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Is There Proof of Extraskeletal Benefits From Vitamin D Supplementation From Recent Mega Trials of Vitamin D?

ABSTRACT: Scientific interest in possible extraskeletal effects of vitamin D first appeared in the 1930s soon after the structure of vitamin D was characterized, and increased in the 1980s with the development of assays of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status as a marker of vitamin D status, which in observational epidemiological studies was shown to be inversely associated with many nonskeletal diseases. This resulted in the start of seven large randomized controlled trials (n?>?2000 participants in each) of vitamin D supplementation giving higher doses than previously used. The intervention periods in these trials collectively started in 2009 and continued to 2020. They have recruited participants, mostly of both sexes and over the age of 50?years, from many countries and have given either daily or monthly doses of vitamin D. Collectively, the trials have a wide range of outcomes with the main focus on the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and fractures, besides many other outcomes. The findings of four trials have been published, and they have shown that vitamin D supplementation does not prevent hard-disease endpoints, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, fractures, or falls, aside from a possible beneficial effect against cancer mortality. In contrast, beneficial effects were seen for intermediate outcomes such as BMD of spine and hips, arterial function, and lung function, especially in people with vitamin D deficiency. The finding of a benefit primarily in people with vitamin D deficiency, if confirmed by the other trials, would support a population approach to preventing vitamin D deficiency using fortification rather than the high-risk approach of screening for deficiency combined with supplementation. The findings on other outcomes from the three published trials, along with the findings from the four unpublished trials, are expected within the next 2 to 3?years to clarify the role of vitamin D supplementation in preventing nonskeletal disease. © 2020 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7839821 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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