The HSP GRP94 interacts with macrophage intracellular complement C3 and impacts M2 profile during ER stress.
ABSTRACT: The role of GRP94, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein with both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions, has not been investigated in macrophages during ER stress, whereas ER stress has been reported in many diseases involving macrophages. In this work, we studied GRP94 in M1/LPS?+?IFN? and M2/IL-4 primary macrophages derived from human monocytes (isolated from buffy coats), in basal and ER stress conditions induced by thapsigargin (Tg), an inducer of ER calcium depletion and tunicamycin (Tm), an inhibitor of N-glycosylation. We found that GRP94 was expressed on the membrane of M2 but not M1 macrophages. In M2, Tg, but not Tm, while decreased GRP94 content in the membrane, it induced its secretion. This correlated with the induction of a pro-inflammatory profile, which was dependent on the UPR IRE1? arm activation and on a functional GRP94. As we previously reported that GRP94 associated with complement C3 at the extracellular level, we analyzed C3 and confirmed GRP94-C3 interaction in our experimental model. Further, Tg increased this interaction and, in these conditions, C3b and cathepsin L were detected in the extracellular medium where GRP94 co-immunoprecipitated with C3 and C3b. Finally, we showed that the C3b inactivated fragment, iC3b, only present on non-stressed M2, depended on functional GRP94, making both GRP94 and iC3b potential markers of M2 cells. In conclusion, our results show that GRP94 is co-secreted with C3 under ER stress conditions which may facilitate its cleavage by cathepsin L, thus contributing to the pro-inflammatory profile observed in stressed M2 macrophages.
Project description:The interactions of properdin with both surface-bound and fluid-phase C3 (the third component of complement) and its activation products have been investigated by using a purified preparation of the 'native' form. At physiological ionic strength, a weak interaction with cell-bound C3b (the larger activation fragment of C3) could be demonstrated. In the presence of Factor B this interaction was enhanced, and further enhancement was seen when C3bBb sites were formed on the erythrocytes. The avidities of properdin for cell-bound iC3b (the initial product of Factors I and H action on C3b) and C3b were compared at low ionic strength, with that measured for iC3b being less than that for C3b. In contrast, the affinities of properdin for fluid-phase C3b, iC3b and C3c (the larger product of Factors I and H or CR1 (the C3b receptor) action on iC3b) were all very similar, and apparently much weaker than that for cell-bound C3b. No interaction with either native C3 or, more surprisingly, C3i (haemolytically inactive C3) could be detected. Properdin also inhibited Factor I binding to, and action upon, cell-bound C3b, but did not inhibit Factor I action on fluid-phase C3b. These data permit a more detailed description of the roles of properdin in the alternative pathway of complement activation, emphasizing its importance in concentrating activation at the activating surface.
Project description:Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities.
Project description:Immunological tolerance between fetal allograft and mother is crucial for pregnancy establishment and maintenance; however, these mechanisms particularly those during the latter part of pregnancy have not been definitively elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and potential function of innate immunity characteristic to the middle to late pregnancy. We first characterized up-regulated proteins in decidua from day 11 pregnant (P11) mice using 2D-PAGE, followed by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. These analyses identified increased complement component 3 (C3) and its derivatives in P11 decidua. We then found that in the decidual tissues, C3 mRNA increased on P15 and remained high on P19. C3 is converted to C3b and then iC3b by complement component factor I (Cfi) and complement receptor 1-like protein (Crry), both of which were present in P19 placentas. In addition, iC3b proteins and its receptor CR3 (Cd11b/Cd18) in decidual and placental tissues increased toward the latter phase of pregnancy. Moreover, CR3 subunit CD11b protein was predominantly localized to spongiotrophoblast layer in the P19 placenta. Because iC3b is known to induce anti-inflammatory cytokine production, the analysis was extended to examine changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, Il12, Il10, and Tgfb1. Il12 expression decreased in P15 and P19 placenta, while high mRNA expression of Il10 and Tgfb1 was found in P19 placental tissues. Furthermore, placental Il10 and Tgfb1 mRNAs were down-regulated when pregnant mice were treated with an anti-C3 antibody, detecting C3, C3b and iC3b. These results indicated that C3 derivatives, in particular, iC3b and its receptor CR3 were up-regulated at the fetal-maternal interface, and suggest that iC3b may regulate the placental expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL10 and TGFB1, during the latter phase of pregnancy.
Project description:Immune protection by the complement system critically depends on assembly of C3 convertases on the surface of pathogens and altered host cells. These short-lived protease complexes are formed through pro-convertases, which for the alternative pathway consist of the complement component C3b and the pro-enzyme factor B (FB). Here, we present the crystal structure at 2.2-A resolution, small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy (EM) data of the pro-convertase formed by human FB and cobra venom factor (CVF), a potent homologue of C3b that generates more stable convertases. FB is loaded onto CVF through its pro-peptide Ba segment by specific contacts, which explain the specificity for the homologous C3b over the native C3 and inactive products iC3b and C3c. The protease segment Bb binds the carboxy terminus of CVF through the metal-ion dependent adhesion site of the Von Willebrand factor A-type domain. A possible dynamic equilibrium between a 'loading' and 'activation' state of the pro-convertase may explain the observed difference between the crystal structure of CVFB and the EM structure of C3bB. These insights into formation of convertases provide a basis for further development of complement therapeutics.
Project description:The complement component C3 is at the heart of the complement cascade. It is a complex protein, which generates different functional activated fragments (C3a, C3b, iC3b, C3c, C3d). C3b is a constituent of the alternative pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb), binds multiple regulators, and receptors, affecting thus the functioning of the immune system. The activated forms of C3 are a target for autoantibodies. This review focuses on the discovery, disease relevance, and functional consequences of the anti-C3b autoantibodies. They were discovered about 70 years ago and named immunoconglutinins. They were found after infections and considered convalescent factors. At the end of the twentieth century IgG against C3b were found in systemic lupus erythematosus and recently in lupus nephritis, correlating with the disease severity and flare. Cases of C3 glomerulopathy and immune complex glomerulonephritis were also reported. These antibodies recognize epitopes, shared between C3(H2O)/C3b/iC3b/C3c and have overt functional activity. They correlate with low plasmatic C3 levels in patients. In vitro, they increase the activity of the alternative pathway C3 convertase, without being C3 nephritic factors. They perturb the binding of the negative regulators Complement Receptor 1 and Factor H. The clear functional consequences and association with disease severity warrant further studies to establish the link between the anti-C3b autoantibodies and tissue injury. Comparative studies with such antibodies, found in patients with infections, may help to uncover their origin and epitopes specificity. Patients with complement overactivation due to presence of anti-C3b antibodies may benefit from therapeutic targeting of C3.
Project description:The rosetting of defined C3-fragment-coated sheep erythrocytes to B-cell-enriched tonsil lymphocytes was measured. The rosetting lymphocytes were homogeneous with respect to expression of C3b, iC3b and C3d receptors. Isolation of receptors for C3 fragments from surface-radioiodinated lymphocytes by affinity chromatography on immobilized C3u, iC3b and C3d,g produced two proteins with partially overlapping specificities. A protein of 240 000 Mr, recognized by the monoclonal antibody To5 and identified as CR1 (complement receptor type 1), had affinity for C3u and iC3b. A protein of 145 000 Mr, recognized by the monoclonal antibody B2, had affinity for all three C3 fragments. Inhibition of rosetting by antibodies to these proteins indicates that CR1 is responsible for C3b-mediated rosetting and that the 145000-Mr receptor (CR2) is responsible for C3d-mediated rosetting. Partial inhibition by both anti-CR1 and anti-CR2 antibodies of iC3b-mediated rosetting indicates that both receptors are involved in iC3b-mediated rosetting. No other protein appears to be involved in tonsil B-cell rosetting to C3-fragment-coated cells. A method for preparing CR2 from tonsil lymphocytes based on affinity chromatography on C3d,g-Sepharose has been developed. Forty tonsil pairs (2 X 10(10) B-cells) yield about 40 micrograms of pure protein equivalent to a purification of 6500-fold from a detergent extract.
Project description:Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is one of the most abundant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins and is the ER counterpart of the cytoplasmic heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). GRP94, a component of the GRP78 chaperone system in protein processing, has pro-survival properties with implicated function in cancer progression and autoimmune disease. Previous studies on the loss of GRP94 function showed that it is required for embryonic development, regulation of toll-like receptors and innate immunity of macrophages. Here we report the creation of mouse models targeting exon 2 of the Grp94 allele that allows both traditional and conditional knockout (KO) of Grp94. In this study, we utilized the viable Grp94+/+ and +/- mice, as well as primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts generated from them as experimental tools to study its role in ER chaperone balance and ER stress signaling. Our studies reveal that while Grp94 heterozygosity reduces GRP94 level it does not alter ER chaperone levels or the ER stress response. To study the effect of complete loss of GRP94 function, since homozygous GRP94 KO leads to embryonic lethality, we generated Grp94-/- embryonic stem cells. In contrast to Grp94 heterozygosity, complete knockout of GRP94 leads to compensatory upregulation of the ER chaperones GRP78, calnexin and calreticulin but not protein disulphide isomerase. Unexpectedly, loss of GRP94 leads to significant decrease in the level of ER-stress induced spliced form of XBP-1 protein, a downstream target of the IRE1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, from analysis of microarray database and immunohistochemical staining, we present predictions where GRP94 may play an important role in specific adult organ homeostasis and function.
Project description:Microglial priming predisposes the brain to neurodegeneration and affects disease progression. The signal to switch from the quiescent to the primed state is unknown. We show that deleting the C3 convertase regulator complement receptor 1-related protein y (Crry) induces microglial priming. Mice that were double-knockout for Crry and either C3 or factor B did not show priming, demonstrating dependence on alternative pathway activation. Colocalization of C3b/iC3b and CR3 implicated the CR3/iC3b interaction in priming. Systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge overactivated primed microglia with florid expression of proinflammatory molecules, which were blocked by complement inhibition. Relevance for neurodegenerative disease is exemplified by human multiple sclerosis (MS) and by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS. In human MS, microglial priming was evident in perilesional white matter, in close proximity to C3b/iC3b deposits. EAE was accelerated and exacerbated in Crry-deficient mice, and was dependent on C activation. In summary, C3-dependent microglial priming confers susceptibility to other challenges. Our observations are relevant to progression in MS and other neurological diseases exacerbated by acute insults.
Project description:Complement C3 is a key fluid-phase protein of the immune system that covalently tags pathogenic cells and molecules for subsequent clearance. Previously, we reported that complement activation results in the formation of multiple C3b:plasma protein complexes in serum. However, it is not known if C3b attaches to any plasma protein in close proximity or preferentially binds damaged proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if C3b couples to plasma proteins in a non-native state and if this could be a potential mechanism to detect and clear damaged proteins from the blood. Using a purified in vitro system with alternative pathway proteins C3, factors B and D it was observed that guanidinium-HCl denaturation of three purified plasma proteins (albumin, alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor, vitamin D binding protein) greatly increased their capacity to form covalent complexes with C3b. However, native vitamin D binding protein, covalently attached to C3b, still retained the ability to bind its natural ligand G-actin, indicating that C3b links to plasma proteins in their native configuration but denaturation substantially increases this interaction. Serum complement activation generated a large number of C3b:plasma protein complexes that bound red blood cell membranes, suggesting a CR1-mediated clearance mechanism. Thermally denatured (60°C) serum activated the alternative pathway when added to fresh serum as evidenced by factor B cleavage and iC3b generation, but this heat-treated serum could not generate the pro-inflammatory peptide C5a. These results show that C3 recognizes and tags damaged plasma proteins for subsequent removal from the blood without triggering proinflammatory functions.
Project description:Membrane cofactor protein (MCP or gp45-70) of the complement system is a cofactor for factor I-mediated cleavage of fluid-phase C3b and C3b-like C3, which opens the thioester bond. In the present study the activity of MCP was further characterized. Unexpectedly, in the absence of factor I, MCP stabilized the alternative- and, to a lesser extent, the classical-pathway cell-bound C3 convertases and thereby enhanced C3b deposition. Soluble MCP, if added exogenously, hardly functioned as cofactor for the cleavage of erythrocyte-bound C3b to iC3b; i.e. its activity, compared with the cofactor activity of factor H, was inefficient, since less than 10% of the bound C3b was MCP-sensitive. Further, exogenously added soluble MCP was also a weak cofactor for the cleavage of C3b bound to zymosan. Likewise, factor I, in the presence of cells bearing MCP, cleaved fluid-phase C3b inefficiently. These results imply that MCP has very little extrinsic cofactor activity for factor I. In contrast, exogenously added MCP and factor I mediated efficient cleavage of erythrocyte-bound C3b if the concentration of Nonidet P40 was sufficient to solubilize the cells. Interestingly, soluble MCP and factor I degraded C3b attached to certain solubilized acceptor membrane molecules more readily than others. The cleavage reaction of fluid-phase and cell-bound C3b by soluble MCP and factor I produced iC3b, but no C3c and C3dg. These and prior data indicate that soluble MCP has potent cofactor activity for fluid-phase C3b or C3b bound to solubilized molecules, but acts inefficiently towards C3b on other cells. This functional profile is unique for a C3b/C4b binding protein and, taken together with its wide tissue distribution, suggests an important role for MCP in the regulation of the complement system.