Resorption of retromolar bone grafts after alveolar ridge augmentation-volumetric changes after 12?months assessed by CBCT analysis.
ABSTRACT: In this pilot study, a volumetric analysis of retromolar onlay bone grafts over a period of 12?months was conducted, using repeated CBCT imaging combined with automated image registration.Eleven patients being treated with 16 bone grafts taken from the retromolar area were examined by CBCT scanning prior to bone augmentation (T0), immediately after bone augmentation (T1) and after a healing time of 12?months after augmentation (T2). Graft volumes were measured at each time point after automated image registration of consecutive CBCT scans.The mean volume of the augmented site was 372.2 ± 179.4?mm3. Resorption relative to the original augmented volume was 43.7% ± 19.0% after 12?months.Three-dimensional graft resorption could be precisely depicted by the use of automated image registration for CBCT data over a period of 12?months and demonstrated extensive volumetric changes of bone grafts taken from the ascending ramus of the mandible.Graft resorption and continuous bony remodeling of the grafted site before and after implant insertion have to be carefully considered by the clinician.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to compare three-dimensional alterations following the use of autogenous versus allogeneic onlay grafts for augmentation at single tooth defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Alveolar bone width at specific implant sites were assessed using sagittal and cross-sectional CBCT images prior grafting and at three subsequent time points. Twenty-one patients received autogenous bone blocks harvested from the retromolar region and another 21 patients received freeze-dried cancellous allogeneic bone blocks. RESULTS:The vertical and horizontal dimensions did not significantly differ between autogenous and allogeneic bone grafts at any time point. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences in graft remodeling rates between autogenous (mean shrinkage rate after 12 months: 12.5% ± 7.8%) and allogeneic onlay grafts (mean shrinkage rate after 12 months: 14.4% ± 9.8%). CONCLUSIONS:Freeze-dried cancellous allogeneic bone blocks showed equivalent volumetric shrinkage rates as autogenous bone blocks when used for treating circumscribed bone defects classified as Type-II to Type-IV according to the ITI-treatment guide categories. Therefore, it is not necessary to over-contour the alveolar ridge when using allogeneic blocks for treating single tooth defects, but to apply the same procedure as when using autogenous blocks.
Project description:Recent improvements in additive manufacturing technologies may facilitate the use of customized 3D printed grafts for horizontal and vertical augmentation of the atrophic alveolar ridge. The accurate fit of such grafts could reduce the clinical treatment time and contribute optimal bone regeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of 3D printed resin grafts as they could be used for alveolar ridge augmentation. Alveolar ridge morphologic data were derived from the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of six patients with alveolar bone defects. These data were transferred to a segmentation program to produce virtual 3D reconstructions of the alveolar ridge models. Using a Computer Aided Design (CAD) program, the alveolar bone defects were defined and customized grafts were designed and both the defects as well as the grafts generated (CAM) as 3D projects. These projects were imported into a 3D printer and were manufactured in resin. Hereafter, the grafts were fitted to the defect sites of the corresponding models and new CBCT scans were performed. Based on these scans, measurements were made at the marginal and internal part of the fitted grafts to evaluate the marginal and internal fit, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that the mean marginal fit was significantly better (P < 0.05) than the mean internal fit. The fit of the grafts was dependent on the shape and on the size of the grafts. Specifically, the total void surface between the fitted graft and the corresponding defect site was significantly larger in the large-defect grafts than the small-defect grafts (P < 0.05). Within the limitations of the study, it could be demonstrated that it is possible to fabricate 3D printed resin grafts with acceptable fit in customized shapes, when combining CBCT scans and computer aided design and 3D printing techniques.
Project description:The purpose of our study was to compare micromorphometric data obtained by cone-beam computed-tomography (CBCT) and microcomputed-tomography (micro-CT) of the augmented sinus and to evaluate the long-term stability of the bone gain achieved using BoneAlbumin. Sinus lifts, and after 6-months, healing bone-biopsy and implant placement were carried out. Specimens were analyzed by micro-CT. A total of 16 samples were collected from nine patients (mean age 54.7 ± 6.5 years). Pre-, postoperative, and 3-year control CBCT-data were registered to determine from where the biopsy samples were harvested. Micromorphometric variables were calculated from the micro-CT- and CBCT-data, and their correlation was determined by Spearman's test. The volume of augmented bone was calculated at the time of implant placement and after 3 years. A positive correlation was found between bone-volume fraction, trabecular-separation, open-, and total-porosity, while a negative correlation was found between trabecular-thickness obtained from CBCT- and micro-CT-data (p < 0.05). Mean volumetric reduction of 39.28% (11.88-60.02%) was observed. Correlation of CBCT- and micro-CT-data suggested that micromorphometric analysis of CBCT reconstructions of the augmented sinuses provided reliable information on the microarchitecture of augmented bone. CBCT as a modality might be adequate in the analysis of bone quality in the augmented sinus. At the 3-year, control sinus grafts showed volumetric stability.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a novel in situ interdental bone elevation method could achieve vertical bone augmentation around natural teeth. METHODS:Horizontal periodontal bone defects were created at nine quadrants of mandibles in five dogs. Six weeks later, one of the nine quadrants was randomly chosen as the model control. The remaining mandibles were allocated into two experimental groups: cortical bone removing (CBR) or interdental bone elevation (IBE). For the IBE group, four millimetres of interdental bone blocks were separated and elevated from the base of alveolar bone. Then bone xenografts were implanted beneath the elevated alveolar blocks. Animals were euthanised 12 weeks post-operation. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination and histological analysis were performed to evaluate the surgical outcomes. RESULTS:Enhanced soft tissue profiles were observed in the two experimental groups as compared to the model control group. CBCT images showed that the height of alveolar bone was significantly higher in the IBE group with bone blocks seated near the cementoenamel junction. Significantly larger area of bone tissues with the highest coronal level of new bone was observed in the IBE group. New bone was observed around the elevated bone blocks with bone remodelling and neovascularisation inside the elevated blocks. CONCLUSIONS:Vertical bone augmentation at interdental sites may be performed through in situ interdental bone elevation for patients with horizontal alveolar bone resorption.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Compare findings among observers in panoramic images (PAN) and cone beam CT (CBCT); and assess findings in PAN as indicators for marginal bone loss and resorption observed in CBCT. METHODS:120 impacted maxillary third molars with PAN and CBCT were included. Four observers assessed morphological features: (1) tooth angulation; (2) number of roots; (3) bony impaction (yes/no) and pathology; (4) marginal bone level at the second molar (normal/>3 mm = bone loss); (5) resorption in the second molar (no/superficial/< half way through the dentin/? half way through the dentin/involving the pulp); (6) size of follicular space (normal/> 4 mm(cyst)). Percentage accordance and ? statistics described observer variation in PAN and CBCT. Logistic regression analyses tested findings in PAN as indicators for marginal bone loss or resorption observed in CBCT. RESULTS:? values were fair and interobserver accordance was marginally higher in CBCT than PAN. Agreement between PAN and CBCT was 81-88% for marginal bone loss and 68-81% for resorption. Severe resorption was more often observed in CBCT. Mesio-angulated third molars and marginal bone loss interpreted in PAN significantly indicated marginal bone loss observed in CBCT (odds ration 17-34; p < 0.012; 8.8-52.8; p < 0.02). In contrast, findings in PAN were not significant indicators for resorption observed in CBCT (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION:In general, there was a fair agreement for marginal bone loss between PAN and CBCT, and PAN could significantly predict bone loss observed in CBCT. However, presence of resorption observed in CBCT could not be determined from PAN, and more severe resorption was observed in CBCT. CBCT is indicated if resorption in the second molar needs to be assessed.
Project description:Stiffness and shear moduli of human trabecular bone may be analyzed in vivo by finite element (FE) analysis from image data obtained by clinical imaging equipment such as high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). In clinical practice today, this is done in the peripheral skeleton like the wrist and heel. In this cadaveric bone study, fourteen bone specimens from the wrist were imaged by two dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) devices and one HR-pQCT device as well as by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Histomorphometric measurements from micro-CT data were used as gold standard. The image processing was done with an in-house developed code based on the automated region growing (ARG) algorithm. Evaluation of how well stiffness (Young's modulus E3) and minimum shear modulus from the 12, 13, or 23 could be predicted from the CBCT and HR-pQCT imaging data was studied and compared to FE analysis from the micro-CT imaging data. Strong correlations were found between the clinical machines and micro-CT regarding trabecular bone structure parameters, such as bone volume over total volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and trabecular nodes (varying from 0.79 to 0.96). The two CBCT devices as well as the HR-pQCT showed the ability to predict stiffness and shear, with adjusted R2-values between 0.78 and 0.92, based on data derived through our in-house developed code based on the ARG algorithm. These findings indicate that clinically used CBCT may be a feasible method for clinical studies of bone structure and mechanical properties in future osteoporosis research.
Project description:Objectives:The goal of this systematic review was to assess the current literature about sinus augmentation procedure using different types of tooth derived bone graft materials, thorough analysing the outcomes of sinus grafting with tooth grafts compared to sinus grafting with xenografts, allografts and alloplasts by radiography and histomorphometry. Material and Methods:An electronic search in the MEDLINE (NCBI PubMed and PubMed Central) database was conducted to identify articles concerning application of tooth bone grafts in sinus augmentation. The search was restricted to English language articles published in the last 10 years (December 2009 to March 2019). Results:In total, 21 articles were found, out of which 7 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final synthesis. According to the type of diagnostic tool, data about graft material outcome in sinus was extracted, and included the residual alveolar height, augmented graft height, resorption height as seen in panoramic radiography and histomorphometric analysis of new bone formation and residual graft material. Conclusions:Within the limitations of our review, we suggest that tooth derived graft materials are as successful as xenografts, allografts and alloplasts in sinus augmentation procedures according to the radiographic and histomorphometric showings. Additional wider research should be conducted in order to determine whether tooth derived graft materials are superior to the currently used materials.
Project description:Time-consuming manual methods have been required to register cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with plans in the Pinnacle(3) treatment planning system in order to replicate delivered treatments for adaptive radiotherapy. These methods rely on fiducial marker (FM) placement during CBCT acquisition or the image mid-point to localise the image isocentre. A quality assurance study was conducted to validate an automated CBCT-plan registration method utilising the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Structure Set (RS) and Spatial Registration (RE) files created during online image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT).CBCTs of a phantom were acquired with FMs and predetermined setup errors using various online IGRT workflows. The CBCTs, DICOM RS and RE files were imported into Pinnacle(3) plans of the phantom and the resulting automated CBCT-plan registrations were compared to existing manual methods. A clinical protocol for the automated method was subsequently developed and tested retrospectively using CBCTs and plans for six bladder patients.The automated CBCT-plan registration method was successfully applied to thirty-four phantom CBCT images acquired with an online 0 mm action level workflow. Ten CBCTs acquired with other IGRT workflows required manual workarounds. This was addressed during the development and testing of the clinical protocol using twenty-eight patient CBCTs. The automated CBCT-plan registrations were instantaneous, replicating delivered treatments in Pinnacle(3) with errors of ±0.5 mm. These errors were comparable to mid-point-dependant manual registrations but superior to FM-dependant manual registrations.The automated CBCT-plan registration method quickly and reliably replicates delivered treatments in Pinnacle(3) for adaptive radiotherapy.
Project description:Objectives:Retromolar canal (RC) is an anatomic structure, and due to increasing demand for surgical procedure in the retromolar area of the mandible, the identification of the retromolar canal has become an issue of clinical concern. It can innervate the third molar and some of the muscles around the posterior segment of the mandible, complicating surgical procedures in the retromolar area and root canal treatment of third molars. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and anatomical properties of RC in a western Iranian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Materials and Methods. Two hundred bilateral CBCT images were collected and screened in the three spatial planes for the presence of an RC. Anatomical properties and location of the RCs were assessed according to their course and distance from the surrounding structures. The relationship between the presence of RC and age, sex, side, and presence of second and third molars was also evaluated. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test, paired t-test, ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test, paired. Results:At least one RC was observed in 22% of the mandibles. Its bilateral incidence was 5.5%. Two major types of canals were detected, namely, type I, following a straight or curved course from the mandibular canal (MC) to the retromolar area (47.3%), and type II, coursing from the retromolar area to the radicular part of the third molar (52.7%). Regarding linear measurements, the mean RC diameter and the mean distance to the MC, second, and third molars were 0.68?±?0.31, 13.7?±?2.8, 15.3?±?3.0, and 7.3?±?2.3?mm, respectively. Conclusion:Based on the results of this study, RC was found in 22% of the cases; thus, it should be considered as a normal anatomical variation in the Iranian population rather than a rare finding.
Project description:A precise volumetric assessment of maxillary alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate can reduce donor site morbidity or allow accurate preparation of bone substitutes in future applications. However, there is a lack of agreement regarding the optimal volumetric technique to adopt. This study measured the alveolar bone defects by using two cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based surgical simulation methods. Presurgical CBCT scans from 32 patients with unilateral or bilateral clefts undergoing alveolar bone graft surgery were analyzed. Two hands-on CBCT-based volumetric measurement methods were compared: the 3D real-scale printed model-based surgical method and the virtual surgical method. Different densities of CBCT were compared. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was assessed. For patients with unilateral clefts, the average alveolar defect volumes were 1.09 ± 0.24 and 1.09 ± 0.25 mL (p > 0.05) for 3D printing- and virtual-based models, respectively; for patients with bilateral clefts, they were 2.05 ± 0.22 and 2.02 ± 0.27 mL (p > 0.05), respectively. Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the methods were equivalent for unilateral and bilateral alveolar cleft defect assessment. No significant differences or linear relationships were observed between adjacent different densities of CBCT for model production to obtain the measured volumes. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was moderate to good (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) > 0.6) for all measurements. This study revealed that the volume of unilateral and bilateral alveolar cleft defects can be equally quantified by 3D-printed and virtual surgical simulation methods and provides alveolar defect-specific volumes which can serve as a reference for planning and execution of alveolar bone graft surgery.