BackgroundThe current study aimed to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use identified as a risk factor during pregnancies by the antenatal care providers, resulting in live births in British Columbia (BC) and to examine associations between alcohol use, adverse neonatal outcomes, and pregnancy complications.
MethodsThis population-based cross-sectional study utilized linked obstetrical and neonatal records within the BC Perinatal Data Registry (BCPDR), for deliveries that were discharged between January 1, 2015 and March 31, 2018. The main outcome measures were alcohol use identified as a risk factor during pregnancy, associated maternal characteristics, pregnancy complications, and adverse neonatal outcomes. Estimates for the period and fiscal year prevalence were calculated. Chi-square tests were used to compare adverse neonatal outcomes and pregnancy complications by alcohol use during pregnancy identified as a risk factor. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between alcohol use identified as a risk factor during pregnancy and adverse neonatal outcomes and pregnancy complications, after adjusting for identified risk factors.
ResultsA total of 144,779 linked records within the BCPDR were examined. The period prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy identified as a risk factor was estimated to be 1.1% and yearly prevalence was 1.1, 1.1, 1.3 and 0.9% from the 2014/2015 to 2017/2018 fiscal years, respectively. Alcohol use identified as a risk factor was associated with younger maternal age, fewer antenatal visits, being primiparous, a history of mental illness, substance use and smoking. Neonates with alcohol use during pregnancy identified as a risk factor had greater odds of being diagnosed with: "low birth weight (1000-2499g)" (ICD-10: P07.1; aOR?=?1.25; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.53), "other respiration distress of newborn" (ICD-10: P22.8; aOR?=?2.57; 95% CI: 1.52, 4.07), "neonatal difficulty in breastfeeding" (ICD-10: P92.5; aOR?=?1.97; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.92) and "feeding problems, unspecified" (ICD-10: P92.9; aOR?=?2.06; 95% CI: 1.31, 3.09).
ConclusionsThe prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy identified as a risk factor was comparable to previous estimates within the BCPDR. Identified prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with notable differences in maternal and neonatal characteristics and adverse neonatal outcomes. More consistent, thorough screening and prevention efforts targeting alcohol use in pregnancy are urgently needed in Canada.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC7821646 | BioStudies |