Putative Novel Serotypes '33' and '35' in Clinically Healthy Small Ruminants in Mongolia Expand the Group of Atypical BTV.
ABSTRACT: Between 2015 and 2018, we identified the presence of three so-far-unknown Bluetongue virus (BTV) strains (BTV-MNG1/2018, BTV-MNG2/2016, and BTV-MNG3/2016) circulating in clinical healthy sheep and goats in Mongolia. Virus isolation from EDTA blood samples of BTV-MNG1/2018 and BTV-MNG3/2016 was successful on the mammalian cell line BSR using blood collected from surveillance. After experimental inoculation of goats with BTV-MNG2/2016 positive blood as inoculum, we observed viraemia in one goat and with the EDTA blood of the experimental inoculation, the propagation of BTV-MNG2/2016 in cell culture was successful on mammalian cell line BSR as well. However, virus isolation experiments for BTV-MNG2/2016 on KC cells were unsuccessful. Furthermore, we generated the complete coding sequence of all three novel Mongolian strains. For atypical BTV, serotyping via the traditional serum neutralization assay is not trivial. We therefore sorted the 'putative novel atypical serotypes' according to their segment-2 sequence identities and their time point of sampling. Hence, the BTV-MNG1/2018 isolate forms the 'putative novel atypical serotype' 33, the BTV-MNG3/2016 the 'putative novel atypical serotype' 35, whereas the BTV-MNG2/2016 strain belongs to the same putative novel atypical serotype '30' as BTV-XJ1407 from China.
Project description:Recently, several so-called "atypical" Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes were discovered, including BTV-25 (Toggenburg virus), in Switzerland. Most "atypical" BTV were identified in small ruminants without clinical signs. In 2018, two goats from a holding in Germany tested positive for BTV-25 genome by RT-qPCR prior to export. After experimental inoculation of the two goats with the BTV-25 positive field blood samples for generation of reference materials, viremia could be observed in one animal. For the first time, the BTV-25-related virus was isolated in cell culture from EDTA-blood and the full genome of isolate "BTV-25-GER2018" could be generated. BTV-25-GER2018 was only incompletely neutralized by ELISA-positive sera. We could monitor the BTV-25 occurrence in the respective affected goat flock of approximately 120 goats over several years. EDTA blood samples were screened with RT-qPCR using a newly developed BTV-25 specific assay. For serological surveillance, serum samples were screened using a commercial cELISA. BTV-25-GER2018 was detected over 4.5 years in the goat flock with intermittent PCR-positivity in some animals, and with or without concomitantly detected antibodies since 2015. We could demonstrate the viral persistence of BTV-25-GER2018 in goats for up to 4.5 years, and the first BTV-25 isolate is now available for further characterization.
Project description:We announce the complete coding genome sequence of a novel bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype (BTV-n = putative BTV-27) detected in goats in Corsica, France, in 2014. Sequence analysis confirmed the closest relationship between sequences of the novel BTV serotype and BTV-25 and BTV-26, recently discovered in Switzerland and Kuwait, respectively.
Project description:In this paper, the results of the diagnostic activities on Bluetongue virus serotype 3 (BTV-3) conducted at Kimron Veterinary Institute (Beit Dagan, Israel) between 2013 and 2018 are reported. Bluetongue virus is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), a disease of ruminants, mostly transmitted by competent Culicoides species. In Israel, BTV-3 circulation was first detected in 2013 from a sheep showing classical BT clinical signs. It was also evidenced in 2016, and, since then, it has been regularly detected in Israeli livestock. Between 2013 and 2017, BTV-3 outbreaks were limited in sheep flocks located in the southern area only. In 2018, BTV-3 was instead found in the Israeli coastal area being one of the dominant BTV serotypes isolated from symptomatic sheep, cattle and goats. In Israeli sheep, BTV-3 was able to cause BT classical clinical manifestations and fatalities, while in cattle and goats infection ranged from asymptomatic forms to death cases, depending on either general welfare of the herds or on the occurrence of viral and bacterial co-infections. Three different BTV-3 strains were identified in Israel between 2013 and 2018: ISR-2019/13 isolated in 2013, ISR-2153/16 and ISR-2262/2/16 isolated in 2016. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of these strains showed more than 99% identity by segment (Seg) 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 sequences. In contrast, a wide range of diversity among these strains was exhibited in other viral gene segments, implying the occurrence of genome reassortment between these local circulating strains and those originating from Africa. The genome sequences of the BTV-3 isolated in 2017 and 2018 were most closely related to those of the ISR-2153/16 strain suggesting their common ancestor. Comparison of BTV-3 Israeli strains with those recently detected in the Mediterranean region uncovered high percentage identity (98.19-98.28%) only between Seg-2 of all Israeli strains and the BTV-3 Zarzis/TUN2016 strain. A 98.93% identity was also observed between Seg-4 sequences of ISR-2019/13 and the BTV-3 Zarzis/TUN2016 strain. This study demonstrated that BTV-3 has been circulating in the Mediterranean region at least since 2013, but, unlike the other Mediterranean strains, Israeli BTV-3 were able to cause clinical signs also in cattle.
Project description:Sheep and goats sampled in Kuwait during February 2010 were seropositive for bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV isolate KUW2010/02, from 1 of only 2 sheep that also tested positive for BTV by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, caused mild clinical signs in sheep. Nucleotide sequencing identified KUW2010/02 as a novel BTV serotype.
Project description:During 2000-2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected.
Project description:The detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) antigens in formalin-fixed tissues has been challenging; therefore, only a limited number of studies on suitable immunohistochemical approaches have been reported. This study details the successful application of antibodies for the immunohistochemical detection of BTV in BSR variant baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-BSR) and infected sheep lungs that were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE). BTV reactive antibodies raised against non-structural (NS) proteins 1, 2, and 3/3a and viral structural protein 7 (VP7) were first evaluated on FFPE BTV-infected cell pellets for their ability to detect BTV serotype 1 (BTV-1). Antibodies that were successful in immunolabelling BTV-1 infected cell pellets were further tested, using similar methods, to determine their broader immunoreactivity against a diverse range of BTV and other orbiviruses. Antibodies specific for NS1, NS2, and NS3/3a were able to detect all BTV isolates tested, and the VP7 antibody cross-reacted with all BTV isolates, except BTV-15. The NS1 antibodies were BTV serogroup-specific, while the NS2, NS3/3a, and VP7 antibodies demonstrated immunologic cross-reactivity to related orbiviruses. These antibodies also detected viral antigens in BTV-3 infected sheep lung. This study demonstrates the utility of FFPE-infected cell pellets for the development and validation of BTV immunohistochemistry.
Project description:Bluetongue virus (BTV) can infect most ruminant species and is usually transmitted by adult, vector-competent biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Infection with BTV can cause severe clinical signs and can be fatal, particularly in naïve sheep and some deer species. Although 24 distinct BTV serotypes were recognized for several decades, additional 'types' have recently been identified, including BTV-25 (from Switzerland), BTV-26 (from Kuwait) and BTV-27 from France (Corsica). Although BTV-25 has failed to grow in either insect or mammalian cell cultures, BTV-26 (isolate KUW2010/02), which can be transmitted horizontally between goats in the absence of vector insects, does not replicate in a Culicoides sonorensis cell line (KC cells) but can be propagated in mammalian cells (BSR cells). The BTV genome consists of ten segments of linear dsRNA. Mono-reassortant viruses were generated by reverse-genetics, each one containing a single BTV-26 genome segment in a BTV-1 genetic-background. However, attempts to recover a mono-reassortant containing genome-segment 2 (Seg-2) of BTV-26 (encoding VP2), were unsuccessful but a triple-reassortant was successfully generated containing Seg-2, Seg-6 and Seg-7 (encoding VP5 and VP7 respectively) of BTV-26. Reassortants were recovered and most replicated well in mammalian cells (BSR cells). However, mono-reassortants containing Seg-1 or Seg-3 of BTV-26 (encoding VP1, or VP3 respectively) and the triple reassortant failed to replicate, while a mono-reassortant containing Seg-7 of BTV-26 only replicated slowly in KC cells.
Project description:A novel bluetongue virus (BTV) termed Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in goats from Switzerland by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. cDNA corresponding to the complete sequence of 7 of 10 double-stranded RNA segments of the viral genome was amplified by PCR and cloned into a plasmid vector. Five clones for each genome segment were sequenced to determine a consensus sequence. BLAST analysis and dendrogram construction showed that TOV is closely related to BTV, although some genome segments are distinct from the 24 known BTV serotypes. Maximal sequence identity to any BTV ranged from 63% (segment 2) to 79% (segments 7 and 10). Because the gene encoding outer capsid protein 2 (VP2), which determines the serotype of BTV, is placed within the BTV serogroup, we propose that TOV represents an unknown 25th serotype of BTV.
Project description:Since 1998, several serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV) have invaded several southern European countries. In 2006, the unknown BTV serotype 8 (BTV8/net06) unexpectedly invaded North-West Europe and has resulted in the largest BT-outbreak ever recorded. More recently, in 2008 BTV serotype 6 was reported in The Netherlands and Germany. This virus, BTV6/net08, is closely related to modified-live vaccine virus serotype 6, except for genome segment S10. This genome segment is closer related to that of vaccine virus serotype 2, and therefore BTV6/net08 is considered as a result of reassortment. Research on orbiviruses has been hampered by the lack of a genetic modification method. Recently, reverse genetics has been developed for BTV based on ten in vitro synthesized genomic RNAs. Here, we describe a targeted single-gene modification system for BTV based on the uptake of a single in vitro synthesized viral positive-stranded RNA. cDNAs corresponding to BTV8/net06 genome segments S7 and S10 were obtained by gene synthesis and cloned downstream of the T7 RNA-polymerase promoter and upstream of a unique site for a restriction enzyme at the 3'-terminus for run-off transcription. Monolayers of BSR cells were infected by BTV6/net08, and subsequently transfected with purified in vitro synthesized, capped positive-stranded S7 or S10 RNA from BTV8/net06 origin. "Synthetic" reassortants were rescued by endpoint dilutions, and identified by serotype-specific PCR-assays for segment 2, and serogroup-specific PCRs followed by restriction enzyme analysis or sequencing for S7 and S10 segments. The targeted single-gene modification system can also be used to study functions of viral proteins by uptake of mutated genome segments. This method is also useful to generate mutant orbiviruses for other serogroups of the genus Orbivirus for which reverse genetics has not been developed yet.
Project description:Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin. In 2006, a huge BT outbreak started after incursion of BTV serotype 8 (BTV8) in North-Western Europe. IN 2008, BTV6 and BTV11 were reported in the Netherlands and Germany, and in Belgium, respectively. In addition, Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in 2008 in Swiss goats, which was recognized as a new serotype of BTV (BTV25). The (re-)emergency of BTV serotypes needs a rapid response to supply effective vaccines. Reverse genetics has been developed for BTV1 and more recently also for BTV6. This latter strain, BTV6/net08, is closely related to live-attenuated vaccine for serotype 6 as determined by full genome sequencing. Here, we used this strain as backbone and exchanged segment 2 and 6, respectively Seg-2 (VP2) and Seg-6 (VP5), for those of BTV serotype 1 and 8 using reverse genetics. These so-called 'serotyped' vaccine viruses, as mono-serotype and multi-serotype vaccine, were compared for their protective capacity in sheep. In general, all vaccinated animals developed a neutralizing antibody response against their respective serotype. After challenge at three weeks post vaccination with cell-passaged, virulent BTV8/net07 (BTV8/net07/e1/bhkp3) the vaccinated animals showed nearly no clinical reaction. Even more, challenge virus could not be detected, and seroconversion or boostering after challenge was negligible. These data demonstrate that all sheep were protected from a challenge with BTV8/net07, since sheep of the control group showed viremia, seroconversion and clinical signs that are specific for Bluetongue. The high level of cross-protection is discussed.