Modification of the Sensory Profile and Volatile Aroma Compounds of Tomato Fruits by the Scion × Rootstock Interactive Effect.
ABSTRACT: Sensory quality is of increasing importance to consumer decisions in choosing a product, and it is certainly an important factor in repurchasing in terms of meeting the necessary aroma quality and taste properties. To better understand the effects of rootstocks and scions on fruit quality, the sensory profile and volatile aroma composition of the fruits of hydroponically grown tomato plants were evaluated. Experiments were established using the tomato cultivars Clarabella and Estatio as scions during two spring-summer seasons. In both experiments, the scion plants were self-grafted or grafted onto rootstocks of cultivars Arnold, Buffon, Emperador, and Maxifort, with the exception that in experiment 1, the Estatio scion was not grafted onto Buffon. The scions and rootstocks caused differences in observed sensory properties in both experiments. For most of the sensory traits, interaction effects between scion and rootstock were observed. Compared to those obtained from self-grafted Clarabella, the fruits obtained from Clarabella grafted onto Buffon in the first experiment and Clarabella grafted onto Arnold in the second experiment were sweeter by one measurement unit. The contents of seven aldehydes, six alcohols, five terpenes and two ketones were determined. A lower accumulation of total aldehydes, 22-45%, due to lower amounts of pentanal, (E)-2-heptanal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, was found in the fruits from plants where Estatio was rootstock compared with the other rootstocks treatments. Clarabella as a rootstock increased (Z)-3-hexenal + (E)-2-hexenal accumulation from 35 to 65%. Grafting Clarabella onto the tested rootstocks led to a change in the composition of volatile compounds, while differences between the combinations with Estatio as a scion were generally not recorded. Fruits from self-grafted Clarabella had higher (Z)-3-hexenal + (E)-2-hexenal concentrations than did fruits from Clarabella grafted onto Arnold (for 54%) and Emperador (for 68%), and in the second experiment, grafting onto all commercial rootstocks reduced (Z)-3-hexenal + (E)-2-hexenal concentrations, from 25 to 74%, compared to those from self-grafted Clarabella. Higher (+)-2-carene and (-)-caryophyllene oxide concentrations were attained in plants in which Clarabella was grafted onto Maxifort (by 56%) and plants in which Estatio was grafted onto Arnold (by 36%) compared to self-grafted plants. This study showed the possibility of altering the composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory properties of tomato fruits by the use of grafting techniques.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. RESULTS: Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. CONCLUSIONS: Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions, and rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns could be correlated with differences in susceptibility. The results suggest a relationship between rootstock-regulated fire blight susceptibility and sorbitol dehydrogenase, phenylpropanoid metabolism, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, and endocytosis, among others. This study illustrates the utility of our rootstock-regulated gene expression data sets for candidate trait-associated gene data mining.
Project description:Vitis vinifera scions are commonly grafted onto rootstocks of other grape species to influence scion vigour and provide resistance to soil-borne pests and abiotic stress; however, the mechanisms by which rootstocks affect scion physiology remain unknown. This study characterized the hydraulic physiology of Vitis rootstocks that vary in vigour classification by investigating aquaporin (VvPIP) gene expression, fine-root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)), % aquaporin contribution to Lp(r), scion transpiration, and the size of root systems. Expression of several VvPIP genes was consistently greater in higher-vigour rootstocks under favourable growing conditions in a variety of media and in root tips compared to mature fine roots. Similar to VvPIP expression patterns, fine-root Lp(r) and % aquaporin contribution to Lp(r) determined under both osmotic (Lp(r)(Osm)) and hydrostatic (Lp(r)(Hyd)) pressure gradients were consistently greater in high-vigour rootstocks. Interestingly, the % aquaporin contribution was nearly identical for Lp(r)(Osm) and Lp(r)(Hyd) even though a hydrostatic gradient would induce a predominant flow across the apoplastic pathway. In common scion greenhouse experiments, leaf area-specific transpiration (E) and total leaf area increased with rootstock vigour and were positively correlated with fine-root Lp(r). These results suggest that increased canopy water demands for scion grafted onto high-vigour rootstocks are matched by adjustments in root-system hydraulic conductivity through the combination of fine-root Lp(r) and increased root surface area.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Grafting is the common propagation method for avocado and primarily benefits orchard production by reducing the time to tree productivity. It also allows use of scions and rootstocks specifically selected for improved productivity and commercial acceptance. Rootstocks in avocado may be propagated from mature tree cuttings ('mature'), or from seed ('juvenile'). While the use of mature scion material hastens early bearing/maturity and economic return, the molecular factors involved in the role of the scion and/or rootstock in early bearing/reduced juvenility of the grafted tree are still unknown. RESULTS:Here, we utilized juvenility and flowering associated miRNAs; miR156 and miR172 and their putative target genes to screen pre-graft and post-graft material in different combinations from avocado. The abundance of mature miR156, miR172 and the miR156 target gene SPL4, showed a strong correlation to the maturity of the scion and rootstock material in avocado. Graft transmissibility of miR156 and miR172 has been explored in annual plants. Here, we show that the scion may be responsible for grafted tree maturity involving these factors, while the rootstock maturity does not significantly influence miRNA abundance in the scion. We also demonstrate that the presence of leaves on cutting rootstocks supports graft success and contributes towards intergraft signalling involving the carbohydrate-marker TPS1. CONCLUSION:Here, we suggest that the scion largely controls the molecular 'maturity' of grafted avocado trees, however, leaves on the rootstock not only promote graft success, but can influence miRNA and mRNA abundance in the scion. This constitutes the first study on scion and rootstock contribution towards grafted tree maturity using the miR156-SPL4-miR172 regulatory module as a marker for juvenility and reproductive competence.
Project description:To understand the roles of Malus rootstock, scion, and their interaction in Cd accumulation and tolerance, four scion/rootstock combinations consisting of the apple cultivars "Hanfu" (HF) and "Fuji" (FJ) grafted onto M. baccata (Mb) or M. micromalus "qingzhoulinqin" (Mm) rootstocks differing in relative Cd tolerance were exposed either to 0 µM or 50 µM CdCl2 for 18 d. Cd accumulation and tolerance in grafted Malus plants varied within rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction. Cd-induced decreases in photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigment level, and biomass were lower for HF grafted onto Mb than those for HF grafted onto Mm. Reductions in growth and photosynthetic rate were always the lowest for HF/Mb. Cd concentration, bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (Tf ) were always comparatively higher in HF and FJ grafted onto rootstock Mm than in HF and FJ grafted on Mb, respectively. When HF and FJ were grafted onto the same rootstock, the root Cd concentrations were always higher in HF than FJ, whereas the shoot Cd concentrations displayed the opposite trend. The shoot Cd concentrations and Tf were lower for HF/Mb than the other scion/rootstock combinations. Rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction also affected subcellular Cd distribution. Immobilization of Cd in the root cell walls may be a primary Cd mobility and toxicity reduction strategy in Malus. The rootstock and scion also had statistically significant influences on ROS level and antioxidant activity. Cd induced more severe oxidative stress in HF and FJ grafted onto Mm than it did in HF and FJ grafted onto Mb. Compared with FJ, HF had lower foliar O2 -, root H2O2, and root and leaf MDA levels, but higher ROS-scavenging capacity. The rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction affected the mRNA transcript levels of several genes involved in Cd uptake, transport, and detoxification including HA7, FRO2-like, NRAMP1, NRAMP3, HMA4, MT2, NAS1, and ABCC1. Hence, the responses of grafted Malus plants to Cd toxicity vary with rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction.
Project description:Various biotic and abiotic stresses threaten the cultivation of future agricultural crops. Among these stresses, heat stress is a major abiotic stress that substantially reduces agricultural productivity. Many strategies to enhance heat stress tolerance of crops have been developed, among which is grafting. Here, we show that Momordica-grafted cucumber scions have intrinsically enhanced chlorophyll content, leaf area, and net photosynthetic rate under heat stress compared to plants grafted onto cucumber rootstock. To investigate the mechanisms by which Momordica rootstock enhanced cucumber scions heat stress tolerance, comparative proteomic analysis of cucumber leaves in response to rootstock-grafting and/or heat stress was conducted. Seventy-seven differentially accumulated proteins involved in diverse biological processes were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The following four main categories of proteins were involved: photosynthesis (42.8%), energy and metabolism (18.2%), defense response (14.3%), and protein and nucleic acid biosynthesis (11.7%). Proteomic analysis revealed that scions grafted onto Momordica rootstocks upregulated more proteins involved in photosynthesis compared to scions grafted onto cucumber rootstocks under heat stress and indicated enhanced photosynthetic capacity when seedlings were exposed to heat stress. Furthermore, the expression of photosynthesis-related genes in plants grafted onto Momordica rootstocks significantly increased in response to heat stress. In addition, increased high-temperature tolerance of plants grafted onto Momordica rootstock was associated with the accumulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 (OEE1). Taken together, the data indicated that Momordica rootstock might alleviate growth inhibition caused by heat stress by improving photosynthesis, providing valuable insight into enhancing heat stress tolerance in the global warming epoch.
Project description:Grapevine is a perennial crop often cultivated by grafting a scion cultivar on a suitable rootstock. Rootstocks influence scions, particularly with regard to water uptake and vigor. Therefore, one of the possibilities to adapt viticulture to the extended drought stress periods is to select rootstocks conferring increased tolerance to drought. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with the ability of rootstock/scion combination to influence grape berry metabolism under drought stress are still poorly understood. The transcriptomic changes induced by drought stress in grape berries (cv. Pinot noir) from vines grafted on either 110R (drought-tolerant) or 125AA (drought-sensitive) rootstock were compared. The experiments were conducted in the vineyard for two years and two grape berry developmental stages (50% and 100% veraison). The genome-wide microarray approach showed that water stress strongly impacts gene expression in the berries, through ontology categories that cover cell wall metabolism, primary and secondary metabolism, signaling, stress, and hormones, and that some of these effects strongly depend on the rootstock genotype. Indeed, under drought stress, berries from vines grafted on 110R displayed a different transcriptional response compared to 125AA-concerning genes related to jasmonate (JA), phenylpropanoid metabolism, and pathogenesis-related proteins. The data also suggest a link between JA and secondary metabolism in water-stressed berries. Overall, genes related to secondary metabolism and JA are more induced and/or less repressed by drought stress in the berries grafted on the drought-sensitive rootstock 125AA. These rootstock-dependent gene expression changes are relevant for berry composition and sensory properties.
Project description:Grafting is typically utilized to merge adapted seedling rootstocks with highly productive clonal scions. This process implies the interaction of multiple genomes to produce a unique tree phenotype. However, the interconnection of both genotypes obscures individual contributions to phenotypic variation (rootstock-mediated heritability), hampering tree breeding. Therefore, our goal was to quantify the inheritance of seedling rootstock effects on scion traits using avocado (Persea americana Mill.) cv. Hass as a model fruit tree. We characterized 240 diverse rootstocks from 8 avocado cv. Hass orchards with similar management in three regions of the province of Antioquia, northwest Andes of Colombia, using 13 microsatellite markers simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Parallel to this, we recorded 20 phenotypic traits (including morphological, biomass/reproductive, and fruit yield and quality traits) in the scions for 3 years (2015–2017). Relatedness among rootstocks was inferred through the genetic markers and inputted in a “genetic prediction” model to calculate narrow-sense heritabilities (h2) on scion traits. We used three different randomization tests to highlight traits with consistently significant heritability estimates. This strategy allowed us to capture five traits with significant heritability values that ranged from 0.33 to 0.45 and model fits (r) that oscillated between 0.58 and 0.73 across orchards. The results showed significance in the rootstock effects for four complex harvest and quality traits (i.e., total number of fruits, number of fruits with exportation quality, and number of fruits discarded because of low weight or thrips damage), whereas the only morphological trait that had a significant heritability value was overall trunk height (an emergent property of the rootstock–scion interaction). These findings suggest the inheritance of rootstock effects, beyond root phenotype, on a surprisingly wide spectrum of scion traits in “Hass” avocado. They also reinforce the utility of polymorphic SSRs for relatedness reconstruction and genetic prediction of complex traits. This research is, up to date, the most cohesive evidence of narrow-sense inheritance of rootstock effects in a tropical fruit tree crop. Ultimately, our work highlights the importance of considering the rootstock–scion interaction to broaden the genetic basis of fruit tree breeding programs while enhancing our understanding of the consequences of grafting.
Project description:The apple dwarfing rootstock 'Malling9' ('M9') has been used worldwide both to reduce scion vigour and as a genetic source for breeding new rootstocks. Progeny of 'M9' segregate for rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion, indicating that this trait is controlled by one or more genetic factors. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a rootstock population derived from the cross between 'M9' × 'Robusta5' (non-dwarfing) and grafted with 'Braeburn' scions identified a major QTL (Dw1) on linkage group (LG) 5, which exhibits a significant influence on dwarfing of the scion. A smaller-effect QTL affecting dwarfing (Dw2) was identified on LG11, and four minor-effect QTLs were found on LG6, LG9, LG10 and LG12. Phenotypic analysis indicates that the combination of Dw1 and Dw2 has the strongest influence on rootstock-induced dwarfing, and that Dw1 has a stronger effect than Dw2. Genetic markers linked to Dw1 and Dw2 were screened over 41 rootstock accessions that confer a range of effects on scion growth. The majority of the dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstock accessions screened carried marker alleles linked to Dw1 and Dw2. This suggests that most apple dwarfing rootstocks have been derived from the same genetic source.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Past clonal propagation of olive trees is intimately linked to grafting. However, evidence on grafting in ancient trees is scarce, and not much is known about the source of plant material used for rootstocks. Here, the Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) marker technique was used to study genetic diversity of rootstocks and scions in ancient olive trees from the Levant and its implications for past cultivation of olives. Leaf samples were collected from tree canopies (scions) and shoots growing from the trunk base (suckers). A total of 310 trees were sampled in 32 groves and analyzed with 14 SSR markers. RESULTS: In 82.7% of the trees in which both scion and suckers could be genotyped, these were genetically different, and thus suckers were interpreted to represent the rootstock of grafted trees. Genetic diversity values were much higher among suckers than among scions, and 194 and 87 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) were found in the two sample groups, respectively. Only five private alleles were found among scions, but 125 among suckers. A frequency analysis revealed a bimodal distribution of genetic distance among MLGs, indicating the presence of somatic mutations within clones. When assuming that MLGs differing by one mutation are identical, scion and sucker MLGs were grouped in 20 and 147 multi-locus lineages (MLLs). The majority of scions (90.0%) belonged to a single common MLL, whereas 50.5% of the suckers were single-sample MLLs. However, one MLL was specific to suckers and found in 63 (22.6%) of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong evidence that the majority of olive trees in the study are grafted, that the large majority of scions belong to a single ancient cultivar containing somatic mutations, and that the widespread occurrence of one sucker genotype may imply rootstock selection. For the majority of grafted trees it seems likely that saplings were used as rootstocks; their genetic diversity probably is best explained as the result of a long history of sexual reproduction involving cultivated, feral and wild genotypes.
Project description:A field study showed that transgenic grapevine rootstocks can provide trans-graft-mediated protection to a wild type scion against Pierce's disease (PD) development. We individually field-tested two distinct strategies. The first expressed a chimeric antimicrobial protein (CAP) that targeted the functionality of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) surface of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causative agent of PD. The second expressed a plant polygalacturonase inhibitory protein (PGIP) that prevents PD by inhibiting breakdown of pectin present in primary cell walls. Both proteins are secreted to the apoplast and then into the xylem, where they migrate past the graft union, transiting into the xylem of the grafted scion. Transgenic Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless (TS) expressing ether CAP or PGIP were tested in the greenhouse and those lines that showed resistance to PD were grafted with wild type TS scions. Grafted grapevines were introduced into the field and tested over 7 years. Here we present data on the field evaluation of trans-graft protection using four CAP and four PGIP independent rootstock lines, compared to an untransformed rootstock. There was 30 to 95% reduction in vine mortality among CAP- and PGIP-expressing lines after three successive yearly infections with virulent Xf. Shoot tissues grafted to either CAP or PGIP transgenic rootstocks supported lower pathogen titers and showed fewer disease symptoms. Grafted plants on transgenic rootstocks also had more spring bud break following infection, more shoots, and more vigorous growth compared to those grafted to wild type rootstocks. No yield penalty was observed in the transgenic lines and some PGIP-expressing vines had enhanced yield potential. Trans-graft protection is an efficient way to protect grape scions against PD while preserving their valuable varietal genotypes and clonal properties.