Chile. In this study, we isolated 169 endophytic and 209 rhizospheric fungi from grapevines grown under organic and conventional farming in Chile. Multiple isolates of Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium sp., Clonostachys rosea, Epicoccum nigrum, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Trichoderma sp. were evaluated for their potential of biocontrol activity against Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum parvum, and Pa. chlamydospora. Tests of antagonism were carried out using two dual-culture-plate methods with multiple media types, including agar containing grapevine wood extract to simulate in planta nutrient conditions. Significant pathogen growth inhibition was observed by all isolates tested. Clonostachys rosea showed 98.2% inhibition of all pathogens in the presence of grapevine wood extract. We observed 100% pathogen growth inhibition when autoclaved lignified grapevine shoots were pre-inoculated with either C. rosea strains or Trichoderma sp. Overall, these results show that C. rosea strains isolated from grapevines are promising biocontrol agents against GTDs.
Project description:Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are a serious problem of grapevines worldwide. The microbiota of the grapevine endosphere comprises prokaryotic and eukaryotic endophytes, which may form varied relationships with the host plant from symbiotic to pathogenic. To explore the interaction between grapevine endophytic bacteria and GTDs, the endomicrobiome associated with grapevine wood was characterized using next-generation Illumina sequencing. Wood samples were collected from grapevine trunks with and without external symptoms of GTD (cankers) from two vineyards in the Hunter Valley and Hilltops, NSW, Australia and metagenomic characterization of the endophytic community was conducted using the 16S rRNA gene (341F/806R) and ITS (1F/2R) sequences. Among the important GTD pathogens, Phaeomoniella, Phaeoacremonium, Diplodia and Cryptovalsa species were found to be abundant in both symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines from both vineyards. Eutypa lata and Neofusicoccum parvum, two important GTD pathogens, were detected in low numbers in Hilltops and the Hunter Valley, respectively. Interestingly, Pseudomonas dominated the bacterial community in canker-free grapevine tissues in both locations, comprising 56-74% of the total bacterial population. In contrast, the Pseudomonas population in grapevines with cankers was significantly lower, representing 29 and 2% of the bacterial community in Hilltops and the Hunter Valley, respectively. The presence of Pseudomonas in healthy grapevine tissues indicates its ability to colonize and survive in the grapevine. The potential of Pseudomonas spp. as biocontrol agents against GTD pathogens was also explored. Dual culture tests with isolated fluorescent Pseudomonas against mycelial discs of nine Botryosphaeria dieback, three Eutypa dieback, and two Esca/Petri disease pathogens, revealed antagonistic activity for 10 Pseudomonas strains. These results suggest the potential of Pseudomonas species from grapevine wood to be used as biocontrol agents to manage certain GTD pathogens.
Project description:Clonostachys rosea is a mycoparasitic fungus that can control several important plant diseases. Here, we report on the genome sequencing of C. rosea and a comparative genome analysis, in order to resolve the phylogenetic placement of C. rosea and to study the evolution of mycoparasitism as a fungal lifestyle. The genome of C. rosea is estimated to 58.3 Mb, and contains 14,268 predicted genes. A phylogenomic analysis shows that C. rosea clusters as sister taxon to plant pathogenic Fusarium species, with mycoparasitic/saprotrophic Trichoderma species in an ancestral position. A comparative analysis of gene family evolution reveals several distinct differences between the included mycoparasites. Clonostachys rosea contains significantly more ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, polyketide synthases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, pectin lyases, glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductases, and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases compared with other fungi in the Hypocreales. Interestingly, the increase of ABC transporter gene number in C. rosea is associated with phylogenetic subgroups B (multidrug resistance proteins) and G (pleiotropic drug resistance transporters), whereas an increase in subgroup C (multidrug resistance-associated proteins) is evident in Trichoderma virens. In contrast with mycoparasitic Trichoderma species, C. rosea contains very few chitinases. Expression of six group B and group G ABC transporter genes was induced in C. rosea during exposure to the Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone, the fungicide Boscalid or metabolites from the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis. The data suggest that tolerance toward secondary metabolites is a prominent feature in the biology of C. rosea.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Zearalenone is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium genus, most notably Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. This resorcylic acid lactone is one of the most important toxins causing serious animal and human diseases. For over two decades it has been known that the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea (synonym: Gliocladium roseum, teleomorph: Bionectria ochroleuca) can detoxify zearalenone, however no such attributes have been described within the Trichoderma genus. RESULTS: We screened for the presence of zearalenone lactonohydrolase homologs in isolates of Clonostachys and Trichoderma genera. We report first finding of expressed zearalenone lactonohydrolase in Trichoderma aggressivum. For three isolates (T. aggressivum, C. rosea and Clonostachys catenulatum isolates), we were able to reconstruct full coding sequence and verify the biotransformation ability potential. Additionally, we assessed progression of the detoxification process (in terms of transcript accumulation and mycotoxin decomposition in vitro).In silico, search for origins of zearalenone lactonohydrolase activity in model fungal and bacterial genomes has shown that zearalenone lactonohydrolase homologs form a monophyletic fungal clade among the a/b hydrolase superfamily representatives. We corroborated the finding of functional enzyme homologs by investigating the functional sites (active site pocket with postulated, noncanonical Ser-Glu-His catalytic triad) conserved in both multiple sequence alignment and in homology-based structural models. CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows the first finding of a functional zearalenone lactonohydrolase in mycoparasitic Trichoderma aggressivum (an activity earlier characterised in the Clonostachys rosea strains). The supporting evidence for presence and activity of functional enzyme homologs is based on the chemical analyses, gene expression patterns, homology models showing conservation of key structural features and marked reduction of zearalenone content in cultured samples (containing both medium and mycelium). Our findings also show divergent strategies of zearalenone biotransformation ability (rapid induced expression and detoxification vs. gradual detoxification) present in several members of Hypocreales order (Trichoderma and Clonostachys genera). The potential for lactonhydrolase activity directed towards zearalenone and/or similar compounds is likely ancient, with homologs present in several divergent filamentous fungi among both Sordariomycetes (Bionectria sp., Trichoderma sp., Apiospora montagnei) and Leotiomycetes (Marssonina brunnea f. sp. 'multigermtubi').
Project description:The worldwide increase in grapevine trunk diseases, mainly esca, represents a major threat for vineyard sustainability. Biocontrol of a pioneer fungus of esca, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, was investigated here by deciphering the tripartite interaction between this trunk-esca pathogen, grapevine and the biocontrol-oomycete, Pythium oligandrum. When P. oligandrum colonizes grapevine roots, it was observed that the wood necroses caused by P. chlamydospora were significantly reduced. Transcriptomic analyses of plant and fungus responses were performed to determine the molecular events occurring, with the aim to relate P.chlamydospora degradation of wood to gene expression modulation. Following P. oligandrum-root colonization, major transcriptomic changes occurred both, in the grapevine-defense system and in the P. chlamydospore-virulence factors. Grapevine-defense was enhanced in response to P. chlamydospora attacks, with P. oligandrum acting as a plant-systemic resistance inducer, promoting jasmonic/ethylene signaling pathways and grapevine priming. P. chlamydospora pathogenicity genes, such as those related to secondary metabolite biosynthesis, carbohydrate-active enzymes and transcription regulators, were also affected in their expression. Shifts in grapevine responses and key-fungal functions were associated with the reduction of P. chlamydospora wood necroses. This study provides evidence of wood fungal pathogen transcriptional changes induced by a root biocontrol agent, P. oligandrum, in which there is no contact between the two microorganisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pectin is one of the major and most complex plant cell wall components that needs to be overcome by microorganisms as part of their strategies for plant invasion or nutrition. Microbial pectinolytic enzymes therefore play a significant role for plant-associated microorganisms and for the decomposition and recycling of plant organic matter. Recently, comparative studies revealed significant gene copy number expansion of the polysaccharide lyase 1 (PL1) pectin/pectate lyase gene family in the Clonostachys rosea genome, while only low numbers were found in Trichoderma species. Both of these fungal genera are widely known for their ability to parasitize and kill other fungi (mycoparasitism) and certain species are thus used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. RESULTS:In order to understand the role of the high number of pectin degrading enzymes in Clonostachys, we studied diversity and evolution of the PL1 gene family in C. rosea compared with other Sordariomycetes with varying nutritional life styles. Out of 17 members of C. rosea PL1, we could only detect two to be secreted at acidic pH. One of them, the pectate lyase pel12 gene was found to be strongly induced by pectin and, to a lower degree, by polygalacturonic acid. Heterologous expression of the PEL12 in a PL1-free background of T. reesei revealed direct enzymatic involvement of this protein in utilization of pectin at pH 5 without a requirement for Ca2+. The mutants showed increased utilization of pectin compounds, but did not increase biocontrol ability in detached leaf assay against the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea compared to the wild type. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we aimed to gain insight into diversity and evolution of the PL1 gene family in C. rosea and other Sordariomycete species in relation to their nutritional modes. We show that C. rosea PL1 expansion does not correlate with its mycoparasitic nutritional mode and resembles those of strong plant pathogenic fungi. We further investigated regulation, specificity and function of the C. rosea PEL12 and show that this enzyme is directly involved in degradation of pectin and pectin-related compounds, but not in C. rosea biocontrol.
Project description:Endophytic and rhizosphere actinobacteria isolated from the root system of 1-year-old grafted Vitis vinifera plants were evaluated for their activities against fungi that cause grapevine trunk diseases. A total of 58 endophytic and 94 rhizosphere isolates were tested. Based on an in vitro bioassay, 15.5% of the endophytic isolates and 30.8% of the rhizosphere isolates exhibited antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Diplodia seriata, whereas 13.8% of the endophytic isolates and 16.0% of the rhizosphere isolates showed antifungal activity against Dactylonectria macrodidyma (formerly Ilyonectria macrodidyma). The strains which showed the greatest in vitro efficacy against both pathogens were further analyzed for their ability to inhibit the growth of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium minimum (formerly Phaeoacremonium aleophilum). Based on their antifungal activity, three rhizosphere isolates and three endophytic isolates were applied on grafts in an open-root field nursery in a 3-year trial. The field trial led to the identification of one endophytic strain, Streptomyces sp. VV/E1, and two rhizosphere isolates, Streptomyces sp. VV/R1 and Streptomyces sp. VV/R4, which significantly reduced the infection rates produced by the fungal pathogens Dactylonectria sp., Ilyonectria sp., P. chlamydospora, and P. minimum, all of which cause young grapevine decline. The VV/R1 and VV/R4 isolates also significantly reduced the mortality level of grafted plants in the nursery. This study shows that certain actinobacteria could represent a promising new tool for controlling fungal trunk pathogens that infect grapevine plants through the root system in nurseries.IMPORTANCE Grapevine trunk diseases are a major threat to the wine and grape industry worldwide. They cause a significant reduction in yields as well as in grape quality, and they can even cause plant death. Trunk diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that enter through pruning wounds and/or the root system. Although different strategies have recently been developed to protect pruning wounds using antifungal compounds (natural or synthetic) or biocontrol agents, no tools are yet available for controlling soil pathogens that infect plants through their root system. This study shows that different actinobacterial isolates, when applied to grafts in a nursery, can significantly reduce the infection rate caused by fungal pathogens that enter through the root system. This is a new, promising, and green alternative for preventing the decline of young grapevines in nurseries and vineyards.
Project description:Trichoderma strains used in biological control products usually exhibit high efficiency in the control of plant diseases. However, their behavior under field conditions is difficult to predict. In addition, the potential of indigenous strains has been poorly assayed as well as their possible behavior as endophytes. Hence, niche colonization is a key feature for an effective protection. In this study, we aimed to: (i) explore the possibility of using a new Trichoderma strain isolated from vine to control pathogens, (ii) study the in planta interaction with the pathogen Phaeoacremonium minimum W. Gams, Crous, M.J. Wingf. & L. Mugnai (formerly Phaeoacremonium aleophilum), a pioneer fungus involved in Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTDs) such as esca. For this purpose, fluorescently tagged Trichoderma sp. T154 and a P. minimum strain were used for scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy analyses. Data showed that the Trichoderma strain is able to colonize plants up to 12 weeks post inoculation and is located in xylem, fibers, as well as in parenchymatic tissues inside the wood. The beneficial fungus reduced colonization of the esca-related pathogen colonizing the same niches. The main observed mechanism involved in biocontrol of Trichoderma against the esca pathogen was spore adhesion, niche exclusion and only few typical hypha coiling was found between Trichoderma and the pathogen. These results suggest that the Trichoderma strain has potential for reducing the colonization of Phaeoacremonium minimum and thus, an inoculation of this biological control agent can protect the plant by limiting the development of GTD, and the strain can behave as an endophyte.
Project description:The increasing amount of plastic waste causes significant environmental pollution. In this study, screening of Arctic microorganisms which are able to degrade bioplastics was performed. In total, 313 microorganisms were isolated from 52 soil samples from the Arctic region (Spitsbergen). Among the isolated microorganisms, 121 (38.66%) showed biodegradation activity. The ability of clear zone formation on emulsified poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) was observed for 116 microorganisms (95.87%), on poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) for 73 microorganisms (60.33%), and on poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) for 102 microorganisms (84.3%). Moreover, the growth of microorganisms on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) agar plates was observed for 56 microorganisms (46.28%). Based on the 16S rRNA sequence, 10 bacterial strains which showed the highest ability for biodegradation were identified as species belonging to Pseudomonas sp. and Rhodococcus sp. The isolated fungal strains were tested for polycaprolactone films and commercial corn and potato starch bags degradation under laboratory conditions. Strains 16G (based on the analysis of a partial 18S rRNA sequence, identified as Clonostachys rosea) and 16H (identified as Trichoderma sp.) showed the highest capability for biodegradation. A particularly high capability for biodegradation was observed for the strain Clonostachys rosea, which showed 100% degradation of starch films and 52.91% degradation of PCL films in a 30-day shake flask experiment. The main advantage of the microorganisms isolated from Arctic environment is the ability to grow at low temperature and efficient biodegradation under this condition. The data suggest that C. rosea can be used in natural and laboratory conditions for degradations of bioplastics.
Project description:Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are one of the main biotic stress factors affecting this crop. The use of tolerant grapevine cultivars would be an interesting and sustainable alternative strategy to control GTDs. To date, most studies about cultivar susceptibility have been conducted under controlled conditions, and little information is available about tolerance to natural infections caused by GTD fungi. The objectives of this study were: (i) to identify tolerant cultivars to GTD fungi within a Spanish germplasm collection, based on external symptoms observed in the vineyard; and (ii) to characterize the pathogenic mycoflora associated with symptomatic vines. For this purpose, a grapevine germplasm collection including 22 white and 25 red cultivars was monitored along three growing seasons, and their susceptibility for esca foliar symptoms was assessed. Fungi were identified by using morphological and molecular methods. Cultivars such as, 'Monastrell', 'Graciano', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Cabernet Sauvignon', 'Syrah', 'Moscatel de Alejandría', 'Sauvignon Blanc', and 'Airén' displayed high susceptibility to GTDs, whereas others such as 'Petit Verdot', 'Pinot Noir', 'Chardonnay', and 'Riesling' were considered as tolerant. The prevalent fungal species isolated from symptomatic vines were <i>Phaeomoniella chlamydospora</i> (27.9% of the fungal isolates), <i>Cryptovalsa ampelina</i> (24.6%), and <i>Dothiorella sarmentorum</i> (21.3%).
Project description:Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci.