Molecular evidence of the hybrid origin of Cryptocoryne ×purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea (Araceae).
ABSTRACT: Natural hybridization has been considered a source of taxonomic complexity in Cryptocoryne. A combined study of DNA sequencing data from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnK-matK region of chloroplast DNA was used to identify the parents of Cryptocoryne putative hybrids from Peninsular Malaysia. Based on the intermediate morphology and sympatric distribution area, the plants were tentatively identified as the hybrid Cryptocoryne ×purpurea nothovar. purpurea. The plants were pollen sterile and had long been considered as hybrids, supposedly between two related and co-existing species, C. cordata var. cordata and C. griffithii. The status of C. ×purpurea nothovar. purpurea was independently confirmed by the presence of an additive ITS sequence pattern from these two parental species in hybrid individuals. An analysis of the chloroplast trnK-matK sequences showed that the hybridization is bidirectional with the putative hybrids sharing identical sequences from C. cordata var. cordata and C. griffithii, indicating that both putative parental species had been the maternal parent in different accessions.
Project description:Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.
Project description:Leucobryum boninense is endemic to the Bonin Islands, Japan, and its related species are widely distributed in Asia and the Pacific. We aimed to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among Leucobryum species and infer the origin of L. boninense. We also describe the utility of the chloroplast trnK intron including matK for resolving the phylogenetic relationships among Leucobryum species, as phylogenetic analyses using trnK intron and/or matK have not been performed well in bryophytes to date. Fifty samples containing 15 species of Leucobryum from Asia and the Pacific were examined for six chloroplast DNA regions including rbcL, rps4, partial 5' trnK intron, matK, partial 3' trnK intron, and trnL-F intergenic spacer plus one nuclear DNA region including ITS. A molecular phylogenetic tree showed that L. boninense made a clade with L. scabrum from Japan, Taiwan and, Hong Kong; L. javense which is widely distributed in East and Southeast Asia, and L. pachyphyllum and L. seemannii restricted to the Hawaii Islands, as well as with L. scaberulum from the Ryukyus, Japan, Taiwan, and southeastern China. Leucobryum boninense from various islands of the Bonin Islands made a monophylic group that was closely related to L. scabrum and L. javense from Japan. Therefore, L. boninense may have evolved from L. scabrum from Japan, Taiwan, or Hong Kong, or L. javense from Japan. We also described the utility of trnK intron including matK. A percentage of the parsimony-informative characters in trnK intron sequence data (5.8%) was significantly higher than that from other chloroplast regions, rbcL (2.4%) and rps4 (3.2%) sequence data. Nucleotide sequence data of the trnK intron including matK are more informative than other chloroplast DNA regions for identifying the phylogenetic relationships among Leucobryum species.
Project description:The controversial anti-proliferative effects of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (Asteraceae) might be related to different plant metabolites contained in plant samples, extracts and products. The influence of bacterial endophytes on the synthesis of bioactive compounds in the medicinal plants has been previously demonstrated but there are only few studies addressing anticancer effects and mechanisms of E. purpurea extracts following endophytic colonization. The present study aimed to test and compare the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibition potential of n-hexane and methanol extracts from in vitro endophyte non-inoculated and inoculated E. purpurea plants. An in vitro model was previously set up to perform the infection of axenic E. purpurea plants with bacterial endophytic strains isolated from E. purpurea aerial part. Only methanol extracts showed LDH5 inhibition, in particular the richest in chicoric acid and most strongly inhibiting extract was obtained from inoculated stem and leaves of E. purpurea (IC50?=?0.9?mg/ml). Chicoric acid showed an IC50 value (66.7?µM) in enzymatic assays better than that of the reference compound galloflavin. Modeling studies were carried out to suggest the putative interaction mode of chicoric acid in the enzyme active site. This in vitro model on plant-bacterial interaction may lead to obtain extracts from plants enriched in bioactive compounds and it is a new approach for the discovery of novel anticancer compounds.
Project description:Bacterial group II introns encode maturase proteins required for splicing. In organelles of photosynthetic land plants, most of the group II introns have lost the reading frames for maturases. Here, we show that the plastidial maturase MatK not only interacts with its encoding intron within trnK-UUU, but also with six additional group II introns, all belonging to intron subclass IIA. Mapping analyses of RNA binding sites revealed MatK to recognize multiple regions within the trnK intron. Organellar group II introns are considered to be the ancestors of nuclear spliceosomal introns. That MatK associates with multiple intron ligands makes it an attractive model for an early trans-acting nuclear splicing activity.
Project description:Phlomis plants are a source of biological active substances with potential applications in the control of phytopathogens. Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) is autochthonous of southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco and was found to be resistant to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea has revealed antagonistic effect in the rhizosphere of Quercus suber and Q. ilex against P. cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea roots produce bioactive compounds exhibiting antitumor and anti-Phytophthora activities with potential to protect susceptible plants. Although these important capacities of P. purpurea have been demonstrated, there is no transcriptomic or genomic information available in public databases that could bring insights on the genes underlying this anti-oomycete activity.Using Illumina technology we obtained a de novo assembly of P. purpurea transcriptome and differential transcript abundance to identify putative defence related genes in challenged versus non-challenged plants. A total of 1,272,600,000 reads from 18 cDNA libraries were merged and assembled into 215,739 transcript contigs. BLASTX alignment to Nr NCBI database identified 124,386 unique annotated transcripts (57.7%) with significant hits. Functional annotation identified 83,550 out of 124,386 unique transcripts, which were mapped to 141 pathways. 39% of unigenes were assigned GO terms. Their functions cover biological processes, cellular component and molecular functions. Genes associated with response to stimuli, cellular and primary metabolic processes, catalytic and transporter functions were among those identified. Differential transcript abundance analysis using DESeq revealed significant differences among libraries depending on post-challenge times. Comparative cyto-histological studies of P. purpurea roots challenged with P. cinnamomi zoospores and controls revealed specific morphological features (exodermal strips and epi-cuticular layer), that may provide a constitutive efficient barrier against pathogen penetration. Genes involved in cutin biosynthesis and in exodermal Casparian strips formation were up-regulated.The de novo assembly of transcriptome using short reads for a non-model plant, P. purpurea, revealed many unique transcripts useful for further gene expression, biological function, genomics and functional genomics studies. The data presented suggest a combination of a constitutive resistance and an increased transcriptional response from P. purpurea when challenged with the pathogen. This knowledge opens new perspectives for the understanding of defence responses underlying pathogenic oomycete/plant interaction upon challenge with P. cinnamomi.
Project description:Ipomoea L. is the largest genus within the Convolvulaceae and contains 600-700 species. Ipomoea species (morning glories) are economically valuable as horticultural species and scientifically valuable as ecological model plants to investigate mating systems, molecular evolution, and both plant-herbivore and plant-parasite interactions. Furthermore, the dried seeds of I. nil or I. purpurea are used in Korean traditional herbal medicines. In this study, chloroplast (cp) genomes were sequenced from six Ipomoea species, namely, I. nil and I. purpurea and, for the first time, I. triloba, I. lacunosa, I. hederacea, and I. hederacea var. integriuscula. The cp genomes were 161,354-161,750 bp in length and exhibited conserved quadripartite structures. In total, 112 genes were identified, including 78 protein-coding regions, 30 transfer RNA genes, and 4 ribosomal RNA genes. The gene order, content, and orientation of the six Ipomoea cp genomes were highly conserved and were consistent with the general structure of angiosperm cp genomes. Comparison of the six Ipomoea cp genomes revealed locally divergent regions, mainly within intergenic spacer regions (petN-psbM, trnI-CAU-ycf2, ndhH-ndhF, psbC-trnS, and ccsA-ndhD). In addition, the protein-coding genes accD, cemA, and ycf2 exhibited high sequence variability and were under positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1), indicating adaptive evolution to the environment within the Ipomoea genus. Phylogenetic analysis of the six Ipomoea species revealed that these species clustered according to the APG IV system. In particular, I. nil and I. hederacea had monophyletic positions, with I. purpurea as a sister. I. triloba and I. lacunosa in the section Batatas and I. hederacea and I. hederacea var. integriuscula in the section Quamoclit were supported in this study with strong bootstrap values and posterior probabilities. We uncovered high-resolution phylogenetic relationships between Ipomoeeae. Finally, indel markers (IPOTY and IPOYCF) were developed for the discrimination of the important herbal medicine species I. nil and I. purpurea. The cp genomes and analyses in this study provide useful information for taxonomic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary analysis of the Ipomoea genome, and the indel markers will be useful for authentication of herbal medicines.
Project description:The economically important Ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea is an interesting biotrophic model system because of its strict organ specificity (grass ovaries) and the lack of any detectable plant defense reactions. Though several virulence factors were identified, the exact infection mechanisms are unknown, e.g. how the fungus masks its attack and if the host detects the infection at all.We present a first dual transcriptome analysis using an RNA-Seq approach. We studied both, fungal and plant gene expression in young ovaries infected by the wild-type and two virulence-attenuated mutants. We can show that the plant recognizes the fungus, since defense related genes are upregulated, especially several phytohormone genes. We present a survey of in planta expressed fungal genes, among them several confirmed virulence genes. Interestingly, the set of most highly expressed genes includes a high proportion of genes encoding putative effectors, small secreted proteins which might be involved in masking the fungal attack or interfering with host defense reactions. As known from several other phytopathogens, the C. purpurea genome contains more than 400 of such genes, many of them clustered and probably highly redundant. Since the lack of effective defense reactions in spite of recognition of the fungus could very well be achieved by effectors, we started a functional analysis of some of the most highly expressed candidates. However, the redundancy of the system made the identification of a drastic effect of a single gene most unlikely. We can show that at least one candidate accumulates in the plant apoplast. Deletion of some candidates led to a reduced virulence of C. purpurea on rye, indicating a role of the respective proteins during the infection process.We show for the first time that- despite the absence of effective plant defense reactions- the biotrophic pathogen C. purpurea is detected by its host. This points to a role of effectors in modulation of the effective plant response. Indeed, several putative effector genes are among the highest expressed genes in planta.
Project description:Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments. A 75% ethanolic extract at 50 mg dried weight (derived from 227 mg aerial parts) per kg body weight increased GM-CFCs by 70% but at 100 mg/kg was without effect. Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea from the USDA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station increased GM-CFCs by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, at 200 mg/kg (~1400 mg/kg plant material). Extract from another USDA E. angustifolia was inactive. Proton and APT NMR, MS, and TLC indicated alkylamides and caffeic-acid derivatives (CADs) present in ethanolic extracts of both the commercial and USDA-derived material. Cichoric and caftaric acids were prominent in both E. purpurea ethanolic extracts but absent in E. angustifolia. Aqueous extract of the commercial material exhibited polysaccharide and CAD signatures and was without effect on GM-CFCs. A methanol-CHCl3 fraction of commercial source, also inactive, was almost exclusively 1:4 nonanoic: decanoic acids, which were also abundant in commercial ethanolic extract but absent from USDA material. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an ethanolextractable myelostimulatory activity in Echinacea aerial parts that, when obtained from commercial herbal supplements, may be antagonized by medium-chain fatty acids presumably derived from a non-plant additive.
Project description:AIMS:The herbal medicine Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) has been shown to induce cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) both in vitro and in humans. This study explored whether E. purpurea affects the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A4 substrate docetaxel in cancer patients. METHODS:Ten evaluable cancer patients received docetaxel (135 mg, 60 min IV infusion) before intake of a commercially available E. purpurea extract (20 oral drops three times daily) and 3 weeks later after a 14 day supplementation period with E. purpurea. In both cycles, pharmacokinetic parameters of docetaxel were determined. RESULTS:Before and after supplementation with E. purpurea, the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve of docetaxel was 3278 ± 1086 and 3480 ± 1285 ng ml(-1) h, respectively. This result was statistically not significant. Nonsignificant alterations were also observed for the elimination half-life (from 30.8 ± 19.7 to 25.6 ± 5.9 h, P = 0.56) and maximum plasma concentration of docetaxel (from 2224 ± 609 to 2097 ± 925 ng ml(-1) , P = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS:The multiple treatment of E. purpurea did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in this study. The applied E. purpurea product at the recommended dose may be combined safely with docetaxel in cancer patients.
Project description:<i>Chimonobambusa purpurea</i> is one of the important bamboo species in southwest of China. We studied the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of <i>C. purpurea</i> in this study. The cp genome of <i>C. purpurea</i> (GenBank accession: MW030500) was 139,574 bp in length, including a large single-copy (LSC) region of 83,171 bp, a small single-copy (SSC) region of 12,811 bp, and a pair of inverted repeated (IR) regions of 21,796 bp. And the genome contained 133 genes, including 86 protein-coding genes, 39 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Based on 30 cp genomes, we used the phylogenetic analysis to build phylogenetic tree, indicating that <i>C. purpurea</i> is closely related to <i>C. tumidissinoda.</i>