Cardiac-specific loss of mitoNEET expression is linked with age-related heart failure.
ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) occurs frequently among older individuals, and dysfunction of cardiac mitochondria is often observed. We here show the cardiac-specific downregulation of a certain mitochondrial component during the chronological aging of mice, which is detrimental to the heart. MitoNEET is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, encoded by CDGSH iron sulfur domain 1 (CISD1). Expression of mitoNEET was specifically downregulated in the heart and kidney of chronologically aged mice. Mice with a constitutive cardiac-specific deletion of CISD1 on the C57BL/6J background showed cardiac dysfunction only after 12 months of age and developed HF after 16 months; whereas irregular morphology and higher levels of reactive oxygen species in their cardiac mitochondria were observed at earlier time points. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which cardiac mitochondria may gradually lose their integrity during natural aging, and shed light on an uncharted molecular basis closely related to age-associated HF.
Project description:Fructose and ethanol are metabolized principally in the liver and are both known to contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis that can progress to hepatic steatohepatitis. The present study indentifies a synergistic interaction between fructose and ethanol in promoting hepatocyte sensitivity to TNF?-induced necroptosis. Concurrent exposure to fructose and ethanol induces the overexpression of the CDGSH iron-sulfur domain-containing protein 1 (CISD1 or mitoneet), which is localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane. The increased expression of mitoneet primes the hepatocyte for TNF?-induced cytotoxicity. Treatment with TNF? induces the translocation of a Stat3-Grim-19 complex to the mitochondria, which binds to mitoneet and promotes the rapid release of its 2Fe-2S cluster, causing an accumulation of mitochondrial iron. The dramatic increase of mitochondrial iron provokes a surge in formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in mitochondrial injury and cell death. Additionally, mitoneet is constitutively expressed at high levels in L929 fibrosarcoma cells and is required for L929 cells to undergo TNF?-induced necroptosis in the presence of caspase inhibition, indicating the importance of mitoneet to the necroptotic form of cell death.
Project description:Members of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of insulin-sensitizing drugs are extensively used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone, a member of the TZD family, has been shown to bind specifically to a protein named mitoNEET [Colca JR, McDonald WG, Waldon DJ, Leone JW, Lull JM, Bannow CA, Lund ET, Mathews WR (2004) Am J Physiol 286:E252-E260]. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that mitoNEET is a member of a small family of proteins containing a domain annotated as a CDGSH-type zinc finger. Although annotated as a zinc finger protein, mitoNEET contains no zinc, but instead contains 1.6 mol of Fe per mole of protein. The conserved sequence C-X-C-X(2)-(S/T)-X(3)-P-X-C-D-G-(S/A/T)-H is a defining feature of this unique family of proteins and is likely involved in iron binding. Localization studies demonstrate that mitoNEET is an integral protein present in the outer mitochondrial membrane. An amino-terminal anchor sequence tethers the protein to the outer membrane with the CDGSH domain oriented toward the cytoplasm. Cardiac mitochondria isolated from mitoNEET-null mice demonstrate a reduced oxidative capacity, suggesting that mito- NEET is an important iron-containing protein involved in the control of maximal mitochondrial respiratory rates.
Project description:MitoNEET is a CDGSH iron-sulfur protein that has been a target for drug development for diseases such as type-2 diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Functions proposed for mitoNEET are as a redox sensor and regulator of free iron in the mitochondria. We have investigated the reactivity of mitoNEET toward the reactive electrophiles 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-oxononenal (ONE) that are produced from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid during oxidative stress. Proteomic, electrophoretic, and spectroscopic analysis has shown that HNE and ONE react in a sequence selective manner that was unexpected considering the structure similarity of these two reactive electrophiles.
Project description:Although it has been recognized that energy metabolism and mitochondrial structure and functional activity in the immature brain differs from that of the adult, few studies have examined mitochondria specifically at the neuronal synapse during postnatal brain development. In this study, we examined the presynaptic mitochondrial proteome in mice at postnatal day 7 and 42, a period that involves the formation and maturation of synapses. Application of two independent quantitative proteomics approaches - SWATH-MS and super-SILAC - revealed a total of 40 proteins as significantly differentially expressed in the presynaptic mitochondria. In addition to elevated levels of proteins known to be involved in ATP metabolic processes, our results identified increased levels of mitoNEET (Cisd1), an iron-sulfur containing protein that regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics. We found that mitoNEET overexpression plays a cell-type specific role in ATP synthesis and in neuronal cells promotes ATP generation. The elevated ATP levels in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were associated with increased mitochondrial membrane potential and a fragmented mitochondrial network, further supporting a role for mitoNEET as a key regulator of mitochondrial function.
Project description:NEET proteins belong to a unique family of iron-sulfur proteins in which the 2Fe-2S cluster is coordinated by a CDGSH domain that is followed by the "NEET" motif. They are involved in the regulation of iron and reactive oxygen metabolism, and have been associated with the progression of diabetes, cancer, aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite their important biological functions, the evolution and diversification of eukaryotic NEET proteins are largely unknown. Here we used the three members of the human NEET protein family (CISD1, mitoNEET; CISD2, NAF-1 or Miner 1; and CISD3, Miner2) as our guides to conduct a phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic NEET proteins and their evolution. Our findings identified the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum's CISD proteins as the closest to the ancient archetype of eukaryotic NEET proteins. We further identified CISD3 homologs in fungi that were previously reported not to contain any NEET proteins, and revealed that plants lack homolog(s) of CISD3. Furthermore, our study suggests that the mammalian NEET proteins, mitoNEET (CISD1) and NAF-1 (CISD2), emerged via gene duplication around the origin of vertebrates. Our findings provide new insights into the classification and expansion of the NEET protein family, as well as offer clues to the diverged functions of the human mitoNEET and NAF-1 proteins.
Project description:The NEET family is a relatively new class of three related [2Fe-2S] proteins (CISD1-3), important in human health and disease. While there has been growing interest in the homodimeric gene products of CISD1 (mitoNEET) and CISD2 (NAF-1), the importance of the inner mitochondrial CISD3 protein has only recently been recognized in cancer. The CISD3 gene encodes for a monomeric protein that contains two [2Fe-2S] CDGSH motifs, which we term mitochondrial inner NEET protein (MiNT). It folds with a pseudosymmetrical fold that provides a hydrophobic motif on one side and a relatively hydrophilic surface on the diametrically opposed surface. Interestingly, as shown by molecular dynamics simulation, the protein displays distinct asymmetrical backbone motions, unlike its homodimeric counterparts that face the cytosolic side of the outer mitochondrial membrane/endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, like its counterparts, our biological studies indicate that knockdown of MiNT leads to increased accumulation of mitochondrial labile iron, as well as increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen production. Taken together, our study suggests that the MiNT protein functions in the same pathway as its homodimeric counterparts (mitoNEET and NAF-1), and could be a key player in this pathway within the mitochondria. As such, it represents a target for anticancer or antidiabetic drug development.
Project description:The iron-sulfur (2Fe-2S) binding motif CDGSH appears in many important plant and animal proteins that regulate iron and reactive oxygen metabolism. In human it is found in CISD1-3 proteins involved in diabetes, obesity, cancer, aging, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Despite the important biological role of the CDGSH domain, its origin, evolution and diversification, are largely unknown. Here, we report that: (1) the CDGSH domain appeared early in evolution, perhaps linked to the heavy use of iron-sulfur driven metabolism by early organisms; (2) a CISD3-like protein with two CDGSH domains on the same polypeptide appears to represent the ancient archetype of CDGSH proteins; (3) the origin of the human CISD3 protein is linked to the mitochondrial endosymbiotic event; (4) the CISD1/2 type proteins that contain only one CDGSH domain, but function as homodimers, originated after the divergence of bacteria and archaea/eukaryotes from their common ancestor; and (5) the human CISD1 and CISD2 proteins diverged about 650-720 million years ago, and CISD3 and CISD1/2 share their descent from an ancestral CISD about 1-1.1 billion years ago. Our findings reveal that the CDGSH domain is ancient in its origin and shed light on the complex evolutionary path of modern CDGSH proteins.
Project description:Background: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which surrounds most vessels, is de facto a distinct functional vascular layer actively contributing to vascular function and dysfunction. PVAT contributes to aortic remodeling by producing and releasing a large number of undetermined or less characterized factors that could target endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and herein contribute to the maintenance of vessel homeostasis. Loss of PVAT in mice enhances atherosclerosis, but a causal relationship between PVAT and atherosclerosis and the possible underlying mechanisms remain to be addressed. The CDGSH iron sulfur domain 1 protein (referred to as mitoNEET), a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, regulates oxidative capacity and adipose tissue browning. The roles of mitoNEET in PVAT, especially in the development of atherosclerosis, are unknown. Methods: The brown adipocyte-specific mitoNEET transgenic mice were subjected to cold environmental stimulus. The metabolic rates and PVAT-dependent thermogenesis were investigated. Additionally, the brown adipocyte-specific mitoNEET transgenic mice were cross-bred with ApoE knockout mice. The ensuing mice were subsequently subjected to cold environmental stimulus and high cholesterol diet challenge for 3 months. The development of atherosclerosis was investigated. Results: Our data show that mitoNEET mRNA was downregulated in PVAT of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Pgc1?)- and beta (Pgc1?)-knockout mice which are sensitive to cold. MitoNEET expression was higher in PVAT of wild type mice and increased upon cold stimulus. Transgenic mice with overexpression of mitoNEET in PVAT were cold resistant, and showed increased expression of thermogenic genes. ApoE knockout mice with mitoNEET overexpression in PVAT showed significant downregulation of inflammatory genes and showed reduced atherosclerosis development upon high fat diet feeding when kept in a 16°C environment. Conclusion: mitoNEET in PVAT is associated with PVAT-dependent thermogenesis and prevents atherosclerosis development. The results of this study provide new insights on PVAT and mitoNEET biology and atherosclerosis in cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:MitoNEET (gene cisd1) is a mitochondrial outer membrane [2Fe-2S] protein and is a potential drug target in several metabolic diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitoNEET functions as a redox-active and pH-sensing protein that regulates mitochondrial metabolism, although the structural basis of the potential drug binding site(s) remains elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the soluble domain of human mitoNEET with a sulfonamide ligand, furosemide. Exploration of the high-resolution crystal structure is used to design mitoNEET binding molecules in a pilot study of molecular probes for use in future development of mitochondrial targeted therapies for a wide variety of metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
Project description:A primary role for mitochondrial dysfunction is indicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. A widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione class of molecules. MitoNEET, a 2Fe-2S outer mitochondrial membrane protein, binds pioglitazone [Colca et al. (2004), Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 286, E252-E260]. The soluble domain of the human mitoNEET protein has been expressed C-terminal to the superfolder green fluorescent protein and the mitoNEET protein has been isolated. Comparison of the crystal structure of mitoNEET isolated from cleavage of the fusion protein (1.4 A resolution, R factor = 20.2%) with other solved structures shows that the CDGSH domains are superimposable, indicating proper assembly of mitoNEET. Furthermore, there is considerable flexibility in the position of the cytoplasmic tethering arms, resulting in two different conformations in the crystal structure. This flexibility affords multiple orientations on the outer mitochondrial membrane.