Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation for Monogenic Dystonia: The Effect of Gene on Outcome.
ABSTRACT: Globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) is the most effective intervention for medically refractory segmental and generalized dystonia in both children and adults. Predictive factors for the degree of improvement after GPi DBS include shorter disease duration and dystonia subtype with idiopathic isolated dystonia usually responding better than acquired combined dystonias. Other factors contributing to variability in outcome may include body distribution, pattern of dystonia and DBS related factors such as lead placement and stimulation parameters. The responsiveness to DBS appears to vary between different monogenic forms of dystonia, with some improving more than others. The first observation in this regard was reports of superior DBS outcomes in DYT-TOR1A (DYT1) dystonia, although other studies have found no difference. Recently a subgroup with young onset DYT-TOR1A, more rapid progression and secondary worsening after effective GPi DBS, has been described. Myoclonus dystonia due to DYT-SCGE (DYT11) usually responds well to GPi DBS. Good outcomes following GPi DBS have also been documented in X-linked dystonia Parkinsonism (DYT3). In contrast, poorer, more variable DBS outcomes have been reported in DYT-THAP1 (DYT6) including a recent larger series. The outcome of GPi DBS in other monogenic isolated and combined dystonias including DYT-GNAL (DYT25), DYT-KMT2B (DYT28), DYT-ATP1A3 (DYT12), and DYT-ANO3 (DYT24) have been reported with varying results in smaller numbers of patients. In this article the available evidence for long term GPi DBS outcome between different genetic dystonias is reviewed to reappraise popular perceptions of expected outcomes and revisit whether genetic diagnosis may assist in predicting DBS outcome.
Project description:Dystonias are heterogeneous hyperkinetic movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which result in twisting and repetitive movements and abnormal postures. Several causative genes have been identified, but their genetic bases still remain elusive. Primary Torsion Dystonias (PTDs), in which dystonia is the only clinical sign, can be inherited in a monogenic fashion, and many genes and loci have been identified for autosomal dominant (DYT1/TOR1A; DYT6/THAP1; DYT4/TUBB4a; DYT7; DYT13; DYT21; DYT23/CIZ1; DYT24/ANO3; DYT25/GNAL) and recessive (DYT2; DYT17) forms. However most sporadic cases, especially those with late-onset, are likely multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors interplaying to reach a threshold of disease. At present, genetic counseling of dystonia patients remains a difficult task. Recently non-motor clinical findings in dystonias, new highlights in the pathophysiology of the disease, and the availability of high-throughput genome-wide techniques are proving useful tools to better understand the complexity of PTD genetics. We briefly review the genetic basis of the most common forms of hereditary PTDs, and discuss relevant issues related to molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling.
Project description:Generalized dystonia, both primary and secondary forms, and axial dystonias such as tardive dystonia, and idiopathic cervical dystonia are responsive to globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS. There is a paucity of investigations probing the impact of DBS on adult-onset axial dystonia. We assessed the efficacy of GPi DBS in four patients with rare adult-onset axial dystonia.Primary outcome measure was improvement in the motor component of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) rating scale. Secondary outcome measures were quality of life as determined by the SF-36 questionnaire, time to achieve best possible benefit and DBS parameters that accounted for the best response. In patients with prominent concomitant cervical dystonia we also used the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS).GPi DBS improved BFM scores by 87.63 ± 11.46%. Improvement in total severity scale of TWSTRS was 71.5 ± 12.7%. Quality of life also remarkably improved as evidenced by 109.38 ± 82.97 and 7.05 ± 21.48% percent change in psychometrically-based physical component summary (PCS), and a mental component summary (MCS) score respectively.GPi DBS is a very effective treatment for adult-onset axial dystonia. Considering its refractoriness to medical therapy and significant impact on quality of life DBS should be considered for this disorder.
Project description:Background:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS) is among the most effective treatment options for dystonias. Because the term "dystonia" is defined by a characteristic phenomenology of involuntary muscle contractions, which may present with a large clinical and pathogenetic heterogeneity, decision making for or against GPi-DBS can be difficult in individual patients. Methods:A search of the PubMed database for research and review articles, focused on "deep brain stimulation" and "dystonia" was used to identify clinical trials and to determine current concepts in the surgical management of dystonia. Patient selection in previous studies was recategorized by the authors using the new dystonia classification put forward by a consensus committee of experts in dystonia research. The evidence and knowledge gaps are summarized and commented by the authors taking into account expert opinion and personal clinical experience for providing practical guidance in patient selection for DBS in dystonia. Results:The literature review shows that pallidal deep brain stimulation is most effective in patients with isolated dystonia irrespective of the underlying etiology. In contrast, patients with combined dystonias are less likely to benefit from DBS, because the associated neurological symptoms (e.g., hypotonia or ataxia), with the exception of myoclonus, do not respond to pallidal neurostimulation. Conclusions:It is important to recognize the clinical features of dystonia, because the distinction between isolated and combined dystonia syndromes may predict the treatment response to pallidal deep brain stimulation. The aim of this review is to help guide clinicians with advising patients about deep brain stimulation therapy for dystonia and refering appropriate candidates to surgical centers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:GPi (Internal globus pallidus) DBS (deep brain stimulation) is recognized as a safe, reliable, reversible and adjustable treatment in patients with medically refractory dystonia. OBJECTIVES:This report describes the long-term clinical outcome of 36 patients implanted with GPi DBS at the Neurosurgery Department of Seoul National University Hospital. METHODS:Nine patients with a known genetic cause, 12 patients with acquired dystonia, and 15 patients with isolated dystonia without a known genetic cause were included. When categorized by phenomenology, 29 patients had generalized, 5 patients had segmental, and 2 patients had multifocal dystonia. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at defined follow-up examinations postoperatively, using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale (BFMDRS) for movement and functional disability assessment. The mean follow-up duration was 47 months (range, 12-84). RESULTS:The mean movement scores significantly decreased from 44.88 points preoperatively to 26.45 points at 60-month follow up (N = 19, P = 0.006). The mean disability score was also decreased over time, from 11.54 points preoperatively to 8.26 points at 60-month follow up, despite no statistical significance (N = 19, P = 0.073). When analyzed the movement and disability improvement rates at 12-month follow up point, no significant difference was noted according to etiology, disease duration, age at surgery, age of onset, and phenomenology. However, the patients with DYT-1 dystonia and isolated dystonia without a known genetic cause showed marked improvement. CONCLUSIONS:GPi DBS is a safe and efficient therapeutic method for treatment of dystonia patients to improve both movement and disability. However, this study has some limitations caused by the retrospective design with small sample size in a single-center.
Project description:Treatment outcomes from pallidal deep brain stimulation are highly heterogeneous reflecting the phenotypic and etiologic spectrum of dystonia. Treatment stratification to neurostimulation therapy primarily relies on the phenotypic motor presentation; however, etiology including genetic factors are increasingly recognized as modifiers of treatment outcomes. Here, we describe a 53 year-old female patient with a progressive generalized dystonia since age 25. The patient underwent deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS) at age 44. Since the clinical phenotype included mobile choreo-dystonic features, we expected favorable therapeutic outcome from GPi-DBS. Although mobile dystonia components were slightly improved in the long-term outcome from GPi-DBS the overall therapeutic response 9 years from implantation was limited when comparing "stimulation off" and "stimulation on" despite of proper electrode localization and sufficient stimulation programming. In order to further understand the reason for this limited motor symptom response, we aimed to clarify the etiology of generalized dystonia in this patient. Genetic testing identified a novel heterozygous pathogenic SLC2A1 mutation as cause of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS). This case report presents the first outcome of GPi-DBS in a patient with GLUT1-DS, and suggests that genotype relations may increasingly complement phenotype-based therapy stratification of GPi-DBS in dystonia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for idiopathic generalized dystonia. More recently, it has been applied as a treatment for focal and segmental dystonias. This patient population offers an opportunity to study the effects of alteration of pallidal outflow on previously normal limb function.<h4>Methods</h4>We sought to retrospectively characterize the extent of novel GPi DBS-induced adverse motor effects in patients with adult-onset cervical and cranial-cervical dystonia using a questionnaire, and compared the findings to dystonia improvement as measured by standard scales.<h4>Results</h4>Despite significant improvement in dystonia (65% in mean Burke-Fahn-MarsdenDystonia Rating Scale motor score, p < 0.005, and 59% in mean Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale score, p < 0.008), slowing and difficulty with normal motor function was reported in previously nondystonic extremities in 10 of 11 patients. Symptoms were common in both upper and lower extremities and included new difficulties with handwriting (82%), getting up from a chair or in/out of a car (73%), and walking (45%), and were not associated with aberrant lead placement near the internal capsule.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Although GPi DBS was shown to be effective in these patients, the influence of GPi DBS on nondystonic body regions deserves further investigation.
Project description:Dystonias are a clinically and etiologically diverse group of disorders. Numerous genes have now been associated with different dystonia syndromes, and multiple strategies have been proposed for how these genes should be lumped and split into meaningful categories. The traditional approach has been based on the Human Genome Organization's plan for naming genetic loci for all disorders. For dystonia this involves a DYT prefix followed by a number (e.g., DYT1, DYT2, DYT3, etc.). A more recently proposed approach involves assigning multiple prefixes according to the main elements of the phenotype (e.g., DYT, PARK, CHOR, TREM, etc.) followed by the name of the responsible gene. This article describes these nomenclature systems and summarizes some of their limitations. We focus on dystonia as an example, although the concepts may be applied to all movement disorders.
Project description:Background:While Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the Globus pallidus internus is a well-established therapy for idiopathic/genetic dystonia, benefits for acquired dystonia are varied, ranging from modest improvement to deterioration. Predictive biomarkers to aid DBS prognosis for children are lacking, especially in acquired dystonias, such as dystonic Cerebral Palsy. We explored the potential role of machine learning techniques to identify parameters that could help predict DBS outcome. Methods:We conducted a retrospective study of 244 children attending King's College Hospital between September 2007 and June 2018 for neurophysiological tests as part of their assessment for possible DBS at Evelina London Children's Hospital. For the 133 individuals who underwent DBS and had 1-year outcome data available, we assessed the potential predictive value of six patient parameters: sex, etiology (including cerebral palsy), baseline severity (Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-motor score), cranial MRI and two neurophysiological tests, Central Motor Conduction Time (CMCT) and Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SEP). We applied machine learning analysis to determine the best combination of these features to aid DBS prognosis. We developed a classification algorithm based on Decision Trees (DTs) with k-fold cross validation for independent testing. We analyzed all possible combinations of the six features and focused on acquired dystonias. Results:Several trees resulted in better accuracy than the majority class classifier. However, the two features that consistently appeared in top 10 DTs were CMCT and baseline dystonia severity. A decision tree based on CMCT and baseline severity provided a range of sensitivity and specificity, depending on the threshold chosen for baseline dystonia severity. In situations where CMCT was not available, a DT using SEP alone provided better than the majority class classifier accuracy. Conclusion:The results suggest that neurophysiological parameters can help predict DBS outcomes, and DTs provide a data-driven, highly interpretable decision support tool that lends itself to being used in clinical practice to help predict potential benefit of DBS in dystonic children. Our results encourage the introduction of neurophysiological parameters in assessment pathways, and data collection to facilitate multi-center evaluation and validation of these potential predictive markers and of the illustrative decision support tools presented here.
Project description:Clinical benefits of pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in dystonia increase relatively slowly suggesting slow plastic processes in the motor network. Twenty-two patients with dystonia of various distribution and etiology treated by chronic GPi DBS and 22 healthy subjects were examined for short-latency intracortical inhibition of the motor cortex elicited by paired transcranial magnetic stimulation. The relationships between grey matter volume and intracortical inhibition considering the long-term clinical outcome and states of the GPi DBS were analysed. The acute effects of GPi DBS were associated with a shortening of the motor response whereas the grey matter of chronically treated patients with a better clinical outcome showed hypertrophy of the supplementary motor area and cerebellar vermis. In addition, the volume of the cerebellar hemispheres of patients correlated with the improvement of intracortical inhibition which was generally less effective in patients than in controls regardless of the DBS states. Importantly, good responders to GPi DBS showed a similar level of short-latency intracortical inhibition in the motor cortex as healthy controls whereas non-responders were unable to increase it. All these results support the multilevel impact of effective DBS on the motor networks in dystonia and suggest potential biomarkers of responsiveness to this treatment.
Project description:Isolated inherited dystonia-formerly referred to as primary dystonia-is characterized by abnormal motor functioning of a grossly normal appearing brain. The disease manifests as abnormal involuntary twisting movements. The absence of overt neuropathological lesions, while intriguing, has made it particularly difficult to unravel the pathogenesis of isolated inherited dystonia. The explosion of genetic techology enabling the identification of the causative gene mutations is transforming our understanding of dystonia pathogenesis, as the molecular, cellular and circuit level consequences of these mutations are identified in experimental systems. Here, I review the clinical genetics and cell biology of three forms of inherited dystonia for which the causative mutation is known: DYT1 (TOR1A), DYT6 (THAP1), DYT25 (GNAL).