Alterations in cellular and organellar phospholipid compositions of HepG2 cells during cell growth.
ABSTRACT: The human hepatoblastoma cell line, HepG2, has been used for investigating a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, less information is available about the phospholipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. In the present report, to clarify the relationship between cell growth and phospholipid metabolism in HepG2 cells, we examined the phospholipid class compositions of the cells and their intracellular organelles by using enzymatic fluorometric methods. In HepG2 cells, the ratios of all phospholipid classes, but not the ratio of cholesterol, markedly changed with cell growth. Of note, depending on cell growth, the phosphatidic acid (PA) ratio increased and phosphatidylcholine (PC) ratio decreased in the nuclear membranes, the sphingomyelin (SM) ratio increased in the microsomal membranes, and the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio increased and the phosphatidylserine (PS) ratio decreased in the mitochondrial membranes. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of enzymes related to PC, PE, PS, PA, SM and cardiolipin syntheses changed during cell growth. We suggest that the phospholipid class compositions of organellar membranes are tightly regulated by cell growth. These findings provide a basis for future investigations of cancer cell growth and lipid metabolism.
Project description:Binding of phospholipase C delta 1 (PLC delta) to phospholipid vesicles was studied using large, unilamellar phospholipid vesicles (LUVs). PLC delta bound weakly to vesicles composed of phosphatidylserine (PS) or phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) + PC, and even more weakly to vesicles composed of phosphatidylinositol. The enzyme bound strongly to LUVs composed of PE + PC and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) or sphingomyelin (SM). Binding of 50% of PLC delta occurred at 0.25 nmol/ml PIP2 when LUVs composed of PE + PC (molar ratio of 80:20), plus various amounts of PIP2, were used at a constant phospholipid concentration of 300 nmol/ml. When LUVs composed of PE + PC + PIP2 (molar ratio of 79:20:1) were tested as a function of increasing phospholipid concentration, 50% binding of PLC delta occurred at 1.2 nmol/ml PIP2 and 120 nmol/ml total phospholipid. Similar measurements were conducted with other phospholipids and PIP2 at a molar ratio of 99:1. These showed that 50% binding of PLC delta occurred at a level of 0.9 nmol/ml PIP2 with 80 nmol/ml PC; at 2.2 nmol/ml PIP2 with 170 nmol/ml PS; at 4.2 nmol/ml PIP2 with 320 nmol/ml PI; and at 0.26 nmol/ml PIP2 with 20 nmol/ml total liver phospholipids. Binding to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate was much weaker. When LUVs composed of PE + PC + SM (molar ratio 48:12:40) were tested as a function of increasing phospholipid concentration, 50% binding of PLC delta occurred at a level of 96 nmol/ml SM. This is well below the concentration of SM that can be calculated to face the cytosol. Binding of PLC delta to LUVs decreased as the temperature was lowered from 37 degrees C to 0 degree C. Thus PLC delta shows a high degree of specificity for binding to PIP2 and SM. Under physiological conditions a considerable fraction of PLC delta may be bound to cellular membranes, either in an inactive form if bound to PIP2 at low resting Ca2+ concentrations, or in the inhibited form if bound to SM.
Project description:Phospholipid flippase (type 4 P-type ATPase) plays a major role in the generation of phospholipid asymmetry in eukaryotic cell membranes. Loss of Lem3p-Dnf1/2p flippases leads to the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the cell surface in yeast, resulting in sensitivity to PS- or PE-binding peptides. We isolated Sfk1p, a conserved membrane protein in the TMEM150/FRAG1/DRAM family, as a multicopy suppressor of this sensitivity. Overexpression of SFK1 decreased PS/PE exposure in lem3? mutant cells. Consistent with this, lem3? sfk1? double mutant cells exposed more PS/PE than the lem3? mutant. Sfk1p was previously implicated in the regulation of the phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase Stt4p, but the effect of Sfk1p on PS/PE exposure in lem3? was independent of Stt4p. Surprisingly, Sfk1p did not facilitate phospholipid flipping but instead repressed it, even under ATP-depleted conditions. We propose that Sfk1p negatively regulates transbilayer movement of phospholipids irrespective of directions. In addition, we showed that the permeability of the plasma membrane was dramatically elevated in the lem3? sfk1? double mutant in comparison with the corresponding single mutants. Interestingly, total ergosterol was decreased in the lem3? sfk1? mutant. Our results suggest that phospholipid asymmetry is required for the maintenance of low plasma membrane permeability.
Project description:The effect of lipid headgroup structure upon the stability of lipid asymmetry was investigated. Using methyl-?-cyclodextrin -induced lipid exchange, sphingomyelin (SM) was introduced into the outer leaflets of lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol, or cardiolipin, in mixtures of all of these lipids with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and in a phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidic acid mixture. Efficient SM exchange (>85% of that expected for complete replacement of the outer leaflet) was obtained for every lipid composition studied. Vesicles containing PE mixed with anionic lipids showed nearly complete asymmetry which did not decay after 1 day of incubation. However, vesicles containing anionic lipids without PE generally only exhibited partial asymmetry, which further decayed after 1 day of incubation. Vesicles containing the anionic lipid PS were an exception, showing nearly complete and stable asymmetry. It is likely that the combination of multiple charged groups on PE and PS inhibit transverse diffusion of these lipids across membranes relative to those lipids that only have one anionic group. Possible explanations of this behavior are discussed. The asymmetry properties of PE and PS may explain some of their functions in plasma membranes.
Project description:ATP8A2 is a P4-ATPase that is highly expressed in the retina, brain, spinal cord and testes. In the retina, ATP8A2 is localized in photoreceptors where it uses ATP to transport phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes. Although mutations in ATP8A2 have been reported to cause mental retardation in humans and degeneration of spinal motor neurons in mice, the role of ATP8A2 in sensory systems has not been investigated. We have analyzed the retina and cochlea of ATP8A2-deficient mice to determine the role of ATP8A2 in visual and auditory systems. ATP8A2-deficient mice have shortened photoreceptor outer segments, a reduction in photoresponses and decreased photoreceptor viability. The ultrastructure and phagocytosis of the photoreceptor outer segment appeared normal, but the PS and PE compositions were altered and the rhodopsin content was decreased. The auditory brainstem response threshold was significantly higher and degeneration of spiral ganglion cells was apparent. Our studies indicate that ATP8A2 plays a crucial role in photoreceptor and spiral ganglion cell function and survival by maintaining phospholipid composition and contributing to vesicle trafficking.
Project description:UV radiation is a well-established environmental risk factor known to cause oxidative stress and disrupt the metabolism of keratinocyte phospholipids. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this study, we examined changes in the keratinocyte phospholipid profile from nude rat skin exposed to UVA and UVB radiation that was also treated topically with CBD. UVA and UVB radiation promoted up-regulation of phosphatidylcholines (PC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and down-regulation of sphingomyelin (SM) levels and enhanced the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and sphingomyelinase (SMase). Application of CBD to the skin of control rats led to down-regulation of SM and up-regulation of SMase activity. After CBD treatment of rats irradiated with UVA or UVB, SM was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while ceramide (CER) levels and SMase activity were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively. CBD applied to the skin of UV-irradiated rats down-regulated LPC, up-regulated PE and phosphatidylserines (PS) and reduced PLA2 activity. In conclusion, up-regulation of PS may suggest that CBD inhibits their oxidative modification, while changes in the content of PE and SM may indicate a role of CBD in promoting autophagy and improving the status of the transepidermal barrier.
Project description:Since plasma lipoproteins contain both protein and phospholipid components, either may be involved in processes such as atherosclerosis. In this study the identification of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipids, which is essential for understanding these processes at the molecular level, are performed. LC-ESI/MS, LC-ESI-MS/MS and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of different lipoprotein fractions collected from pooled plasma revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and sphingomyeline (SM) only on lipoproteins and phosphatidylcholine (PC), Lyso-PC on both lipoproteins and plasma lipoprotein free fraction (PLFF). Cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and Phosphatidylserine (PS) were observed neither in the lipoprotein fractions nor in PLFF. All three approaches led to the same results regarding phospholipids occurrence in plasma lipoproteins and PLFF. A high abundancy of PE and SM was observed in VLDL and LDL fractions respectively. This study provides for the first time the knowledge about the phospholipid composition of all defined plasma lipoproteins.
Project description:Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a major component of the cellular membrane across all domains of life, is synthesized exclusively by membrane-anchored phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PSD) in most bacteria. The enzyme undergoes auto-cleavage for activation and utilizes the pyruvoyl moiety to form a Schiff base intermediate with PS to facilitate decarboxylation. However, the structural basis for self-maturation, PS binding, and decarboxylation processes directed by PSD remain unclear. Here, we present X-ray crystal structures of PSD from Escherichia coli, representing an apo form and a PE-bound complex, in which the phospholipid is chemically conjugated to the essential pyruvoyl residue, mimicking the Schiff base intermediate. The high-resolution structures of PE-complexed PSD clearly illustrate extensive hydrophobic interactions with the fatty acyl chains of the phospholipid, providing insights into the broad specificity of the enzyme over a wide range of cellular PS. Furthermore, these structures strongly advocate the unique topology of the enzyme in a lipid bilayer environment, where the enzyme associates with cell membranes in a monotopic fashion via the N-terminal domain composed of three amphipathic helices. Lastly, mutagenesis analyses reveal that E. coli PSD primarily employs D90/D142-H144-S254 to achieve auto-cleavage for the proenzyme maturation, where D90 and D142 act in complementary to each other.
Project description:Triacylglycerols are stored in eukaryotic cells within lipid droplets (LD). The LD core is enwrapped by a phospholipid monolayer with phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a minor component. We demonstrate that the onset of LD formation is characterized by a change in cellular PC, PE, and phosphatidylserine (PS). With induction of differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes, the cellular PC/PE ratio decreased concomitant with LD formation, with the most pronounced decline between confluency and day 5. The mRNA for PS synthase-1 (forms PS from PC) and PS decarboxylase (forms PE from PS) increased after day 5. Activity and protein of PE N-methyltransferase (PEMT), which produces PC by methylation of PE, are absent in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts but were induced at day 5. High fat challenge induced PEMT expression in mouse adipose tissue. PE, produced via PS decarboxylase, was the preferred substrate for methylation to PC. A PEMT-GFP fusion protein decorated the periphery of LD. PEMT knockdown in 3T3-L1 adipocytes correlated with increased basal triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Pemt(-/-) mice developed desensitization against adenosine-mediated inhibition of basal hydrolysis in adipose tissue, and adipocyte hypotrophy was observed in Pemt(-/-) animals on a high fat diet. Knock-out of PEMT in adipose tissue down-regulated PS synthase-1 mRNA, suggesting coordination between PE supply and converting pathways during LD biosynthesis. We conclude that two consecutive processes not previously related to LD biogenesis, (i) PE production via PS and (ii) PE conversion via PEMT, are implicated in LD formation and stability.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP) are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS). We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i) glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA); (ii) sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3). Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005) and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005), while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA) in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005) and GM(3) (p<0.0005), but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005) in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys exhibited decreased levels of sphingolipids, which are microdomain-associated lipids and are thought to be associated with insulin sensitivity. Significant increases in PG species, which are precursors for cardiolipin biosynthesis in mitochondria, were found in fasted diabetic monkeys (n?=?8).
Project description:Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) and CDC50 family proteins form a putative phospholipid flippase complex that mediates the translocation of aminophospholipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) from the outer to inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, at least eight members of P4-ATPases were identified, but only a single CDC50 family protein, CDC50A, was expressed. We demonstrated that CDC50A associated with and recruited P4-ATPase ATP8A1 to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of CDC50A induced extensive cell spreading and greatly enhanced cell migration. Depletion of either CDC50A or ATP8A1 caused a severe defect in the formation of membrane ruffles, thereby inhibiting cell migration. Analyses of phospholipid translocation at the plasma membrane revealed that the depletion of CDC50A inhibited the inward translocation of both PS and PE, whereas the depletion of ATP8A1 inhibited the translocation of PE but not that of PS, suggesting that the inward translocation of cell-surface PE is involved in cell migration. This hypothesis was further examined by using a PE-binding peptide and a mutant cell line with defective PE synthesis; either cell-surface immobilization of PE by the PE-binding peptide or reduction in the cell-surface content of PE inhibited the formation of membrane ruffles, causing a severe defect in cell migration. These results indicate that the phospholipid flippase complex of ATP8A1 and CDC50A plays a major role in cell migration and suggest that the flippase-mediated translocation of PE at the plasma membrane is involved in the formation of membrane ruffles to promote cell migration.