Circulating neurotrophins and hemostatic risk factors of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease at baseline and during sympathetic challenge: the SABPA study.
ABSTRACT: Sympathetic activation may trigger acute coronary syndromes. We examined the relation between circulating neurotrophic factors and hemostatic risk factors of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease at baseline and in response to acute mental stress to establish a brain-heart link. In 409 black and white South Africans, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and fibrinolytic measures were assessed at baseline. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), S100 calcium-binding protein (S100B), von Willebrand factor (VWF), fibrinogen and D-dimer were assessed at baseline and 10 min after the Stroop test. Neurotrophins were regressed on hemostatic measures adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, cardiometabolic factors and health behaviors. Higher baseline BDNF was associated with greater stress-induced increase in fibrinogen (p?=?0.003) and lower D-dimer increase (p?=?0.016). Higher baseline S100B was significantly associated with higher baseline VWF (p?=?0.031) and lower fibrinogen increase (p?=?0.048). Lower baseline GDNF was associated with higher baseline VWF (p?=?0.035) but lower VWF increase (p?=?0.001). Greater GDNF (p?=?0.006) and S100B (p?=?0.042) increases were associated with lower VWF increase. All associations showed small-to-moderate effect sizes. Neurotrophins and fibrinolytic factors showed no significant associations. The findings support the existence of a peripheral neurothrophin-hemostasis interaction of small-to-moderate clinical relevance. The implications for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease need further exploration.
Project description:Physical exercise has a neuromodulatory effect on the central nervous system (CNS) partially by modifying expression of neuropeptides produced and secreted by neurons and glial cells, among which the best examined are brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Because both neurotrophins can cross the brain-blood barrier (BBB), their blood levels indirectly reflect their production in the CNS. Moreover, both neuropeptides are involved in modulation of dopaminergic and serotoninergic system function. Because limited information is available on the effects of exercise to volition exhaustion and acute hypoxia on CNS, BDNF and GDNF formation, the aims of the present study were to verify whether 1) acute exercise to exhaustion in addition to neurons also activates glial cells and 2) additional exposure to acute normobaric moderate hypoxia affects their function. In this feasibility study we measured blood concentrations of BDNF, GDNF, and neuropeptides considered as biomarkers of brain damage (bFGF, NGF, S100B, GFAP) in seven sedentary healthy young men who performed a graded exercise test to volitional exhaustion on a cycle ergometer under normoxic (N) and hypoxic conditions: 2,000 m (H2; FiO2 = 16.6%) and 3,000 m altitude (H3; FiO2 = 14.7%). In all conditions serum concentrations of both BDNF and GDNF increased immediately after cessation of exercise (p<0.01). There was no effect of condition or interaction (condition x time of measurement) and exercise on any of the brain damage biomarkers: bFGF, NGF, S100B, GFAP. Moreover, in N (0<0.01) and H3 (p<0.05) exercise caused elevated serum 5-HT concentration. The results suggest that a graded effort to volitional exhaustion in normoxia, as well as hypoxia, simultaneously activates both neurons and astrocytes. Considering that s100B, GFAP, bFGF, and NGF (produced mainly by astrocytes) are markers of brain damage, it can be assumed that a maximum effort in both conditions is safe for the CNS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Various hemostatic markers are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, limited information exists on their relationship with the occurrence and prognosis of atrial fibrillation (AF).<h4>Objectives</h4>To assess whether hemostatic markers are associated with the incidence and prognosis of AF.<h4>Methods</h4>We studied 14,858 men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort, aged 45-64 and free of AF at baseline (1987-1989). Fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (vWf), factor VII activity (VIIc), factor VIII activity (VIIIc), protein C, antithrombin III (ATIII), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were measured in blood samples at baseline. AF and other cardiovascular outcomes through 2005 were determined following standardized protocols.<h4>Results</h4>During a median follow-up of 16.8 years, 1209 cases of AF were identified. In multivariable Cox models, the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident AF associated with a 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in each marker were 1.13 (1.07-1.20) for fibrinogen, 1.17 (1.11-1.23) for vWf, 1.17 (1.11-1.24) for factor VIIIc, 0.93 (0.88-1.00) for factor VIIc, 0.98 (0.92-1.04) for protein C, 1.00 (0.94-1.06) for aPTT and 1.00 (0.95-1.06) for ATIII. Greater factor VIIIc, fibrinogen and vWf were consistently associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in those with and without incident AF, while greater protein C was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Several hemostatic markers are associated with the incidence of AF independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. Their role in the risk stratification of AF patients should be further studied.
Project description:The neurotrophic hypothesis of depression states that the major depressive episode is associated with lower neurotrophic factors levels, which increase with amelioration of depressive symptoms. However, this hypothesis has not been extended to investigate neurotrophic factors other than the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We therefore explored whether plasma levels of neurotrophins 3 (NT-3) and 4 (NT-4), nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) changed after antidepressant treatment and correlated with treatment response. Seventy-three patients with moderate-to-severe, antidepressant-free unipolar depression were assigned to a pharmacological (sertraline) and a non-pharmacological (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) intervention in a randomized, 2 × 2, placebo-controlled design. The plasma levels of NT-3, NT-4, NGF and GDNF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after a 6-week treatment course and analyzed according to clinical response and allocation group. We found that tDCS and sertraline (separately and combined) produced significant improvement in depressive symptoms. Plasma levels of all neurotrophic factors were similar across groups at baseline and remained significantly unchanged regardless of the intervention and of clinical response. Also, baseline plasma levels were not associated with clinical response. To conclude, in this 6-week placebo-controlled trial, NT-3, NT-4, NGF and GDNF plasma levels did not significantly change with sertraline or tDCS. These data suggest that these neurotrophic factors are not surrogate biomarkers of treatment response or involved in the antidepressant mechanisms of tDCS.
Project description:There is growing evidence that indicates the presence of a prothrombotic state in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the role of hemostatic markers in AF remains inconclusive.We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the association between hemostatic markers and AF. A meta-regression was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity.A total of 59 studies met our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. For platelet activation, increased circulating platelet factor-4, ?-thromboglobulin (BTG) and P-selectin were significantly higher in AF cases compared with controls (standardized mean difference [SMD][95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.72[0.96-2.49], 1.61[1.03-2.19] and 0.50[0.23-0.77], respectively). For coagulation activation, increased levels of plasma D-dimer, fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and antithrombin-III were significantly associated with AF (SMD[95% CI]: 1.82[1.38-2.26], 0.72[0.55-0.89], 0.42[0.13-0.72], 1.00 [0.00-1.99] and 1.38[0.16-2.60], respectively). For fibrinolytic function, tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly increased in AF cases compared with controls (SMD[95% CI]: 0.86[0.04-1.67] and 0.87[0.28-1.47], respectively) but the associations became nonsignificant after performing subgroup analysis by anticoagulants treatment status. For endothelial function, increased von Willebrand factor was significantly associated with AF (SMD, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60-0.99); however, no association was observed for soluble thrombomodulin (SMD, 0.60; 95% CI, -0.13-1.33).Increased circulating hemostatic factors (PF-4, BTG, P-selectin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, TAT, F1+2, AT- III, and vWf) are significantly associated with AF. Future research is necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism of the prothrombotic state and how hemostatic markers promote thromboembolism in AF.
Project description:Human von Willebrand factor (vWF) and fibrinogen are adhesive plasma glycoproteins essential for formation of a platelet hemostatic plug. We investigated the role of ADP and fibrinogen in binding of vWF to platelets in vitro. Binding of 125I-labeled vWF to human platelets separated from plasma proteins and treated with ADP was specific, and time and concentration dependent, reaching equilibrium at 20 min and approaching saturation at 12 micrograms/ml. The binding was inhibited by EDTA and by prostaglandin I2, a known activator of platelet adenylate cyclase. A purine nucleotide affinity analog, 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl adenosine (FSBA), which covalently modifies the ADP binding sites on the human platelet membrane, prevented binding of vWF induced with ADP, as well as with human thrombin and with ionophore A23187, agents known to cause platelet ADP secretion. By comparison, FSBA did not inhibit binding of vWF induced by ristocetin, indicating that the ristocetin mechanism is not dependent on ADP. Human fibrinogen inhibited in a competitive manner the ADP-induced binding of 125I-labeled vWF (9 micrograms/ml) with an IC50 of 25 micrograms/ml. Conversely, unlabeled vWF inhibited ADP-induced binding of 125I-labeled fibrinogen (60 micrograms/ml) with an IC50 of 16 micrograms/ml. A synthetic dodecapeptide (Mr, 1188), analogous with the specific platelet receptor recognition site of human fibrinogen gamma chain (gamma 400-411), inhibited binding of both 125I-labeled vWF and 125I-labeled fibrinogen to ADP-treated platelets, whereas it was without effect on binding of 125I-labeled vWF to ristocetin-treated platelets. These data indicate that vWF and fibrinogen have a common receptor mechanism for their interaction with human platelets that is dependent on ADP occupancy of its binding sites and is recognized by the sequence of 12 amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus of the human fibrinogen gamma chain.
Project description:<b>Introduction</b> ?Physical activity may reduce the development of breast cancer. Whereas hypercoagulability has been linked to adverse outcomes in breast cancer patients, the effects of physical activity on their hemostatic factors are unknown. The study aimed to assess whether long-term (1 year) physical activity can affect hemostatic factors in breast cancer patients. <b>Methods</b> ?Fifty-five women (35-75 years) with invasive breast cancer stage I/II were randomized to a physical activity intervention ( <i>n?</i> =?29) lasting 1 year or to a control group ( <i>n?</i> =?26), and analyzed as intention to treat. Fibrinogen, factor VII antigen, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen as well as prothrombin fragment 1?+?2, the endogenous thrombin potential and D-dimer, were measured in plasma before intervention (baseline), and then after 6 and 12 months. <b>Results</b> ?Maximal oxygen uptake (measure of cardiorespiratory fitness) decreased the first 6 months among the controls, but remained stable in the intervention group. We found no significant differences between the two study groups regarding any of the hemostatic factors, except a significantly higher increase in factor VII antigen in the intervention group. The effect of the intervention on VWF was, however, significantly affected by menopausal stage, and a significant effect of the intervention was found on VWF among postmenopausal women, even after adjustment for dietary intake. <b>Conclusion</b> ?Long-term physical activity had no effect on the majority of the hemostatic factors measured, but led to increased plasma concentrations of factor VII antigen and prevented an increase in VWF concentration after breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women. The clinical impact of these findings for risk of vascular thrombosis warrants further studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cryoprecipitate (CRYO) is a plasma component containing high concentrations of factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor (VWF), and fibrinogen. Because Greyhounds are reported to have lower plasma VWF and fibrinogen concentrations, their plasma may not yield high potency CRYO.<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine if plasma hemostatic protein concentration is a good predictor of CRYO potency and if a difference exists in quality of CRYO prepared from Greyhounds versus non-Greyhounds.<h4>Animals</h4>Twenty Greyhounds and 20 non-Greyhounds.<h4>Methods</h4>A 450?mL unit of blood was collected from each donor, centrifuged to prepare fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and processed to CRYO. Aliquots of FFP and CRYO were analyzed for FVIII, VWF, and fibrinogen content and factor recovery.<h4>Results</h4>A positive correlation was found among donor plasma FVIII, VWF and fibrinogen concentration, and CRYO factor content (P?<?.001). Mean recovery was highest for VWF (67%), followed by fibrinogen (47%), and FVIII (37%). No breed difference was found in mean CRYO FVIII content, but CRYO VWF and fibrinogen were lower in Greyhounds (P?=?.004 and P?<?.001, respectively). No difference was found between Greyhounds and non-Greyhounds for the number of CRYO units meeting human blood banking standards.<h4>Conclusions and clinical importance</h4>Factor concentration in FFP is associated with CRYO potency, suggesting that prescreening of blood donors may enhance CRYO quality. Despite lower VWF and fibrinogen content, CRYO prepared from Greyhounds is acceptable based on blood banking standards for humans, indicating that Greyhound FFP does not need to be excluded from CRYO production.
Project description:The long-term risk of thrombotic and vascular complications is elevated in liver transplant recipients compared to the general population. Patients with cirrhosis are in a hypercoagulable status during and directly after orthotopic liver transplantation, but it is unclear whether this hypercoagulability persists over time.We aimed to investigate the hemostatic status of liver transplant recipients one year after transplantation.We prospectively collected blood samples of 15 patients with a functioning graft one year after orthotopic liver transplantation and compared the hemostatic status of these patients with that of 30 healthy individuals.Patients one year after liver transplantation had significantly elevated plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Thrombin generation, as assessed by the endogenous thrombin potential, was decreased in patients, which was associated with increased plasma levels of the natural anticoagulants antithrombin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Plasma fibrinolytic potential was significantly decreased in patients and correlated inversely with levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.One year after liver transplantation, liver graft recipients have a dysregulated hemostatic system characterised by elevation of plasma levels of endothelial-derived proteins. Increased levels of von Willebrand factor and decreased fibrinolytic potential may (in part) be responsible for the increased risk for vascular disease seen in liver transplant recipients.
Project description:The adhesion of blood clots to blood vessels, such as through the adhesion of fibrin, is essential in hemostasis. While numerous strategies for initiating clot formation and preventing clot lysis are being developed to create improved hemostatic agents, strategies for enhancing clot adhesion have not been widely explored. Here, we show that adhesion of blood clots can be increased by adding a previously characterized synthetic polymer that is crosslinked by coagulation factor XIIIa during clotting. Addition of the polymer to normal plasma increased the adhesive strength of clots by 2-fold. It also recovered the adhesive strength of nonadhesive fibrinogen-deficient whole blood clots from <0.06 kPa to 1.9 ± 0.14 kPa, which is similar to the adhesive strength of a fibrinogen-rich clot (1.8 ± 0.64 kPa). The polymer also enabled plasma clots to remain adhered under fibrinolytic conditions. By demonstrating that the adhesive strength of clots can be increased with a synthetic material, this provides a potential strategy for creating advanced hemostatic materials, such as treatments for fibrinogen deficiency in trauma-induced coagulopathy.
Project description:To examine the role of neuroplasticity in the pathology of psychiatric disorders, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuroplasticity-associated protein levels. Participants were 94 patients with schizophrenia, 68 with bipolar disorder (BD), 104 with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 118 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese). A multiplex immunoassay (22-plex assay) was performed to measure CSF neuroplasticity-associated protein levels. Among 22 proteins, 11 were successfully measured in the assay. CSF amyloid precursor protein (APP) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels were significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia, and CSF APP and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-1 levels were significantly lower in patients with BD, than in healthy controls (all p?<?0.05). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total, positive, and general scores were significantly and positively correlated with CSF hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (p?<?0.01) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) (p?<?0.05) levels in patients with schizophrenia. Young mania-rating scale score was significantly and positively correlated with CSF S100B level in patients with BD (p?<?0.05). Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, core, sleep, activity, somatic anxiety, and delusion subscale scores were significantly and positively correlated with CSF HGF level, while sleep subscale score was positively correlated with CSF S100B and VEGF receptor 2 levels in patients with MDD (p?<?0.05). Our results suggest that CSF APP, GDNF, and NCAM-1 levels are associated with psychiatric disorders, and that CSF HGF, S100B, and VEGF receptor 2 levels are related to psychiatric symptoms.