Nutrients exported from upland stream water enlarge perennial biomass crops.
ABSTRACT: Rawanbuki, a variety of Japanese butterbur (Petasites japonicus subsp. giganteus), grow naturally along the Rawan River, Hokkaido, northern Japan. Most plants reach 2-3 m in height and 10 cm in diameter in 2 months and are much larger than those grown along other rivers. We examined the hypothesis that nutrients exported from upland streams enhance the growth of the Rawanbuki. Nutrient concentrations, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and base cations, in the Rawan River were much higher than those in rivers of adjacent watersheds. High nutrient concentrations and moisture contents were found in soil along the Rawan River and a significant relationship was found between physicochemical soil conditions and aboveground biomass of butterburs. This indicates that extremely large Rawanbuki plants could be caused by these high nutrient concentrations and moisture contents in the soils. A manipulation experiment showed that fertilization simulated the growth environment along the Rawan River and enhanced the stem height and stem diameter of butterburs. This study concluded that the extremely large butterburs are caused by a large amount of nutrients exported from upland areas. These results are the first demonstration of the role of stream water nutrients in enlarging agricultural crops.
Project description:Ecosystem function measurements can enhance our understanding of nitrogen (N) delivery in coastal catchments across river and estuary ecosystems. Here, we contrast patterns of N cycling and export in two rivers, one heavily influenced by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), in a coastal catchment of south Texas. We measured N export from both rivers to the estuary over 2 yr that encompass a severe drought, along with detailed mechanisms of N cycling in river, tidal river, and two estuary sites during prolonged drought. WWTP nutrient inputs stimulated uptake of N, but denitrification resulting in permanent N removal accounted for only a small proportion of total uptake. During drought periods, WWTP N was the primary source of exported N to the estuary, minimizing the influence of episodic storm-derived nutrients from the WWTP-influenced river to the estuary. In the site without WWTP influence, the river exported very little N during drought, so storm-derived nutrient pulses were important for delivering N loads to the estuary. Overall, N is processed from river to estuary, but sustained WWTP-N loads and periodic floods alter the timing of N delivery and N processing. Research that incorporates empirical measurements of N fluxes from river to estuary can inform management needs in the face of multiple anthropogenic stressors such as demand for freshwater and eutrophication.
Project description:River systems have critical roles in the natural water environment and the transportation of nutrients. Anthropogenic activities, including wastewater discharge and river damming, raise adverse impacts on ecosystem and continuum of rivers. An increasing amount of attention has been paid to riverine bacterioplankton as they make vital contributions to biogeochemical nutrient cycle. A comprehensive study was conducted on the bacterioplankton community along the Yarlung Tsangpo River, which is the longest plateau river in China and is suffering from various anthropogenic impacts. The results indicated that nutrient variations corresponded to anthropogenic activities, and silica, nitrogen and phosphorus were retained by the dam. River damming influenced the biomass and diversity of the bacterioplankton, but significant alterations in the community structure were not observed between upstream and downstream of the dam. Moreover, the spatial distribution of the bacterioplankton community changed gradually along the river, and the dominant bacterioplankton in the upstream, midstream and downstream portions of the river were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, respectively. Soluble reactive phosphorus, elevation, ammonium nitrogen, velocity and turbidity were the main environmental factors that shape the bacterioplankton community. Our study offers the first insights into the variation of a bacterioplankton community of a large river in plateau region.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Leptospira are shed into the environment via urine of infected animals. Rivers are thought to be an important risk factor for transmission to humans, though much is unknown about the types of environment or characteristics that favor survival. To address this, we screened for Leptospira DNA in two rivers in rural Ecuador where Leptospirosis is endemic.<h4>Results</h4>We collected 112 longitudinal samples and recorded pH, temperature, river depth, precipitation, and dissolved oxygen. We also performed a series of three experiments designed to provide insight into Leptospira presence in the soil. In the first soil experiment, we characterized prevalence and co-occurrence of Leptospira with other bacterial taxa in the soil at dispersed sites along the rivers (n =?64). In the second soil experiment, we collected 24 river samples and 48 soil samples at three points along eight transects to compare the likelihood of finding Leptospira in the river and on the shore at different distances from the river. In a third experiment, we tested whether Leptospira presence is associated with soil moisture by collecting 25 soil samples from two different sites. In our river experiment, we found pathogenic Leptospira in only 4 (3.7%) of samples. In contrast, pathogenic Leptospira species were found in 22% of shore soil at dispersed sites, 16.7% of soil samples (compared to 4.2% of river samples) in the transects, and 40% of soil samples to test for associations with soil moisture.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data are limited to two sites in a highly endemic area, but the scarcity of Leptospira DNA in the river is not consistent with the widespread contention of the importance of river water for leptospirosis transmission. While Leptospira may be shed directly into the river, onto the shores, or washed into the river from more remote sites, massive dilution and limited persistence in rivers may reduce the environmental load and therefore, the epidemiological significance of such sources. It is also possible that transmission may occur more frequently on shores where people are liable to be barefoot. Molecular studies that further explore the role of rivers and water bodies in the epidemiology of leptospirosis are needed.
Project description:Freshwater, suspended sediment matter (SSM), and nutrients discharged from rivers into the ocean have large impacts on biological production. In particular, during floods, coastal areas are greatly stirred up and large amounts of nutrients are supplied to the sea surface. We investigate the biogeochemical impact of flooding river discharges containing a large amount of SSM by conducting numerical simulations for a specific flooding event of the Yura River, Japan. Parameters are varied over wide ranges of SSM properties and nutrient content in riverine water. Two qualitatively different regimes of the riverine plume, hypopycnal and hyperpycnal, appear within realistic parameter ranges. Compared with the reference case without SSM, the surface salinity (nutrients) within the riverine plume becomes lower (higher) in hypopycnal cases and higher (lower) in hyperpycnal cases within a few days after the flooding discharge. These results suggest the necessity of properly taking into account the effect of SSM in assessing the influence of high river discharges on coastal biogeochemistry. It is the case not only for the specific river and event we are dealing with but also for other flooding events and other rivers and connecting coastal seas.
Project description:Biodiversity is an important parameter for the evaluation of the extant environmental conditions. Here, we used environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding to investigate fish biodiversity in five different estuaries in Japan. Water samples for eDNA were collected from river mouths and adjacent coastal areas of two estuaries with high degrees of development (the Tama and Miya Rivers) and three estuaries with relatively low degrees of development (the Aka, Takatsu, and Sendai Rivers). A total of 182 fish species across 67 families were detected. Among them, 11 species occurred in all the rivers studied. Rare fishes including endangered species were successfully detected in rich natural rivers. Biodiversity was the highest in the Sendai River and lowest in the Tama River, reflecting the degree of human development along each river. Even though nutrient concentration was low in both the Aka and Sendai Rivers, the latter exhibited greater diversity, including many tropical or subtropical species, owing to its more southern location. Species composition detected by eDNA varied among rivers, reflecting the distribution and migration of fishes. Our results are in accordance with the ecology of each fish species and environmental conditions of each river.
Project description:Chinese surface waters are severely polluted by nutrients. This study addresses three challenges in nutrient modeling for rivers in China: (1) difficulties in transferring modeling results across biophysical and administrative scales, (2) poor representation of the locations of point sources, and (3) limited incorporation of the direct discharge of manure to rivers. The objective of this study is, therefore, to quantify inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to Chinese rivers from different sources at multiple scales. We developed a novel multi-scale modeling approach including a detailed, state-of-the-art representation of point sources of nutrients in rivers. The model results show that the river pollution and source attributions differ among spatial scales. Point sources accounted for 75% of the total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) inputs to rivers in China in 2012, and diffuse sources accounted for 72% of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) inputs. One-third of the sub-basins accounted for more than half of the pollution. Downscaling to the smallest scale (polygons) reveals that 14% and 9% of the area contribute to more than half of the calculated TDN and TDP pollution, respectively. Sources of pollution vary considerably among and within counties. Clearly, multi-scale modeling may help to develop effective policies for water pollution.
Project description:Restoration and reconnection of floodplain systems provide multiple societal and ecosystem benefits, while providing municipalities the opportunity to attempt alternative approaches to maintain infrastructure protection and function. In some restored floodplains, treated wastewater effluent discharge is redirected over land instead of directly into rivers to allow natural flow and infiltration, to facilitate restoration designs such as levee setback, and to provide additional freshwater to floodplain ecosystems. However, indirect discharge of treated effluent over land may pose risks to surface and groundwater when pollutants like excess nutrients enter the floodplain and undergo transformation. We investigated the consequences for groundwater and surface water quality when effluent was redirected as open water channels over a floodplain surface. In this study, seasonal floodplain nutrient concentrations in groundwater and surface water were observed for more than 5 years as a floodplain and wastewater treatment plant underwent a major restoration project that included river-floodplain reconnection with levee setback and redirection of effluent discharge from a river channel to open flow across the restored floodplain. Nutrient loading to the surrounding floodplain groundwater and surface water was observed, but based on measures of hydrological connectivity, groundwater flow paths, and biogeochemistry, nutrients from the effluent moved within the floodplain with minimal effect to the surrounding floodplain water quality. We did not find evidence of substantial additional processing that could replace advanced nutrient treatment in this system, however we did observe evidence of diverse nutrient processes that may support enhanced retention if treatment channels were designed to enhance these processes. We suggest that indirect discharge of high quality treated effluent in a restored floodplain is a viable alternative to direct discharge into a river when groundwater flow directs that discharge to habitats where minimal nutrient sensitivity is expected.
Project description:Riverine fluxes of carbon and inorganic nutrients are increasing in virtually all large permafrost-affected rivers, indicating major shifts in Arctic landscapes. However, it is currently difficult to identify what is causing these changes in nutrient processing and flux because most long-term records of Arctic river chemistry are from small, headwater catchments draining <200 km<sup>2</sup> or from large rivers draining >100,000 km<sup>2</sup>. The interactions of nutrient sources and sinks across these scales are what ultimately control solute flux to the Arctic Ocean. In this context, we performed spatially-distributed sampling of 120 subcatchments nested within three Arctic watersheds spanning alpine, tundra, and glacial-lake landscapes in Alaska. We found that the dominant spatial scales controlling organic carbon and major nutrient concentrations was 3-30 km<sup>2</sup>, indicating a continuum of diffuse and discrete sourcing and processing dynamics. These patterns were consistent seasonally, suggesting that relatively fine-scale landscape patches drive solute generation in this region of the Arctic. These network-scale empirical frameworks could guide and benchmark future Earth system models seeking to represent lateral and longitudinal solute transport in rapidly changing Arctic landscapes.
Project description:There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) to 0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.
Project description:Along with urbanization, the intensified nitrogen pollution in urban rivers and the form of black-odor rivers has become one of the biggest concerns. Better understanding of the nitrogen transformations and microbial mechanisms occurring within urban rivers could help to manage their water quality. In this study, pollution characteristics, potential nitrogen removal rate, composition and function of bacterial community, and abundance of functional genes associated with nitrogen transformation were comparatively investigated in a typical urban river (FC) and a suburban river (LH). Compared with LH, FC was characterized by higher content of nutrients, lower potential nitrogen removal rate and lower abundance of functional genes associated with nitrogen transformation in both overlying water and sediment, especially in summer. Sediment dissolved organic matter characterized by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) showed that FC was more severely polluted by high nitrogen organic matter. Our results revealed that anammox was the main nitrogen removal pathway in both rivers and potential nitrogen removal rates decreased significantly in summer. Bacterial community analysis showed that the benthic communities were more severely influenced by the pollutant than aquatic ones in both rivers. Furthermore, the FC benthic community was dominated by anaerobic respiring, fermentative, sulfate reduction bacteria. Quantitatively, the denitrification rate showed a significant positive correlation with the abundance of denitrification genes, whilst the anammox rate was significantly negatively correlated with bacterial diversity. Meanwhile, NH4+-N had a significant negative correlation to both denitrification and anammox in sediment. Taken together, the results indicated that the increased nitrogen pollutants in an urban river altered nitrogen removal pathways and bacterial communities, which could in turn exacerbate the nitrogen pollution to this river.