Pyridinium-2-carbaldoximes with quinolinium carboxamide moiety are simultaneous reactivators of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibited by nerve agent surrogates.
ABSTRACT: The pyridinium-2-carbaldoximes with quinolinium carboxamide moiety were designed and synthesised as cholinesterase reactivators. The prepared compounds showed intermediate-to-high inhibition of both cholinesterases when compared to standard oximes. Their reactivation ability was evaluated in vitro on human recombinant acetylcholinesterase (hrAChE) and human recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (hrBChE) inhibited by nerve agent surrogates (NIMP, NEMP, and NEDPA) or paraoxon. In the reactivation screening, one compound was able to reactivate hrAChE inhibited by all used organophosphates and two novel compounds were able to reactivate NIMP/NEMP-hrBChE. The reactivation kinetics revealed compound 11 that proved to be excellent reactivator of paraoxon-hrAChE better to obidoxime and showed increased reactivation of NIMP/NEMP-hrBChE, although worse to obidoxime. The molecular interactions of studied reactivators were further identified by in silico calculations. Molecular modelling results revealed the importance of creation of the pre-reactivation complex that could lead to better reactivation of both cholinesterases together with reducing particular interactions for lower intrinsic inhibition by the oxime.
Project description:The series of symmetrical and unsymmetrical isoquinolinium-5-carbaldoximes was designed and prepared for cholinesterase reactivation purposes. The novel compounds were evaluated for intrinsic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition, when the majority of novel compounds resulted with high inhibition of both enzymes and only weak inhibitors were selected for reactivation experiments on human AChE or BChE inhibited by sarin, VX, or paraoxon. The AChE reactivation for all used organophosphates was found negligible if compared to the reactivation ability of obidoxime. Importantly, two compounds were found to reactivate BChE inhibited by sarin or VX better to obidoxime at human attainable concentration. One compound resulted as better reactivator of NEMP (VX surrogate)-inhibited BChE than obidoxime. The <i>in vitro</i> results were further rationalized by molecular docking studies showing future directions on designing potent BChE reactivators.
Project description:Nerve agents and oxon forms of organophosphorus pesticides act as strong irreversible inhibitors of two cholinesterases in the human body: acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 126.96.36.199) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 188.8.131.52), and are therefore highly toxic compounds. For the recovery of inhibited AChE, antidotes from the group of pyridinium or bispyridinium aldoxime reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6) are used in combination with anticholinergics and anticonvulsives. Therapeutic efficacy of reactivators (called “oximes”) depends on their chemical structure and also the type of organophosphorus inhibitor. Three novel oximes (K131, K142, K153) with an oxime group in position four of the pyridinium ring were designed and then tested for their potency to reactivate human (Homo sapiens sapiens) AChE (HssACHE) and BChE (HssBChE) inhibited by the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate). According to the obtained results, none of the prepared oximes were able to satisfactorily reactivate paraoxon-inhibited cholinesterases. On the contrary, extraordinary activity of obidoxime in the case of paraoxon-inhibited HssAChE reactivation was confirmed. Additional docking studies pointed to possible explanations for these results.
Project description:The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators (e.g., obidoxime, asoxime) became an essential part of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning treatment, together with atropine and diazepam. They are referred to as a causal treatment of OP poisoning, because they are able to split the OP moiety from AChE active site and thus renew its function. In this approach, fifteen novel AChE reactivators were determined. Their molecular design originated from former K-oxime compounds K048 and K074 with remaining oxime part of the molecule and modified part with heteroarenium moiety. The novel compounds were prepared, evaluated in vitro on human AChE (HssAChE) inhibited by tabun, paraoxon, methylparaoxon or DFP and compared to commercial HssAChE reactivators (pralidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, asoxime) or previously prepared compounds (K048, K074, K075, K203). Some of presented oxime reactivators showed promising ability to reactivate HssAChE comparable or higher than the used standards. The molecular modelling study was performed with one compound that presented the ability to reactivate GA-inhibited HssAChE. The SAR features concerning the heteroarenium part of the reactivator's molecule are described.
Project description:A novel panel of oximes were synthesized, which have displayed varying degree of reactivation ability towards different organophosphorus (OP) modified cholinesterases. In the present article, we report a comparative reactivation profile of a series of quaternary pyridinium-oximes for electric eel acetylcholinesterase (EEAChE) inhibited by the organophosphorus (OP) inhibitors methyl paraoxon (MePOX), ethyl paraoxon (POX; paraoxon) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) that are distinguishable as dimethoxyphosphoryl, diethoxyphosphoryl and diisopropoxyphosphoryl AChE-OP-adducts. Most of the 59-oximes tested led to faster and more extensive reactivation of MePOX- and POX-inhibited EEAChE as compared to DFP-modified EEAChE. All were effective reactivators of three OP-modified EEAChE conjugates showing 18-21% reactivation for DFP-inhibited AChE and ?45% reactivation for MePOX- and POX-inhibited EEAChE. Oximes 7 and 8 showed kr values better than pralidoxime (1) for DFP-inhibited EEAChE. Reactivation rates determined at different inhibition times showed no significant change in kr values during 0-90?min incubation with three OPs. However, a 34-72% decrease in kr for MePOX and POX and > 95% decrease in kr for DFP-inhibited EEAChE was observed after 24?h of OP-exposure (aging).
Project description:Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a pivotal enzyme in neurotransmission. Its inhibition leads to cholinergic crises and could ultimately result in death. A related enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), may act in the CNS as a co-regulator in terminating nerve impulses and is a natural plasma scavenger upon exposure to organophosphate (OP) nerve agents that irreversibly inhibit both enzymes. With the aim of improving reactivation of cholinesterases phosphylated by nerve agents sarin, VX, cyclosarin, and tabun, ten phenyltetrahydroisoquinoline (PIQ) aldoximes were synthesized by Huisgen 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition between alkyne- and azide-building blocks. The PIQ moiety may serve as a peripheral site anchor positioning the aldoxime moiety at the AChE active site. In terms of evaluated dissociation inhibition constants, the aldoximes could be characterized as high-affinity ligands. Nevertheless, high binding affinity of these oximes to AChE or its phosphylated conjugates did not assure rapid and selective AChE reactivation. Rather, potential reactivators of phosphylated BChE, with its enlarged acyl pocket, were identified, especially in case of cyclosarin, where the reactivation rates of the lead reactivator was 100- and 6-times that of 2-PAM and HI-6, respectively. Nevertheless, the return of the enzyme activity was affected by the nerve agent conjugated to catalytic serine, which highlights the lack of the universality of reactivators with respect to both the target enzyme and OP structure.
Project description:Toxicity of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) remains a major public health concern due to their widespread use as pesticides and the existence of nerve agents. Their common mechanism of action involves inhibition of enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) which are crucial for neurotransmission. Both chronic and acute poisoning by OPs can leave long-lasting health effects even when the patients are treated with standard medical therapy. Therefore, an increasing urgency exists to find more effective oxime reactivators for compounds which are resistant to reactivation, especially phosphoramidates. Here, we investigated in silico and in vitro interactions and kinetics of inhibition for human cholinesterases with four organophosphate pesticides—ethoprophos, fenamiphos, methamidophos and phosalone. Overall, ethoprophos and fenamiphos displayed higher potency as inhibitors for tested cholinesterases. Our results show that methamidophos-inhibited hAChE was more susceptible to reactivation than hAChE inhibited by fenamiphos by selected oximes. Molecular modelling enabled an evaluation of interactions important for specificity and selectivity of both inhibition and reactivation of cholinesterases. Two newly developed reactivators—bispyridinium triazole oxime 14A and zwitterionic oxime RS194B possess remarkable potential for further development of antidotes directed against pesticides and related phosphoramidate exposures, such as nerve agents tabun or Novichoks.
Project description:Acetylcholinesterase has important role in synaptic cleft. It breaks down the acetylcholineat cholinergic synapsesand terminates the cholinergic effects. Some chemical agents like organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) including nerve agents and pesticides react with acetylcholinesteraseirreversibly. They inhibit normal biological enzyme action and result in accumulation of acetylcholineand show toxic effects andcholinergic symptoms. The process of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition can be reversed by a nucleophilic agent to dephosphorylate and reactivate the enzyme. In this study, design and docking studies of 15 novel nitrone based onoximes as reactivators were performed by using AutoDock program. Then, more effective reactivatorsoximes in terms of binding energy and orientation within the active site were synthesized and evaluated in-vitro on human AChE (hAChE) inhibited by paraoxon and compared to standard hAChE reactivators (2-PAM and obidoxime). Our results used to design new derivatives of Oxim with better efficacy than 2-PAM and obidoxime. Syntheses of some selected bis-pyridiniumoximes based on the nitrones are underway.
Project description:For the last six decades, researchers have been focused on finding efficient reactivators of organophosphorus compound (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In this study, we have focused our research on a new oxime scaffold based on the Cinchona structure since it was proven to fit the cholinesterases active site and reversibly inhibit their activity. Three Cinchona oximes (C1, C2, and C3), derivatives of the 9-oxocinchonidine, were synthesized and investigated in reactivation of various OP-inhibited AChE and BChE. As the results showed, the tested oximes were more efficient in the reactivation of BChE and they reactivated enzyme activity to up to 70% with reactivation rates similar to known pyridinium oximes used as antidotes in medical practice today. Furthermore, the oximes showed selectivity towards binding to the BChE active site and the determined enzyme-oxime dissociation constants supported work on the future development of inhibitors in other targeted studies (e.g., in treatment of neurodegenerative disease). Also, we monitored the cytotoxic effect of Cinchona oximes on two cell lines Hep G2 and SH-SY5Y to determine the possible limits for in vivo application. The cytotoxicity results support future studies of these compounds as long as their biological activity is targeted in the lower micromolar range.
Project description:Organophosphate nerve agents rapidly inhibit cholinesterases thereby destroying the ability to sustain life. Strong nucleophiles, such as oximes, have been used as therapeutic reactivators of cholinesterase-organophosphate complexes, but suffer from short half-lives and limited efficacy across the broad spectrum of organophosphate nerve agents. Cholinesterases have been used as long-lived therapeutic bioscavengers for unreacted organophosphates with limited success because they react with organophosphate nerve agents with one-to-one stoichiometries. The chemical power of nucleophilic reactivators is coupled to long-lived bioscavengers by designing and synthesizing cholinesterase-polymer-oxime conjugates using atom transfer radical polymerization and azide-alkyne "click" chemistry. Detailed kinetic studies show that butyrylcholinesterase-polymer-oxime activity is dependent on the electrostatic properties of the polymers and the amount of oxime within the conjugate. The covalent coupling of oxime-containing polymers to the surface of butyrylcholinesterase slows the rate of inactivation of paraoxon, a model nerve agent. Furthermore, when the enzyme is covalently inhibited by paraoxon, the covalently attached oxime induced inter- and intramolecular reactivation. Intramolecular reactivation will open the door to the generation of a new class of nerve agent scavengers that couple the speed and selectivity of biology to the ruggedness and simplicity of synthetic chemicals.
Project description:The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activity staining of D. japonica, which possess a discrete cholinergic nervous system, has shown acylthiocholine catalysis, it is unknown whether this is accomplished through an acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or a hybrid esterase and how OP exposure affects esterase activity. Here, we show that the majority of D. japonica cholinesterase (DjChE) activity departs from conventional AChE and BChE classifications. Inhibition by classic protonable amine and quaternary reversible inhibitors (ethopropazine, donepezil, tacrine, edrophonium, BW284c51, propidium) shows that DjChE is far less sensitive to these inhibitors than human AChE, suggesting discrete differences in active center and peripheral site recognition and structures. Additionally, we find that different OPs (chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, dichlorvos, diazinon oxon, malaoxon) and carbamylating agents (carbaryl, neostigmine, physostigmine, pyridostigmine) differentially inhibit DjChE activity in vitro. DjChE was most sensitive to diazinon oxon and neostigmine and least sensitive to malaoxon and carbaryl. Diazinon oxon-inhibited DjChE could be reactivated by the quaternary oxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM), and the zwitterionic oxime, RS194B, with RS194B being significantly more potent. Sodium fluoride (NaF) reactivates OP-DjChE faster than 2-PAM. As one of the most ancient true cholinesterases, DjChE provides insight into the evolution of a hybrid enzyme before the separation into distinct AChE and BChE enzymes found in higher vertebrates. The sensitivity of DjChE to OPs and capacity for reactivation validate the use of planarians for OP toxicology studies.