Providing Comprehensive Dietary Fatty Acid Profiling from Saturates to Polyunsaturates with the Malaysia Lipid Study-Food Frequency Questionnaire: Validation Using the Triads Approach.
ABSTRACT: To address limited food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) capacity in public health monitoring in Malaysia, we aimed to develop a semi-quantitative FFQ for an adult multiethnic population for comprehensive fatty acid (FA) profiling inclusive of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA:SFA ratio, trans fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 FAs. A 240-food itemed FFQ used diet records (DR) of Malaysia Lipid Study (MLS) participants and fatty acid composition database from laboratory analyzed foods. The developed MLS-FFQ underwent face and content validation before relative validation in a free-living population (n = 114). Validation was facilitated for macronutrient data comparisons between DR and FFQ via Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses; and for fatty acid composition data by independent pairing of DR, FFQ and plasma triglyceride using the triads method. Moderate correlation between dietary methods was obtained for macronutrients and FAs (r = 0.225-0.457, p < 0.05) except for ?-3 FAs, presenting good agreement with grossly misclassified nutrients <10%. For fatty acid composition data, the magnitude of validity coefficients (z) for SFA, PUFA, PUFA:SFA ratios and ?-6 FAs by all 3 methods were not significantly different (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the MLS-FFQ was shown to be a valid tool to assess population dietary intakes.
Project description:The role of diet and circulatory carotenoids and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but not well studied in Chinese. However, other fatty acids were not comprehensively evaluated if it had additional consequence on AMD. This study investigated the relationship among dietary habits, fatty acids levels, carotenoids and AMD in Hong Kong Chinese adults. In this cross-sectional case-controlled study, plasma fatty acids including, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and carotenoids levels were quantified between patients with neovascular AMD (<i>n</i> = 99) and age-gender-matched controls (<i>n</i> = 198). A food frequency questionnaire was also conducted. Low blood carotenoid levels and omega-3 PUFAs namely DHA, EPA and ?-linolenic acid increased the odds ratio of developing neovascular AMD. High blood omega-6 PUFAs specifically arachidonic acid and eicosadienoic acid, oleic acid (a MUFA) and SFA levels increased the odds ratio of having neovascular AMD. Neovascular AMD group had significantly less omega-3 PUFA rich food (vegetables, nuts, seafood) intake and higher SFA (meat) intake than controls. In short, neovascular AMD was associated with lower circulatory levels of carotenoids and omega-3 PUFAs, and higher level of omega-6 PUFAs, oleic acid and SFAs in the Hong Kong Chinese population. These findings enhance the understandings of dietary impacts on neovascular AMD and provide a context for future nutritional intervention studies.
Project description:Population-based data suggest that high intake of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be beneficial in a variety of health conditions. It is likely that mainly those patients with preexisting n-3 deficiency are those that benefit most from n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Therefore, for targeted interventions, a fast and reliable screening tool for n-3 PUFA intake is necessary. Thus, the aim of this project was to adapt and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for n-3 PUFA intake in Switzerland while using as references the following: (1) 7-day food records (FR), and (2) n-3 fatty acid composition of red blood cells (RBC). We recruited 46 healthy adults for the first part of the study and 152 for the second. We used the dietary software EBISpro for the analysis of n-3 PUFA intake. RBC fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Using correlation analysis, we found a moderate significant association between FFQ and FR for ?-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), and total n-3 fatty acids (all r between 0.523 and 0.586, all p < 0.001). Bland Altman analysis further showed good agreement between the two methods and no proportional bias. Correlations between FFQ and RBC fatty acid composition were also moderate for EPA and DHA (r = 0.430 and r = 0.605, p < 0.001), but weaker for ALA and total n-3 (r = 0.314 and r = 0.211, p < 0.01). The efficacy of the FFQ to classify individuals into the same or adjacent quartile of RBC PUFA content ranged between 70% and 87% for the different fatty acids. In conclusion, we showed that the Swiss n-3 PUFA FFQ is a valid tool to assess dietary n-3 PUFA intake, especially DHA and EPA, to determine population groups at risk for low intake.
Project description:Over the last few years, the vegan diet has become increasingly popular in Germany. It has been proposed that this diet is generally lower in fat, but less is known about the impact on fatty acid (FA) profiles. Therefore, the cross-sectional "Risks and Benefits of a Vegan Diet" (RBVD) study (<i>n</i> = 72) was used to investigate dietary FA intake as well as plasma phospholipid FA in vegans (<i>n</i> = 36) compared to omnivores (<i>n</i> = 36). Vegans had a significantly lower dietary intake of total fat (median 86 g/day, IQR 64-111) in comparison to omnivores (median 104 g/day, IQR 88-143, <i>p</i> = 0.004). Further, vegans had a lower intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (<i>p</i> < 0.0001) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (<i>p</i> = 0.001) compared to omnivores. Vegans had a higher intake in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA compared to omnivores, but without statistical significance after Bonferroni correction. According to plasma phospholipid profiles, relatively lower proportions of SFA (<i>p</i> < 0.0001), total trans fatty acids (TFA) (<i>p</i> = 0.0004) and omega-3-FA (<i>p</i> < 0.0001), but higher proportions of omega-6-FA (<i>p</i> < 0.0001) were observed in vegans. With the exception of omega-3 PUFA, a vegan diet is associated with a more favorable dietary fat intake and more favorable plasma FA profiles and therefore may reduce cardiovascular risk.
Project description:Atherosclerosis is one of the leading non-communicable diseases in Sri Lanka. Analysis of fatty acid composition in blood vessels is important in understanding the development of atherosclerosis. Here, analyses of fatty acid profiles in major arteries which are commonly used in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery (CABG) were subjected to investigation. Patients (n = 27) undergoing elective CABG were enrolled in the study. A small biopsy segment of the saphenous vein (SV), radial artery (RA), and left internal mammary artery (LIMA) of patients was obtained during the surgery. The fatty acid (FA) profile of tissue samples was analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS). Among the different arteries tested, palmitic acid and stearic acid were the predominant fatty acids. As far as monounsaturated FA (MUFA) are concerned, oleic acid was found to be the most abundant MUFA in vessels. The FA profile of LIMA samples had a higher SFA percentage and lower unsaturated FA percentage compared to other vessels. Furthermore, the vessel samples of RA indicated the highest percentage of pro-inflammatory ω -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as well as a higher percentage ratio between ω -6: ω -3 PUFA. The fatty acid composition and ω -6: ω -3 PUFA ratio suggests that LIMA graft is preferred for CABG over RA and SV.
Project description:Dietary recommendations by health authorities have been advising of the importance of diminishing saturated fatty acids (SFA) consumption and replacing them by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly omega-3. Therefore, there have been efforts to enhance food fatty acid profiles, helping them to meet human nutritional recommendations. Ruminant meat is the major dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) source, but it also contains SFA at relatively high proportions, deriving from ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA. Additionally, lipid metabolism in ruminants may differ from other species. Recent research has aimed to modify the fatty acid profile of meat, and other animal products. This review summarizes dietary strategies based on the n-3 PUFA supplementation of ruminant diets and their effects on meat fatty acid composition. Additionally, the role of n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue (AT) development and in the expression of key genes involved in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism is discussed. It has been demonstrated that linseed supplementation leads to an increase in ?-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whilst fish oil and algae increase DHA content. Dietary PUFA can alter AT adiposity and modulate lipid metabolism genes expression, although further research is required to clarify the underlying mechanism.
Project description:Microorganisms are known to be natural oil producers in their cellular compartments. Microorganisms that accumulate more than 20% w/w of lipids on a cell dry weight basis are considered as oleaginous microorganisms. These are capable of synthesizing vast majority of fatty acids from short hydrocarbonated chain (C6) to long hydrocarbonated chain (C36), which may be saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), depending on the presence and number of double bonds in hydrocarbonated chains. Depending on the fatty acid profile, the oils obtained from oleaginous microorganisms are utilized as feedstock for either biodiesel production or as nutraceuticals. Mainly microalgae, bacteria, and yeasts are involved in the production of biodiesel, whereas thraustochytrids, fungi, and some of the microalgae are well known to be producers of very long-chain PUFA (omega-3 fatty acids). In this review article, the type of oleaginous microorganisms and their expertise in the field of biodiesel or omega-3 fatty acids, advances in metabolic engineering tools for enhanced lipid accumulation, upstream and downstream processing of lipids, including purification of biodiesel and concentration of omega-3 fatty acids are reviewed.
Project description:Dairy products are often considered challenging for health due to their saturated fatty acid content, yet they also provide beneficial nutrients, some unique to ruminants. The degree of fat saturation is influenced by cows' diets; grazing pasture enhances unsaturated fatty acids in milk compared with conserved forages. These benefits can be partially mimicked by feeding oilseeds and here we consider the impact on milk composition in a 2?×?2 trial, feeding rapeseed to both conventional and organic cows, finding very differing lipid metabolism in the 4 experimental groups. For milk fat, benefits of organic rather than conventional management (+39% PUFA, +24% long chain omega-3 and +12% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)) appear complementary to those from feeding rape (+43% MUFA, +10% PUFA, +40% CLA), combining to produce milk 16% lower SFA and higher in MUFA (43%), PUFA (55%) and CLA (59%). Organic and rape feeding provide less omega-3 PUFA than the conventional and control diets, yet contrary to expectations, together they almost doubled (+94%) the omega-3 concentration in milk, implying a 3.8 fold increase in net transfer from diet into milk. Organic and rape feeding also gave lower trace-elements and antioxidants in milk. Greater understanding of these phenomena might enhance the sustainability of dairying.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary intakes due to their ability to assess intake over extended periods, their low respondent burden, and their cost-effectiveness. A quantitative FFQ that includes locally appropriate food items for 5-year-old children in a multiethnic Asian population was developed, but its validity has not previously been evaluated. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the relative validity of a newly developed FFQ as a dietary assessment tool for 5-year-old children in a multiethnic Asian population. DESIGN:The 112 -food item FFQ was administered by trained interviewers to caregivers of children. Frequency of food items consumed in the previous month and portion size information were collected. The FFQs were evaluated against 3-day nonweighed diet records (DRs) completed by caregivers. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING:The dietary data of 361 children aged 5 years from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were collected in 2015-2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nutrients of interest included energy, macronutrients, fiber, cholesterol, vitamin A, beta carotene, calcium, and iron, calculated from the FFQs and DRs. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED:Nutrient intakes according to FFQs in relation to DRs were assessed using Pearson's correlation, Lin's concordance, Bland-Altman plots, quintile joint classification, and Cohen's ? statistics. RESULTS:The highest energy-adjusted correlation (Pearson's r=0.71) and concordance (Lin's concordance=0.69) were observed for calcium. Fiber, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), cholesterol, and iron also showed correlation coefficients and concordance of at least 0.40. Bland-Altman plots suggested no substantial bias across ranges of intakes for the nutrients with correlations and concordance of 0.40 or above. Quintiles joint classification showed substantial agreement for calcium (?=0.66), and moderate agreement for iron, fiber, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and beta carotene (?=0.59, 0.54, 0.49, 0.44, 0.43, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The newly developed FFQ is in reasonable agreement with DR for estimating intakes of calcium, fiber, saturated fat, PUFA, cholesterol, and iron. In addition, the FFQ is able to classify children according to quintiles of nutrient intakes, with moderate to substantial quintile agreements between FFQ and DR for calcium, iron, fiber, saturated fat, PUFA, and beta carotene. To assess the remaining nutrients, DR method is recommended instead of the FFQ.
Project description:Hepatic steatosis, an early stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is commonly present in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and is associated with reduced hepatic omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3-PUFA) status that impacts on the anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing functions of n3-PUFA. Our objective was to directly compare plant- and marine-based n3-PUFA (?-linoleic acid (ALA)), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) for their effects on hepatic steatosis, markers of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, and insulinemia in obese rats. Fa/fa Zucker rats were provided diets containing ALA, EPA, DHA, or linoleic acid (LA, n6-PUFA) for eight weeks and compared to baseline fa/fa rats and lean Zucker rats fed LA-rich diet for eight weeks. Both DHA and EPA groups had liver lipid similar to baseline, however, DHA was more effective than EPA for reducing hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS), increasing the proportion of smaller lipid droplets, reversing early fibrotic damage, and reducing fasting hyperinsulinemia. EPA was more effective for reducing FoxO1. Dietary ALA did not attenuate hepatic steatosis, most inflammatory markers or FAS. In summary, amongst the n3-PUFA, DHA was the most effective for elevating hepatic DHA levels, and preventing progression of hepatic steatosis via reductions in FAS and a marker of fibrosis.
Project description:This study aimed to identify the association between the risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (hyper-LDLC) and fatty acid consumption patterns (FACPs) using the data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) prospective cohort. A total of 6542 middle-aged Korean adults were included in the analysis. Four FACPs were identified through principal component analysis of the reported intakes of 34 fatty acids (FAs): "long-chain FA pattern"; "short & medium-chain saturated fatty acid (SFA) pattern"; "n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) pattern"; and "long-chain SFA pattern". The "long-chain SFA pattern" lowered the risk of hyper-LDLC (relative risk (RR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.94; p for trend, 0.004) and the "short & medium-chain SFA pattern" increased the risk of hyper-LDLC (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.32; p for trend = 0.004). In sex-stratified analyses, the associations of the "long-chain SFA pattern" (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.93; p for trend = 0.007) and the "short & medium-chain SFA pattern" (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.07-1.69; p for trend = 0.003) with the hyper-LDLC risk were observed only in men, but not in women. These results suggest that FACPs with a high intake of long-chain SFA or a low intake of short and medium-chain SFA may protect Korean adults from hyper-LDLC.