GRK2 deletion improves the function of skin flap following ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating Drp1.
ABSTRACT: Skin flap ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is the key factor to the success rate of skin transplantation, the molecular mechanism of flap IR injury needs to be continuously explored to provide new ideas for its clinical treatment. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) was reported to be involved in regulating mitochondrial function, and mitochondria were essential in the process of flap IR. Thus, we aimed to investigate the function of GRK2 in flap ischemia-reperfusion injury and further explore the underlying mechanism. Sixty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: sham, IR+sh-NC, IR+sh-GRK2 and IR+sh-GRK2+ dynamin-related GTPase 1 (Drp1). Flap function and mitochondrial function were determined after ischemia for 3 hours and reperfusion for 72 hours. Comparing with sham group, GRK2 was increased in flap after IR injury. Loss of GRK2 inhibited cell apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation of flap after IR injury. And deficiency of GRK2 promoted mitochondrial function in flap after IR injury. IR injury up-regulated Drp1 expression in flap, while sh-GRK2 down-regulated Drp1 expression. Furthermore, overexpression of Drp1 removed the protective effect of sh-GRK2. In conclusion, our study revealed that GRK2 deletion improved flap function and mitochondrial function by inhibiting Drp1 expression, which may provide a new insight for the clinical treatment of flap ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Project description:Right ventricular (RV) function determines prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesize that ischemia causes RV dysfunction in PAH by triggering dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission. RV function was compared in control rats (n = 50) versus rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH (MCT-PAH; n = 60) both in vivo (echocardiography) and ex vivo (RV Langendorff). Mitochondrial membrane potential and morphology and RV function were assessed before or after 2 cycles of ischemia-reperfusion injury challenge (RV-IR). The effects of Mdivi-1 (25 ?M), a Drp1 GTPase inhibitor, and P110 (1 ?M), a peptide inhibitor of Drp1-Fis1 interaction, were studied. We found that MCT caused RV hypertrophy, RV vascular rarefaction, and RV dysfunction. Prior to IR, the mitochondria in MCT-PAH RV were depolarized and swollen with increased Drp1 content and reduced aconitase activity. RV-IR increased RV end diastolic pressure (RVEDP) and mitochondrial Drp1 expression in both control and MCT-PAH RVs. IR depolarized mitochondria in control RV but did not exacerbate the basally depolarized MCT-PAH RV mitochondria. During RV IR mdivi-1 and P110 reduced Drp1 translocation to mitochondria, improved mitochondrial structure and function, and reduced RVEDP. In conclusion, RV ischemia occurs in PAH and causes Drp1-Fis1-mediated fission leading to diastolic dysfunction. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission preserves RV function in RV-IR. KEY MESSAGES:Right ventricular ischemia reperfusion (RV-IR) causes RV diastolic dysfunction. IR-induced mitochondrial fission causes RV diastolic dysfunction. In RV-IR Drp1 translocates to mitochondria, binds Fis1 and causes fission and injury. A baseline RV mitochondriopathy in MCT PAH resembles IR-induced mitochondrial injury. Drp1 inhibitors (Mdivi-1 and P110) preserve RV diastolic function post RV-IR.
Project description:Increased abundance of GRK2 [G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2] is associated with poor cardiac function in heart failure patients. In animal models, GRK2 contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In addition to its role in down-regulating activated GPCRs, GRK2 also localizes to mitochondria both basally and post-IR injury, where it regulates cellular metabolism. We previously showed that phosphorylation of GRK2 at Ser670 is essential for the translocation of GRK2 to the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes post-IR injury in vitro and that this localization promotes cell death. Here, we showed that mice with a S670A knock-in mutation in endogenous GRK2 showed reduced cardiomyocyte death and better cardiac function post-IR injury. Cultured GRK2-S670A knock-in cardiomyocytes subjected to IR in vitro showed enhanced glucose-mediated mitochondrial respiratory function that was partially due to maintenance of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and improved glucose oxidation. Thus, we propose that mitochondrial GRK2 plays a detrimental role in cardiac glucose oxidation post-injury.
Project description:Mitochondrial fission, regulated by dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), is a newly recognized determinant of mitochondrial function, but its contribution to left ventricular (LV) impairment following ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is unknown. We report that Drp1 activation during IR results in LV dysfunction and that Drp1 inhibition is beneficial. In both isolated neonatal murine cardiomyocytes and adult rat hearts (Langendorff preparation) mitochondrial fragmentation and swelling occurred within 30 min of IR. Drp1-S637 (serine 637) dephosphorylation resulted in Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and increased mitochondrial fission. The Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 preserved mitochondrial morphology, reduced cytosolic calcium, and prevented cell death. Drp1 siRNA similarly preserved mitochondrial morphology. In Langendorff hearts, Mdivi-1 reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, improved LV developed pressure (92±5 vs. 28±10 mmHg, P<0.001), and lowered LV end diastolic pressure (10±1 vs. 86±13 mmHg, P<0.001) following IR. Mdivi-1 was protective if administered prior to or following ischemia. Because Drp1-S637 dephosphorylation is calcineurin sensitive, we assessed the effects of a calcineurin inhibitor, FK506. FK506 treatment prior to IR prevented Drp1-S637 dephosphorylation and preserved cardiac function. Likewise, therapeutic hypothermia (30°C) inhibited Drp1-S637 dephosphorylation and preserved mitochondrial morphology and myocardial function. Drp1 inhibition is a novel strategy to improve myocardial function following IR.
Project description:The proximal tubule epithelium relies on mitochondrial function for energy, rendering the kidney highly susceptible to ischemic AKI. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a mediator of mitochondrial fission, regulates mitochondrial function; however, the cell-specific and temporal role of DRP1 in AKI in vivo is unknown. Using genetic murine models, we found that proximal tubule-specific deletion of Drp1 prevented the renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury, inflammation, and programmed cell death observed in wild-type mice and promoted epithelial recovery, which associated with activation of the renoprotective ?-hydroxybutyrate signaling pathway. Loss of DRP1 preserved mitochondrial structure and reduced oxidative stress in injured kidneys. Lastly, proximal tubule deletion of DRP1 after ischemia-reperfusion injury attenuated progressive kidney injury and fibrosis. These results implicate DRP1 and mitochondrial dynamics as an important mediator of AKI and progression to fibrosis and suggest that DRP1 may serve as a therapeutic target for AKI.
Project description:Experimental evidence has clarified distant organ dysfunctions induced by AKI. Crosstalk between the kidney and heart, which has been recognized recently as cardiorenal syndrome, appears to have an important role in clinical settings, but the mechanisms by which AKI causes cardiac injury remain poorly understood. Both the kidney and heart are highly energy-demanding organs that are rich in mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated the role of mitochondrial dynamics in kidney-heart organ crosstalk. Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury was induced by bilateral renal artery clamping for 30 min in 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Electron microscopy showed a significant increase of mitochondrial fragmentation in the heart at 24 h. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction, evaluated by echocardiography, were observed at 72 h. Among the mitochondrial dynamics regulating molecules, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which regulates fission, and mitofusin 1, mitofusin 2, and optic atrophy 1, which regulate fusion, only Drp1 was increased in the mitochondrial fraction of the heart. A Drp1 inhibitor, mdivi-1, administered before IR decreased mitochondrial fragmentation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis significantly and improved cardiac dysfunction induced by renal IR. This study showed that renal IR injury induced fragmentation of mitochondria in a fission-dominant manner with Drp1 activation and subsequent cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the heart. Furthermore, cardiac dysfunction induced by renal IR was improved by Drp1 inhibition. These data suggest that mitochondrial fragmentation by fission machinery may be a new therapeutic target in cardiac dysfunction induced by AKI.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>While studies using various materials to overcome ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are becoming increasingly common, studies on the effects of botulinum toxin A (BoTA) on IR injury in musculocutaneous flaps are still limited. The purpose of this study was to examine our hypotheses that BoTA provide protection of musculocutaneous flap from ischemia-reperfusion injury.<h4>Method</h4>Five days after pretreatment injection (BoTA versus normal saline), a right superior musculocutaneous flap (6 × 1.5?cm in size) was made. Ischemia was created by a tourniquet strictly wrapping the pedicle containing skin and muscle for 8 h. After ischemia, the tourniquet was cut, and the musculocutaneous flap was reperfused.<h4>Results</h4>The overall survival percentage of flap after 8?h of pedicle clamping followed by reperfusion was 87.32 ± 3.67% in the control group versus 95.64 ± 3.25% in the BoTA group (<i>p</i> < 0.001). The BoTA group had higher expression of CD34, HIF-1<i>?</i>, VEGF, and NF-kB comparing to control group in qRT-PCR analysis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this study, we found that local BoTA preconditioning yielded significant protection against IR injury in a rat musculocutaneous flap model.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is an important molecule upregulated after myocardial injury and during heart failure. Myocyte-specific GRK2 loss before and after myocardial ischemic injury improves cardiac function and remodeling. The cardiac fibroblast plays an important role in the repair and remodeling events after cardiac ischemia; the importance of GRK2 in these events has not been investigated.The aim of this study is to elucidate the in vivo implications of deleting GRK2 in the cardiac fibroblast after ischemia/reperfusion injury.We demonstrate, using Tamoxifen inducible, fibroblast-specific GRK2 knockout mice, that GRK2 loss confers a protective advantage over control mice after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Fibroblast GRK2 knockout mice presented with decreased infarct size and preserved cardiac function 24 hours post ischemia/reperfusion as demonstrated by increased ejection fraction (59.1±1.8% versus 48.7±1.2% in controls; P<0.01). GRK2 fibroblast knockout mice also had decreased fibrosis and fibrotic gene expression. Importantly, these protective effects correlated with decreased infiltration of neutrophils to the ischemia site and decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-? expression and secretion in GRK2 fibroblast knockout mice.These novel data showing the benefits of inhibiting GRK2 in the cardiac fibroblast adds to previously published data showing the advantage of GRK2 ablation and reinforces the therapeutic potential of GRK2 inhibition in the heart after myocardial ischemia.
Project description:Our previous studies showed that Astragaloside IV derivative (LS-102) exhibited potent protective function against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, but little is known about the mechanisms. Mitochondrial fission regulated by dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) is a newly recognized determinant of mitochondrial function. This study aimed to investigate the protection of LS-102 on mitochondrial structure and function by regulating the activity of Drp1 using models of H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury induced by hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R), and rat heart injury induced by I/R. The results showed that LS-102 significantly decreased apoptosis, levels of ROS, CK, LDH, and calcium, upregulating MMP, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in cardiomyocytes during I/R injury. Furthermore, LS-102 prevented I/R-induced mitochondrial fission by decreasing Drp1’s mitochondrial localization through decreasing the phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser616 (Drp1Ser616) and increasing the phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser637 (Drp1Ser637) in H9c2 cells. Importantly, we also robustly confirmed Drp1Ser616 as a novel GSK-3? phosphorylation site. GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation at Drp1Ser616 may be associated with mitochondrial fission during I/R of cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, LS-102 exerts cardio protection against I/R-induced injury by inhibiting mitochondrial fission via blocking GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation at Ser616 of Drp1.
Project description:FUN14 domain-containing protein 1 (Fundc1)-dependent mitophagy, mainly activated by ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning, benefits acute myocardial reperfusion injury and chronic metabolic syndrome via sustaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Mitochondrial fission plays a pathogenic role in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) through perturbation of mitochondrial quality and activation of mitochondrial apoptosis. The aim of our study was to explore the role of Fundc1 mitophagy in ischemia preconditioning (IPC)-mediated renoprotection. Proximal tubule-specific Fundc1 knockout (Fundc1PTKO) mice were subjected to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and IPC prior to assessment of renal function, mitophagy, mitochondrial quality control, and Drp1-related mitochondrial fission. Following exposure to IPC, Fundc1 mitophagy was activated through post-transcriptional phosphorylation at Ser17. Interestingly, IRI-mediated renal injury, inflammation, and tubule cell death were mitigated by IPC whereas proximal tubule-specific Fundc1 knockout (Fundc1PTKO) mice abolished IPC-offered renoprotection. Mechanistically, IRI-evoked mitochondrial damage was improved by IPC whereas Fundc1 deficiency provoked mitochondrial abnormality, manifested by impaired mitochondrial quality and hyperactivated Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission. Interestingly, Fundc1 deficiency-associated mitochondrial dysfunction was reversed by pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission. In vivo, Fundc1 deletion-caused renal injury, severe pro-inflammatory response, and tubule cell death could be nullified by way of knockout Drp1 on Fundc1PTKO background. Finally, we also revealed that IPC triggered Fundc1 mitophagy activation through UNC-51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1) and Ulk1 ablation interrupted IPC-mediated Fundc1 activation and thus attenuated IPC-induced renoprotection. Fundc1 mitophagy, primarily driven by IPC, confers resistance to AKI through reconciliation of mitochondrial fission, implicating the therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondrial homeostasis for AKI.
Project description:The mechanism of mitochondrial damage, a key contributor to renal tubular cell death during acute kidney injury, remains largely unknown. Here, we have demonstrated a striking morphological change of mitochondria in experimental models of renal ischemia/reperfusion and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This change contributed to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, release of apoptogenic factors, and consequent apoptosis. Following either ATP depletion or cisplatin treatment of rat renal tubular cells, mitochondrial fragmentation was observed prior to cytochrome c release and apoptosis. This mitochondrial fragmentation was inhibited by Bcl2 but not by caspase inhibitors. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a critical mitochondrial fission protein, translocated to mitochondria early during tubular cell injury, and both siRNA knockdown of Drp1 and expression of a dominant-negative Drp1 attenuated mitochondrial fragmentation, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Further in vivo analysis revealed that mitochondrial fragmentation also occurred in proximal tubular cells in mice during renal ischemia/reperfusion and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Notably, both tubular cell apoptosis and acute kidney injury were attenuated by mdivi-1, a newly identified pharmacological inhibitor of Drp1. This study demonstrates a rapid regulation of mitochondrial dynamics during acute kidney injury and identifies mitochondrial fragmentation as what we believe to be a novel mechanism contributing to mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in vivo in mouse models of disease.