NMR assignments of the macro domain from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
ABSTRACT: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel pathogen causing pneumonia named COVID-19 and leading to a severe pandemic since the end of 2019. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 contains a macro domain that may play an important role in regulating ADP-ribosylation in host cells and initiating viral replication. Here, we report the 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments of the SARS-CoV-2 macro domain. This work provides the ground for further structural deciphering and biophysical investigation in protein function and antiviral agent design.
Project description:The pandemic outbreak of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has threatened the global public health and economy since late December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 encodes the conserved macro domain within nonstructural protein 3, which may reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation and potentially cut the signal of a viral infection in the cell. Herein, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 macro domain was examined as a poly-ADP-ribose (ADPR) binding module and possessed mono-ADPR cleavage enzyme activity. After confirming the ADPR binding ability via a biophysical approach, the X-ray crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 macro domain was determined and structurally compared with those of other viruses. This study provides structural, biophysical, and biochemical bases to further evaluate the role of the SARS-CoV-2 macro domain in the host response via ADP-ribose binding but also as a potential target for drug design against COVID-19.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nsP3c (non-structural Protein3c) spans the sequence of the so-called SARS Unique Domains (SUDs), first observed in SARS-CoV. Although the function of this viral protein is not fully elucidated, it is believed that it is crucial for the formation of the replication/transcription viral complex (RTC) and of the interaction of various viral "components" with the host cell; thus, it is essential for the entire viral life cycle. The first two SUDs, the so-called SUD-N (the N-terminal domain) and SUD-M (domain following SUD-N) domains, exhibit topological and conformational features that resemble the nsP3b macro (or "X") domain. Indeed, they are all folded in a three-layer ?/?/? sandwich structure, as revealed through crystallographic structural investigation of SARS-CoV SUDs, and they have been attributed to different substrate selectivity as they selectively bind to oligonucleotides. On the other hand, the C-terminal SUD (SUD-C) exhibit much lower sequence similarities compared to the SUD-N & SUD-M, as reported in previous crystallographic and NMR studies of SARS-CoV. In the absence of the 3D structures of SARS-CoV-2, we report herein the almost complete NMR backbone and side-chain resonance assignment (<sup>1</sup>H,<sup>13</sup>C,<sup>15</sup>N) of SARS-CoV-2 SUD-M and SUD-C proteins, and the NMR chemical shift-based prediction of their secondary structure elements. These NMR data will set the base for further understanding at the atomic-level conformational dynamics of these proteins and will allow the effective screening of a large number of small molecules as binders with potential biological impact on their function.
Project description:The main protease (M(pro)) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) plays an essential role in the extensive proteolytic processing of the viral polyproteins (pp1a and pp1ab), and it is an important target for anti-SARS drug development. SARS-CoV M(pro) is composed of a catalytic N-terminal domain and an ?-helical C-terminal domain linked by a long loop. Even though the N-terminal domain of SARS-CoV M(pro) adopts a similar chymotrypsin-like fold as that of piconavirus 3C protease, the extra C-terminal domain is required for SARS-CoV M(pro) to be enzymatically active. Here, we reported the NMR assignments of the SARS-CoV M(pro) N-terminal domain alone, which are essential for its solution structure determination.
Project description:The Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein Nsp9 is a 113-residue protein that is essential for viral replication, and consequently, a potential target for the development of therapeutics against COVID19 infections. To capture insights into the dynamics of the protein's backbone in solution and accelerate the identification and mapping of ligand-binding surfaces through chemical shift perturbation studies, the backbone <sup>1</sup>H, <sup>13</sup>C, and <sup>15</sup>N NMR chemical shifts for Nsp9 have been extensively assigned. These assignments were assisted by the preparation of an?~?70% deuterated sample and residue-specific, <sup>15</sup>N-labelled samples (V, L, M, F, and K). A major feature of the assignments was the "missing" amide resonances for N96-L106 in the <sup>1</sup>H-<sup>15</sup>N HSQC spectrum, a region that comprises almost the complete C-terminal ?-helix that forms a major part of the homodimer interface in the crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp9, suggesting this region either undergoes intermediate motion in the ms to ?s timescale and/or is heterogenous. These "missing" amide resonances do not unambiguously appear in the <sup>1</sup>H-<sup>15</sup>N HSQC spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp9 collected at a concentration of 0.0007 mM. At this concentration, at the detection limit, native mass spectrometry indicates the protein is exclusively in the monomeric state, suggesting the intermediate motion in the C-terminal of Nsp9 may be due to intramolecular dynamics. Perhaps this intermediate ms to ?s timescale dynamics is the physical basis for a previously suggested "fluidity" of the C-terminal helix that may be responsible for homophilic (Nsp9-Nsp9) and postulated heterophilic (Nsp9-Unknown) protein-protein interactions.
Project description:Macro domains or X domains are found as modules of multidomain proteins, but can also constitute a protein on their own. Recently, biochemical and structural studies of cellular macro domains have been performed, showing that they are active as ADP-ribose-1''-phosphatases. Macro domains are also present in a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses, but their precise function in viral replication is still unknown. The major human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes 16 non-structural proteins (nsps), one of which (nsp3) encompasses a macro domain. The SARS-CoV nsp3 gene region corresponding to amino acids 182-355 has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.5, b = 55.6, c = 108.9 angstroms, beta = 91.4 degrees, and the asymmetric unit contains either two or three molecules. Both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffract to 1.8 angstroms.
Project description:Macro domains constitute a protein module family found associated with specific histones and proteins involved in chromatin metabolism. In addition, a small number of animal RNA viruses, such as corona- and toroviruses, alphaviruses, and hepatitis E virus, encode macro domains for which, however, structural and functional information is extremely limited. Here, we characterized the macro domains from hepatitis E virus, Semliki Forest virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The crystal structure of the SARS-CoV macro domain was determined at 1.8-Angstroms resolution in complex with ADP-ribose. Information derived from structural, mutational, and sequence analyses suggests a close phylogenetic and, most probably, functional relationship between viral and cellular macro domain homologs. The data revealed that viral macro domains have relatively poor ADP-ribose 1"-phosphohydrolase activities (which were previously proposed to be their biologically relevant function) but bind efficiently free and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1-bound poly(ADP-ribose) in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest to further evaluate the role of viral macro domains in host response to viral infection.
Project description:UNLABELLED:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational protein modification in which ADP-ribose is transferred from NAD(+) to specific acceptors to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. The macro domain is an ancient and highly evolutionarily conserved protein domain widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life, including viruses. The human TARG1/C6orf130, MacroD1, and MacroD2 proteins can reverse ADP-ribosylation by acting on ADP-ribosylated substrates through the hydrolytic activity of their macro domains. Here, we report that the macro domain from hepatitis E virus (HEV) serves as an ADP-ribose-protein hydrolase for mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chain removal (de-MARylation and de-PARylation, respectively) from mono- and poly(ADP)-ribosylated proteins, respectively. The presence of the HEV helicase in cis dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to poly(ADP-ribose) and stimulates the de-PARylation activity. Abrogation of the latter dramatically decreases replication of an HEV subgenomic replicon. The de-MARylation activity is present in all three pathogenic positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] virus families which carry a macro domain: Coronaviridae (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E), Togaviridae (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), and Hepeviridae (HEV), indicating that it might be a significant tropism and/or pathogenic determinant. IMPORTANCE:Protein ADP-ribosylation is a covalent posttranslational modification regulating cellular protein activities in a dynamic fashion to modulate and coordinate a variety of cellular processes. Three viral families, Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, possess macro domains embedded in their polyproteins. Here, we show that viral macro domains reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation, potentially cutting the signal of a viral infection in the cell. Various poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases which are notorious guardians of cellular integrity are demodified by macro domains from members of these virus families. In the case of hepatitis E virus, the adjacent viral helicase domain dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to PAR and simulates the demodification activity.
Project description:Alphaviruses are (re-)emerging arboviruses of public health concern. The nsP3 gene product is one of the key players during viral replication. NsP3 comprises three domains: a macro domain, a zinc-binding domain and a hypervariable region. The macro domain is essential at both early and late stages of the replication cycle through ADP-ribose (ADPr) binding and de-ADP-ribosylation of host proteins. However, both its specific role and the precise molecular mechanism of de-ADP-ribosylation across specific viral families remains to be elucidated. Here we investigate by X-ray crystallography the mechanism of ADPr reactivity in the active site of Getah virus macro domain, which displays a peculiar substitution of one of the conserved residues in the catalytic loop. ADPr adopts distinct poses including a covalent bond between the C''1 of the ADPr and a conserved Togaviridae-specific cysteine. These different poses observed for ADPr may represent snapshots of the de-ADP-ribosylation mechanism, highlighting residues to be further characterised.
Project description:The non-structural protein nsp3 from SARS-CoV-2 plays an essential role in the viral replication transcription complex. Nsp3a constitutes the N-terminal domain of nsp3, comprising a ubiquitin-like folded domain and a disordered acidic chain. This region of nsp3a has been linked to interactions with the viral nucleoprotein and the structure of double membrane vesicles. Here, we report the backbone resonance assignment of both domains of nsp3a. The study is carried out in the context of the international covid19-nmr consortium, which aims to characterize SARS-CoV-2 proteins and RNAs, providing for example NMR chemical shift assignments of the different viral components. Our assignment will provide the basis for the identification of inhibitors and further functional and interaction studies of this essential protein.
Project description:The ADP-ribosylation of proteins is an important post-translational modification that occurs in a variety of biological processes, including DNA repair, transcription, chromatin biology and long-term memory formation. Yet no protein modules are known that specifically recognize the ADP-ribose nucleotide. We provide biochemical and structural evidence that macro domains are high-affinity ADP-ribose binding modules. Our structural analysis reveals a conserved ligand binding pocket among the macro domain fold. Consistently, distinct human macro domains retain their ability to bind ADP-ribose. In addition, some macro domain proteins also recognize poly-ADP-ribose as a ligand. Our data suggest an important role for proteins containing macro domains in the biology of ADP-ribose.