Overexpression of Adiponectin Receptor 1 Inhibits Brown and Beige Adipose Tissue Activity in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Adult humans and mice possess significant classical brown adipose tissues (BAT) and, upon cold-induction, acquire brown-like adipocytes in certain depots of white adipose tissues (WAT), known as beige adipose tissues or WAT browning/beiging. Activating thermogenic classical BAT or WAT beiging to generate heat limits diet-induced obesity or type-2 diabetes in mice. Adiponectin is a beneficial adipokine resisting diabetes, and causing "healthy obese" by increasing WAT expansion to limit lipotoxicity in other metabolic tissues during high-fat feeding. However, the role of its receptors, especially adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), on cold-induced thermogenesis in vivo in BAT and in WAT beiging is still elusive. Here, we established a cold-induction procedure in transgenic mice over-expressing AdipoR1 and applied a live 3-D [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) scanning to measure BAT activity by determining glucose uptake in cold-acclimated transgenic mice. Results showed that cold-acclimated mice over-expressing AdipoR1 had diminished cold-induced glucose uptake, enlarged adipocyte size in BAT and in browned WAT, and reduced surface BAT/body temperature in vivo. Furthermore, decreased gene expression, related to thermogenic Ucp1, BAT-specific markers, BAT-enriched mitochondrial markers, lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation, and increased expression of whitening genes in BAT or in browned subcutaneous inguinal WAT of AdipoR1 mice are congruent with results of PET/CT scanning and surface body temperature in vivo. Moreover, differentiated brown-like beige adipocytes isolated from pre-adipocytes in subcutaneous WAT of transgenic AdipoR1 mice also had similar effects of lowered expression of thermogenic Ucp1, BAT selective markers, and BAT mitochondrial markers. Therefore, this study combines in vitro and in vivo results with live 3-D scanning and reveals one of the many facets of the adiponectin receptors in regulating energy homeostasis, especially in the involvement of cold-induced thermogenesis.
Project description:Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays an important role in energy homeostasis. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether or not adiponectin regulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and thermogenesis.Core body temperatures (CBTs) of genetic mouse models were monitored at room temperature and during cold exposure. Cultured brown adipocytes and viral vector-mediated gene transduction were used to study the regulatory effects of adiponectin on Ucp1 gene expression and the underlying mechanisms.The CBTs of adiponectin knockout mice (Adipoq(-/-)) were significantly higher than those of wild type (WT) mice both at room temperature and during the cold (4°C) challenge. Conversely, reconstitution of adiponectin in Adipoq(-/-) mice significantly blunted ? adrenergic receptor agonist-induced thermogenesis of interscapular BAT. After 10 days of intermittent cold exposure, Adipoq(-/-) mice exhibited higher UCP1 expression and more brown-like structure in inguinal fat than WT mice. Paradoxically, we found that the anti-thermogenic effect of adiponectin requires neither AdipoR1 nor AdipoR2, two well-known adiponectin receptors. In sharp contrast to the anti-thermogenic effects of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and especially AdipoR2 promote BAT activation. Mechanistically, adiponectin was found to inhibit Ucp1 gene expression by suppressing ?3-adrenergic receptor expression in brown adipocytes.This study demonstrates that adiponectin suppresses thermogenesis, which is likely to be a mechanism whereby adiponectin reduces energy expenditure.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations in BSCL2 are responsible for Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, a rare disorder characterized by near absence of adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance. Seipin-deficient (Bscl2<sup>-/-</sup>) mice display an almost total loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) with residual brown adipose tissue (BAT). Previous cellular studies have shown that seipin deficiency alters white adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we aimed to decipher the consequences of seipin deficiency in BAT. Using a brown adipocyte cell-line, we show that seipin knockdown had very little effect on adipocyte differentiation without affecting insulin sensitivity and oxygen consumption. However, when submitted to cold acclimation or chronic ?3 agonist treatment, Bscl2<sup>-/-</sup> mice displayed altered thermogenic capacity, despite several signs of BAT remodeling. Under cold activation, Bscl2<sup>-/-</sup> mice were able to maintain their body temperature when fed ad libitum, but not under short fasting. At control temperature (i.e. 21?°C), fasting worsened Bscl2<sup>-/-</sup> BAT properties. Finally, Bscl2<sup>-/-</sup> BAT displayed obvious signs of insulin resistance. Our results in these lipodystrophic mice strongly suggest that BAT activity relies on WAT as an energetic substrate provider and adipokine-producing organ. Therefore, the WAT/BAT dialogue is a key component of BAT integrity in guaranteeing its response to insulin and cold-activated adrenergic signals.
Project description:To maintain core body temperature in cold conditions, mammals activate a complex multi-organ metabolic response for heat production. White adipose tissue (WAT) primarily functions as an energy reservoir, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated during cold exposure to generate heat from nutrients. Both BAT and WAT undergo specific metabolic changes during acute cold exposure. Here, we use an untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize the initial metabolic response to cold exposure in multiple adipose tissue depots in mice. Results demonstrate dramatically distinct metabolic responses during cold exposure in BAT and WAT. Amino acids, nucleotide pathways, and metabolites involved in redox regulation were greatly affected 4?hours post-exposure in BAT, while no polar metabolites were observed to significantly change in WAT depots up to 6?hours post exposure. Lipid metabolism was activated early (2?hours) in both BAT and the subcutaneous WAT depots, with the most striking change being observed in the modulation of diglyceride and monoglyceride levels in BAT. Overall, these data provide a timeline of global thermogenic metabolism in adipose depots during acute cold exposure. We have highlighted differences in visceral and subcutaneous WAT thermogenic metabolism and demonstrate the distinct metabolism of BAT during cold exposure.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are emerging regulators of adipose tissue metabolism. Here we aimed to explore the role of CDK7 in thermogenic fat. We found that CDK7 brown adipose tissue (BAT)-specific knockout mice (Cdk7bKO) have decreased BAT mass and impaired ?3-adrenergic signaling and develop hypothermia upon cold exposure. We found that loss of CDK7 in BAT disrupts the induction of thermogenic genes in response to cold. However, Cdk7bKO mice do not show systemic metabolic dysfunction. Increased expression of genes of the creatine metabolism compensates for the heat generation in the BAT of Cdk7bKO mice in response to cold. Finally, we show that CDK7 is required for beta 3-adrenergic agonist-induced browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Indeed, Cdk7 ablation in all adipose tissues (Cdk7aKO) has impaired browning in WAT. Together, our results demonstrate that CDK7 is an important mediator of beta-adrenergic signaling in thermogenic brown and beige fat.
Project description:Lipid droplet (LD) lipolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is generally considered to be required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Here, we show that mice lacking BAT Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipolytic activator essential for the stimulated LD lipolysis, have normal thermogenic capacity and are not cold sensitive. Relative to littermate controls, these animals had higher body temperatures when they were provided food during cold exposure. The increase in body temperature in the fed, cold-exposed knockout mice was associated with increased energy expenditure and with increased sympathetic innervation and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Mice lacking CGI-58 in both BAT and WAT were cold sensitive, but only in the fasted state. Thus, LD lipolysis in BAT is not essential for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis in vivo. Rather, CGI-58-dependent LD lipolysis in BAT regulates WAT thermogenesis, and our data uncover an essential role of WAT lipolysis in fueling thermogenesis during fasting.
Project description:Physical exercise leads to beneficial effects in numerous tissues and organ systems and offers protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated the role of exercise on brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT), and have indicated marked adaptations to each tissue with exercise. Studies investigating the effects of exercise on BAT have produced conflicting results, with some showing an increase in the thermogenic activity of BAT and some demonstrating a decrease in the thermogenic activity of BAT. Human studies have observed a down-regulation of BAT activity (measured by a reduction in glucose uptake) in response to exercise. In WAT, exercise decreases adipocyte size, alters gene expression, and increases mitochondrial activity. Transplantation of exercise-trained subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) improves whole-body metabolic health. In rodents, exercise also results in a beiging of scWAT. Thus, exercise-induced changes to adipose tissue may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves metabolic health.
Project description:Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood. To illuminate the effect of adipocyte AMPK on energy metabolism, we generated Adiponectin-Cre-driven adipose tissue-specific AMPK ?1/?2 KO mice (AKO). These AKO mice were cold intolerant and their inguinal WAT displayed impaired mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis, and reduced expression of thermogenic markers upon cold exposure. High-fat-diet (HFD)-fed AKO mice exhibited increased adiposity and exacerbated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were markedly decreased in the AKO mice both in basal conditions and after stimulation with a ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist, CL 316,243. In contrast, we found that in HFD-fed obese mouse model, chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 protected against obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. A-769662 alleviated HFD-induced glucose intolerance and reduced body weight gain and WAT expansion. Notably, A-769662 increased energy expenditure and cold tolerance in HFD-fed mice. A-769662 treatment also induced the browning process in the inguinal fat depot of HFD-fed mice. Likewise, A-769662 enhanced thermogenesis in differentiated inguinal stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells via AMPK signaling pathway. In summary, a lack of adipocyte AMPK? induced thermogenic impairment and obesity in response to cold and nutrient-overload, respectively, whereas chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 promoted WAT browning in inguinal WAT and protected against HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. These findings reveal a vital role for adipocyte AMPK in regulating the browning process in inguinal WAT and in maintaining energy homeostasis, which suggests that the targeted activation of adipocyte AMPK may be a promising strategy for anti-obesity therapy.
Project description:White adipose tissue (WAT) thermogenic activity may play a role in whole-body energy balance and two of its main regulators are thought to be environmental temperature (T<sub>env</sub>) and exercise. Low T<sub>env</sub> may increase uncoupling protein one (UCP1; the main biomarker of thermogenic activity) in WAT to regulate body temperature. On the other hand, exercise may stimulate UCP1 in WAT, which is thought to alter body weight regulation. However, our understanding of the roles (if any) of T<sub>env</sub> and exercise in WAT thermogenic activity remains incomplete. Our aim was to examine the impacts of low T<sub>env</sub> and exercise on WAT thermogenic activity, which may alter energy homeostasis and body weight regulation. We conducted a series of four experimental studies, supported by two systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We found increased UCP1 mRNA (p = 0.03; but not protein level) in human WAT biopsy samples collected during the cold part of the year, a finding supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO review protocol: CRD42019120116). Additional clinical trials (NCT04037371; NCT04037410) using Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) revealed no impact of low T<sub>env</sub> on human WAT thermogenic activity (p > 0.05). Furthermore, we found no effects of exercise on UCP1 mRNA or protein levels (p > 0.05) in WAT biopsy samples from a human randomized controlled trial (Clinical trial: NCT04039685), a finding supported by systematic review and meta-analytic data (PROSPERO review protocol: CRD42019120213). Taken together, the present experimental and meta-analytic findings of UCP1 and SUV<sub>max</sub>, demonstrate that cold and exercise may play insignificant roles in human WAT thermogenic activity. <b>Abbreviations</b>: WAT:White adipose tissue; T<sub>env</sub>: Environmental temperature; UCP1: Uncoupling protein one; BAT: Brown adipose tissue; BMI:Body mass index; mRNA: Messenger ribonucleic acid; RCT: Randomized controlled trial; WHR: Waist-to-hip ratio; PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses; PET/CT: Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography; REE: Resting energy expenditure; <sup>18</sup>F-FDG: F<sup>18</sup> fludeoxyglucose; VO<sub>2</sub>peak:Peak oxygen consumption; 1RM: One repetition maximum; SUV<sub>max</sub>: Maximum standardized uptake value; Std: Standardized mean difference.
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ in rodents and humans. In mice, the transplantation of BAT has been successfully used to combat obesity and its comorbidities. While such beneficial properties of BAT are now evident, the developmental and cellular origins of brown, beige, and white adipocytes have remained only poorly understood, especially in humans. We recently discovered that CD90 is highly expressed in stromal cells isolated from human white adipose tissue (WAT) compared to BAT. Here, we studied whether CD90 interferes with brown or white adipogenesis or white adipocyte beiging. We applied flow cytometric sorting of human adipose tissue stromal cells (ASCs), a CRISPR/Cas9 knockout strategy in the human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte model system, as well as a siRNA approach in human approaches supports the hypothesis that CD90 affects brown or white adipogenesis or white adipocyte beiging in humans. Taken together, our findings call the conclusions drawn from previous studies, which claimed a central role of CD90 in adipocyte differentiation, into question.
Project description:Brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues play distinct roles in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis, and their dysfunction can contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor, but its role in regulating BAT and WAT metabolism is unclear. We generated an inducible model for deletion of the two AMPK ? subunits in adipocytes (i?1?2AKO) and found that i?1?2AKO mice were cold intolerant and resistant to ?-adrenergic activation of BAT and beiging of WAT. BAT from i?1?2AKO mice had impairments in mitochondrial structure, function, and markers of mitophagy. In response to a high-fat diet, i?1?2AKO mice more rapidly developed liver steatosis as well as glucose and insulin intolerance. Thus, AMPK in adipocytes is vital for maintaining mitochondrial integrity, responding to pharmacological agents and thermal stress, and protecting against nutrient-overload-induced NAFLD and insulin resistance.