Proton extrusion during oxidative burst in microglia exacerbates pathological acidosis following traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT: Acidosis is among the least studied secondary injury mechanisms associated with neurotrauma. Acute decreases in brain pH correlate with poor long-term outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), however, the temporal dynamics and underlying mechanisms are unclear. As key drivers of neuroinflammation, we hypothesized that microglia directly regulate acidosis after TBI, and thereby, worsen neurological outcomes. Using a controlled cortical impact model in adult male mice we demonstrate that intracellular pH in microglia and extracellular pH surrounding the lesion site are significantly reduced for weeks after injury. Microglia proliferation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also increased during the first week, mirroring the increase in extracellular ROS levels seen around the lesion site. Microglia depletion by a colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitor, PLX5622, markedly decreased extracellular acidosis, ROS production, and inflammation in the brain after injury. Mechanistically, we identified that the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 promotes oxidative burst activity and acid extrusion in microglia. Compared to wildtype controls, microglia lacking Hv1 showed reduced ability to generate ROS and extrude protons. Importantly, Hv1-deficient mice exhibited reduced pathological acidosis and inflammation after TBI, leading to long-term neuroprotection and functional recovery. Our data therefore establish the microglial Hv1 proton channel as an important link that integrates inflammation and acidosis within the injury microenvironment during head injury.
Project description:Tissue acidosis is an important secondary injury process in the pathophysiology of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To date, no studies have examined the role of proton extrusion as mechanism of pathological acidosis in SCI. In the present study, we hypothesized that the phagocyte-specific proton channel Hv1 mediates hydrogen proton extrusion after SCI, contributing to increased extracellular acidosis and poor long-term outcomes. Using a contusion model of SCI in adult female mice, we demonstrated that tissue pH levels are markedly lower during the first week after SCI. Acidosis was most evident at the injury site, but also extended into proximal regions of the cervical and lumbar cord. Tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and expression of Hv1 were significantly increased during the week of injury. Hv1 was exclusively expressed in microglia within the CNS, suggesting that microglia contribute to ROS production and proton extrusion during respiratory burst. Depletion of Hv1 significantly attenuated tissue acidosis, NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression, and ROS production at 3 d post-injury. Nanostring analysis revealed decreased gene expression of neuroinflammatory and cytokine signaling markers in Hv1 knockout (KO) mice. Furthermore, Hv1 deficiency reduced microglia proliferation, leukocyte infiltration, and phagocytic oxidative burst detected by flow cytometry. Importantly, Hv1 KO mice exhibited significantly improved locomotor function and reduced histopathology. Overall, these data suggest an important role for Hv1 in regulating tissue acidosis, NOX2-mediated ROS production, and functional outcome following SCI. Thus, the Hv1 proton channel represents a potential target that may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for SCI.
Project description:Activation of spinal cord microglia contributes to the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microglial function in neuropathic pain are not fully understood. We identified that the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1, which is functionally expressed in spinal microglia, was significantly increased after spinal nerve transection (SNT). Hv1 mediated voltage-gated proton currents in spinal microglia and mice lacking Hv1 (Hv1 KO) display attenuated pain hypersensitivities after SNT compared with wildtype (WT) mice. In addition, microglial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent astrocyte activation in the spinal cord was reduced in Hv1 KO mice after SNT. Cytokine screening and immunostaining further revealed that IFN-γ expression was compromised in spinal astrocytes in Hv1 KO mice. These results demonstrate that Hv1 proton channel contributes to microglial ROS production, astrocyte activation, IFN-γ upregulation, and subsequent pain hypersensitivities after SNT. This study suggests Hv1-dependent microglia-astrocyte communication in pain hypersensitivities and identifies Hv1 as a novel therapeutic target for alleviating neuropathic pain.
Project description:Proton efflux via voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) is considered to mediate the charge compensation necessary to preserve NADPH oxidase activity during the respiratory burst. Using the Hv1 inhibitor Zn(2+), we found that the PMA-induced respiratory burst of human neutrophils is inhibited when assessed as extracellular production of O2(-) and H2O2, in accordance with literature studies, but, surprisingly, unaffected when measured as oxygen consumption or total (extracellular plus intracellular) H2O2 production. Furthermore, we show that inhibiting Hv1 with Zn(2+) results in an increased production of intracellular ROS. Similar results, i.e. decreased extracellular and increased intracellular ROS production, were obtained using a human granulocyte-like cell line with severely impaired Hv1 expression. Acidic extracellular pH, which dampens proton efflux, also augmented intracellular production of H2O2. Zinc caused an increase in the rate but not in the extent of depolarization and cytosolic acidification indicating that mechanisms other than proton efflux take part in charge compensation. Our results suggest a hitherto unpredicted mechanism of charge compensation whereby, in the absence of proton efflux, part of O2(-) generated within gp91(phox) in the plasma membrane is shunted intracellularly down electrochemical gradient to dampen excessive depolarization. This would preserve NADPH oxidase activity under conditions such as the inflammatory exudate in which the acidic pH hinders charge compensation by proton efflux.
Project description:Phagocytic cell NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of innate immunity. Unfortunately, ischemia can also induce this pathway and inflict damage on native cells. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 enables NOX function by compensating cellular loss of electrons with protons. Accordingly, we investigated whether NOX-mediated brain damage in stroke can be inhibited by suppression of Hv1. We found that mouse and human brain microglia, but not neurons or astrocytes, expressed large Hv1-mediated currents. Hv1 was required for NOX-dependent ROS generation in brain microglia in situ and in vivo. Mice lacking Hv1 were protected from NOX-mediated neuronal death and brain damage 24 h after stroke. These results indicate that Hv1-dependent ROS production is responsible for a substantial fraction of brain damage at early time points after ischemic stroke and provide a rationale for Hv1 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Project description:Traumatic injury to the spinal cord initiates a series of pathological cellular processes that exacerbate tissue damage at and beyond the original site of injury. This secondary damage includes oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades that can lead to further neuronal loss and motor deficits. Microglial activation is an essential component of these secondary signaling cascades. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, functionally expressed in microglia has been implicated in microglia polarization and oxidative stress in ischemic stroke. Here, we investigate whether Hv1 mediates microglial/macrophage activation and aggravates secondary damage following spinal cord injury (SCI). Following contusion SCI, wild-type (WT) mice showed significant tissue damage, white matter damage and impaired motor recovery. However, mice lacking Hv1 (Hv1-/-) showed significant white matter sparing and improved motor recovery. The improved motor recovery in Hv1-/- mice was associated with decreased interleukin-1?, reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species production and reduced neuronal loss. Further, deficiency of Hv1 directly influenced microglia activation as noted by decrease in microglia numbers, soma size and reduced outward rectifier K+ current density in Hv1-/- mice compared to WT mice at 7 d following SCI. Our results therefore implicate that Hv1 may be a promising potential therapeutic target to alleviate secondary damage following SCI caused by microglia/macrophage activation.
Project description:The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is expressed in tissues throughout the body and plays important roles in pH homeostasis and regulation of NADPH oxidase. Hv1 operates in membrane compartments that experience strong mechanical forces under physiological or pathological conditions. In microglia, for example, Hv1 activity is potentiated by cell swelling and causes an increase in brain damage after stroke. The channel complex consists of two proton-permeable voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) linked by a cytoplasmic coiled-coil domain. Here, we report that these VSDs directly respond to mechanical stimuli. We find that membrane stretch facilitates Hv1 channel opening by increasing the rate of activation and shifting the steady-state activation curve to less depolarized potentials. In the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient, membrane stretch alone opens the channel without the need for strong depolarizations. The effect of membrane stretch persists for several minutes after the mechanical stimulus is turned off, suggesting that the channel switches to a "facilitated" mode in which opening occurs more readily and then slowly reverts to the normal mode observed in the absence of membrane stretch. Conductance simulations with a six-state model recapitulate all the features of the channel's response to mechanical stimulation. Hv1 mechanosensitivity thus provides a mechanistic link between channel activation in microglia and brain damage after stroke.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to one third of injury related deaths in the US. Treatment strategies for TBI are supportive, and the pathophysiology is not fully understood. Secondary mechanisms of injury in TBI, such as oxidative stress and inflammation, are points at which intervention may reduce neuropathology. Evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) propagate blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability and inflammation following TBI. We hypothesized that targeted detoxification of ROS may improve the pathological outcomes of TBI. Following TBI, endothelial activation results in a time dependent increase in vascular expression of ICAM-1. We conjugated catalase to anti-ICAM-1 antibodies and administered the conjugate to 8?wk old C57BL/6J mice 30?min after moderate controlled cortical impact injury. Results indicate that catalase targeted to ICAM-1 reduces markers of oxidative stress, preserves BBB permeability, and attenuates neuropathological indices more effectively than non-targeted catalase and anti-ICAM-1 antibody alone. Furthermore, the study of microglia by two-photon microscopy revealed that anti-ICAM-1/catalase prevents the transition of microglia to an activated phenotype. These findings demonstrate the use of a targeted antioxidant enzyme to interfere with oxidative stress mechanisms in TBI and provide a proof-of-concept approach to improve acute TBI management that may also be applicable to other neuroinflammatory conditions.
Project description:Hv1 is a voltage-gated proton channel highly expressed in immune cells where, it acts to maintain NAD(P)H oxidase activity during the respiratory burst. We have recently reported that Hv1 is expressed in cells of the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) of the kidney and is critical to augment reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by this segment. While Hv1 is associated with NOX2 mediated ROS production in immune cells, the source of the Hv1 dependent ROS in mTAL remains unknown. In the current study, the rate of ROS formation was quantified in freshly isolated mTAL using dihydroethidium and ethidium fluorescence. Hv1 dependent ROS production was stimulated by increasing bath osmolality and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) loading. Loss of either p67phox or NOX4 did not abolish the formation of ROS in mTAL. Hv1 was localized to mitochondria within mTAL, and the mitochondrial superoxide scavenger mitoTEMPOL reduced ROS formation. Rotenone significantly increased ROS formation and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in mTAL from wild-type rats, while treatment with this inhibitor decreased ROS formation and increased mitochondrial membrane potential in mTAL from Hv1-/- mutant rats. These data indicate that NADPH oxidase is not the primary source of Hv1 dependent ROS production in mTAL. Rather Hv1 localizes to the mitochondria in mTAL and modulates the formation of ROS by complex I. These data provide a potential explanation for the effects of Hv1 on ROS production in cells independent of its contribution to maintenance of cell membrane potential and intracellular pH.
Project description:Voltage-gated proton channels are increasingly implicated in cellular proton homeostasis. Proton currents were originally identified in snail neurons less than 40 years ago, and subsequently shown to play an important auxiliary role in the functioning of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Molecular identification of voltage-gated proton channels was achieved less than 10 years ago. Interestingly, so far, only one gene coding for voltage-gated proton channels has been identified, namely hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1), which codes for the HV1 proton channel protein. Over the last years, the first picture of putative physiological functions of HV1 has been emerging.The best-studied role remains charge and pH compensation during the respiratory burst of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX). Strong evidence for a role of HV1 is also emerging in sperm biology, but the relationship with the sperm NOX5 remains unclear. Probably in many instances, HV1 functions independently of NOX: for example in snail neurons, basophils, osteoclasts, and cancer cells.Generally, ion channels are good drug targets; however, this feature has so far not been exploited for HV1, and hitherto no inhibitors compatible with clinical use exist. However, there are emerging indications for HV1 inhibitors, ranging from diseases with a strong activation of the phagocyte NOX (e.g., stroke) to infertility, osteoporosis, and cancer.Clinically useful HV1-active drugs should be developed and might become interesting drugs of the future.
Project description:The inflammatory microenvironment is commonly characterized by extracellular acidosis (pH?<?7.35). Sensitivity to pH, CO2 or bicarbonate concentrations allows neutrophils to react to changes in their environment and to detect inflamed areas in the tissue. One important antimicrobial effector mechanism is the production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are released during a programmed reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death, the so-called NETosis. Although several functions of neutrophils have been analyzed under acidic conditions, the effect of extracellular acidosis on NETosis remains mainly unexplored and the available experimental results are contradictory. We performed a comprehensive study with the aim to elucidate the effect of extracellular acidosis on ROS-dependent NETosis of primary human neutrophils and to identify the underlying mechanisms. The study was performed in parallel in a CO2-bicabonate-buffered culture medium, which mimics in vivo conditions, and under HEPES-buffered conditions to verify the effect of pH independent of CO2 or bicarbonate. We could clearly show that extracellular acidosis (pH 6.5, 6.0, and 5.5) and intracellular acidification inhibit the release of ROS-dependent NETs upon stimulation of neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate and immobilized immune complexes. Moreover, our findings suggest that the diminished NET release is a consequence of reduced ROS production and diminished glycolysis of neutrophils under acidic conditions. It was suggested previously that neutrophils can sense the border of inflamed tissue by the pH gradient and that a drop in pH serves as an indicator for the progress of inflammation. Following this hypothesis, our data indicate that an acidic inflammatory environment results in inhibition of extracellular operating effector mechanisms of neutrophils such as release of ROS and NETs. This way the release of toxic components and tissue damage can be avoided. However, we observed that major antimicrobial effector mechanisms such as phagocytosis and the killing of pathogens by neutrophils remain functional under acidic conditions.