Exploring the Capability of Yeasts Isolated from Colombian Fermented Cocoa Beans to Form and Degrade Biogenic Amines in a Lab-Scale Model System for Cocoa Fermentation.
ABSTRACT: Yeast starters for cocoa fermentation are usually tested according to their enzymatic activities in terms of mucilage degradation and flavor improvement, disregarding their influence on the production or elimination of toxic compounds as biogenic amines (BAs), important for human health. In this work, we tested 145 strains belonging to 12 different yeast species and isolated from the Colombian fermented cocoa beans (CB) for their capability of producing BAs in vitro. Sixty-five strains were able to decarboxylate at least one of the amino acids tested. Pichia kudriavzevii ECA33 (Pk) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 4 (Sc) were selected to evaluate their potential to modulate BAs, organic acids, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) accumulation during a simulated cocoa fermentation. The growth of Sc or Pk in the presence of CB caused a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of 2-phenylethylamine (84% and 37%) and cadaverine (58% and 51%), and a significant increase of tryptamine and putrescine with a strong influence of temperature in BA formation and degradation. In addition, our findings pointed out that Pk induced a major production of fatty acid- and amino acid-derived VOCs, while Sc induced more VOCs derived from fatty acids metabolism. Our results suggest the importance of considering BA production in the choice of yeast starters for cocoa fermentation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). In general, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which consist of C16 and C18 fatty acids. However, cocoa butter-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are not among the major TAG forms in yeast. TAG biosynthesis is mainly catalyzed by three enzymes: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), and it is essential to modulate the yeast TAG biosynthetic pathway for higher CBL production. RESULTS:We cloned seven GPAT genes and three LPAT genes from cocoa cDNA, in order to screen for CBL biosynthetic gene candidates. By expressing these cloned cocoa genes and two synthesized cocoa DGAT genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some of the strains. In the best producer, the potential CBL content was eightfold higher than the control strain, suggesting the cocoa genes expressed in this strain were functional and might be responsible for CBL biosynthesis. Moreover, the potential CBL content increased 134-fold over the control Y29-TcD1 (IMX581 sct1Δ ale1Δ lro1Δ dga1Δ with TcDGAT1 expression) in strain Y29-441 (IMX581 sct1Δ ale1Δ lro1Δ dga1Δ with TcGPAT4, TcLPAT4 and TcDGAT1 expression) further suggesting cocoa GPAT and LPAT genes functioned in yeast. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated that cocoa TAG biosynthetic genes functioned in S. cerevisiae and identified cocoa genes that may be involved in CBL production. Moreover, we found that expression of some cocoa CBL biosynthetic genes improved potential CBL production in S. cerevisiae, showing that metabolic engineering of yeast for cocoa butter production can be realized by manipulating the key enzymes GPAT, LPAT and DGAT in the TAG biosynthetic pathway.
Project description:Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0), but CB supply is limited. Therefore, CB-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are in great demand. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which are also mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids. However, POP, POS and SOS are not among the major TAG forms in yeast. TAG synthesis is mainly catalyzed by three enzymes: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). In order to produce CBL in S. cerevisiae, we selected six cocoa genes encoding GPAT, LPAT and DGAT potentially responsible for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast strains harboring cocoa genes increased 190, 230 and 196% over the control strain, respectively; especially, the potential SOS content of the three yeast strains increased 254, 476 and 354% over the control strain. Moreover, one of the three yeast strains had a 2.25-fold increased TAG content and 6.7-fold higher level of CBL compared with the control strain. In summary, CBL production by S. cerevisiae were increased through expressing selected cocoa genes potentially involved in CB biosynthesis.
Project description:The composition of microbiota and the content and pattern of bioactive compounds (biogenic amines, polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavanols), as well as pH, color, antioxidant and reducing properties were investigated in fermented Criollo cocoa beans and shells. The analyses were conducted after fermentation and drying (T1) and after two thermal roasting processes (T2, 120 °C for 22 min; T3, 135 °C for 15 min). The fermentation and drying practices affected the microbiota of beans and shells, explaining the great variability of biogenic amines (BAs) content. Enterobacteriaceae were counted in a few samples with average values of 103 colony forming units per gram (CFU g-1), mainly in the shell, while Lactobacillus spp. was observed in almost all the samples, with the highest count in the shell with average values of 104 CFU g-1. After T1, the total BAs content was found to be in a range of 4.9÷127.1 mg kg-1DFW; what was remarkable was the presence of cadaverine and histamine, which have not been reported previously in fermented cocoa beans. The total BAs content increased 60% after thermal treatment T2, and of 21% after processing at T3, with a strong correlation (p < 0.05) for histamine (ß = 0.75) and weakly correlated for spermidine (ß = 0.58), spermine (ß = 0.50), cadaverine (ß = 0.47) and serotonine (ß = 0.40). The roasting treatment of T3 caused serotonin degradation (average decrease of 93%) with respect to unroasted samples. However, BAs were detected in a non-alarming concentration (e.g., histamine: n.d ÷ 59.8 mg kg-1DFW; tyramine: n.d. ÷ 26.5 mg kg-1DFW). Change in BAs level was evaluated by principal component analysis. PC1 and PC2 explained 84.9% and 4.5% of data variance, respectively. Antioxidant and reducing properties, polyphenol content and BAs negatively influenced PC1 with both polyphenols and BA increasing during roasting, whereas PC1 was positively influenced by anthocyanins, catechin and epicatechin.
Project description:This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.
Project description:Cocoa bean fermentation relies on the sequential activation of several microbial populations, triggering a temporal pattern of biochemical transformations. Understanding this complex process is of tremendous importance as it is known to form the precursors of the resulting chocolate's flavour and taste. At the same time, cocoa bean fermentation is one of the least controlled processes in the food industry. Here, a quantitative model of cocoa bean fermentation is constructed based on available microbiological and biochemical knowledge. The model is formulated as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with two distinct types of state variables: (i) metabolite concentrations of glucose, fructose, ethanol, lactic acid and acetic acid and (ii) population sizes of yeast, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. We demonstrate that the model can quantitatively describe existing fermentation time series and that the estimated parameters, obtained by a Bayesian framework, can be used to extract and interpret differences in environmental conditions. The proposed model is a valuable tool towards a mechanistic understanding of this complex biochemical process, and can serve as a starting point for hypothesis testing of new systemic adjustments. In addition to providing the first quantitative mathematical model of cocoa bean fermentation, the purpose of our investigation is to show how differences in estimated parameter values for two experiments allow us to deduce differences in experimental conditions.
Project description:Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production.
Project description:Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans.
Project description:Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), POS (C16:0-C18:1-C18:0), and SOS (C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). The storage lipids of yeasts, mainly TAGs, also contain relative high-level of C16 and C18 fatty acids and might be used as CB-like lipids (CBL). In this study, we cultivated six different yeasts, including one non-oleaginous yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability. Under the same growth conditions, we found that TAGs were the main lipids in all six yeasts and that T. oleaginosus can produce more TAGs than the other five yeasts. Less than 3% of the total TAGs were identified as potential SOS in the six yeasts. However, T. oleaginosus produced 27.8% potential POP and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future.
Project description:The use of cocoa pod husk hemicellulose hydrolysate (CPHHH) was evaluated for the production of xylitol by Candida boidinii XM02G yeast isolated from soil of cocoa-growing areas and decaying bark, as an alternative means of reusing this type of waste. Xylitol was obtained in concentrations of 11.34 g.L-1, corresponding to a yield (Yp/s) of 0.52 g.g-1 with a fermentation efficiency (?) of 56.6%. The yeast was tolerant to inhibitor compounds present in CPHHH without detoxification in different concentration factors, and was able to tolerate phenolic compounds at approximately 6 g.L-1. The yeast was also able to metabolize more than 99% (p/v) of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural present in the non-detoxified CPHHH without extension of the cell-growth lag phase, showing the potential of this microorganism for the production of xylitol. The fermentation of cocoa pod husk hydrolysates appears to provide an alternative use which may reduce the impact generated by incorrect disposal of this waste.
Project description:Yeasts play an important role in the cocoa fermentation process. Although the most relevant function is the degradation of sugars and the production of ethanol, there is little understanding of the enzyme activities and attributes that allow them to survive even after drying. The present study explored the functional biodiversity of yeasts associated with Criollo Colombian cocoa fermented beans, able to survive after drying. Twelve species belonging to 10 genera of osmo-, acid-, thermo-, and desiccation-tolerant yeasts were isolated and identified from fermented and dry cocoa beans, with Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae standing out as the most frequent. For the first time, we reported the presence of Zygosaccharomyces bisporus in cocoa fermented beans. It was found that resistance to desiccation is related to the different degradation capacities of fermentation substrates, which suggests that associative relationships may exist between the different yeast species and their degradation products. Besides, the increased thermotolerance of some species was related to the presence of polyphenols in the medium, which might play a fundamental role in shaping the microbial community composition.