Extracellular and intracellular intermittent magnetic-fluid hyperthermia treatment of SK-Hep1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells based on magnetic nanoparticles coated with polystyrene sulfonic acid.
ABSTRACT: The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) magnetized on applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF) to stimulate the thermal characteristics and to induce tumor apoptosis is a currently active area of research in cancer treatment. In previous work, we developed biocompatible and superparamagnetic polystyrene-sulfonic-acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (PSS-MNPs) as applications for magnetically labeled cell trapping, but without assessment of treatment effects on tumor diseases. In the present work, we examined PSS-MNP-induced magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on SK-Hep1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells for lethal thermal effects with a self-made AMF system; an adjustable AMF frequency generated a variable intensity of magnetic field and induced MNP relaxation. The extracellular and intracellular MFH treatments on a SK-Hep1 cell line were implemented in vitro; the result indicates that the lethal effects were efficient and caused a significantly decreased cell viability of SK-Hep1 cells. As the PSS-MNP concentration decreased, especially in intracellular MFH treatments, the MFH effects on cells, however, largely decreased through heat spreading to the culture medium. On controlling and decreasing the volume of culture medium, the problem of heat spreading was solved. It can be consequently expected that PSS-MNPs would be a prospective agent for intracellular cancer magnetotherapy.
Project description:The development of novel magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with satisfactory biocompatibility for biomedical applications has been the subject of extensive exploration over the past two decades. In this work, we synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide MNPs coated with polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSS-MNPs) and with a conventional co-precipitation method. The core size and hydrodynamic diameter of the PSS-MNPs were determined as 8-18 nm and 50-200 nm with a transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, respectively. The saturation magnetization of the particles was measured as 60 emu g<sup>-1</sup> with a superconducting quantum-interference-device magnetometer. The PSS content in the PSS-MNPs was 17% of the entire PSS-MNPs according to thermogravimetric analysis. Fourier-transform infrared spectra were recorded to detect the presence of SO<sub>3</sub> <sup>-</sup> groups, which confirmed a successful PSS coating. The structural properties of the PSS-MNPs, including the crystalline lattice, composition and phases, were characterized with an X-ray powder diffractometer and 3D nanometer-scale Raman microspectrometer. MTT assay and Prussian-blue staining showed that, although PSS-MNPs caused no cytotoxicity in both NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts and SK-HEP1 human liver-cancer cells up to 1000 μg mL<sup>-1</sup>, SK-HEP1 cells exhibited significantly greater uptake of PSS-MNPs than NIH-3T3 cells. The low cytotoxicity and high biocompatibility of PSS-MNPs in human cancer cells demonstrated in the present work might have prospective applications for drug delivery.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> A critical challenge in the treatment of biofilm infection is the capacity of biofilm-grown bacteria to develop resistance to traditional antimicrobial therapies. The objective of this study was to validate the therapeutic potential of magnetic nanoparticle/alternating magnetic field (MNP/AMF) hyperthermia in combination with conventional antibiotics against biofilm infection.<b>Materials and methods:</b> The impact of MNP/AMF hyperthermia on the viability of S. aureus biofilm in the absence and presence of antibiotics as well as on the bactericidal activity of macrophages were evaluated at varying conditions of MNPs concentration and AMF intensity using in vitro cell culture models.<b>Results:</b> The application of MNP/AMF alone at a CEM43 thermal dose below the threshold for skin tissue exhibited a modest efficacy in the eradication of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilm (<1-log reduction). The treatment of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, vancomycin) alone at a bactericidal concentration for planktonic S. aureus had no significant effect on the eradication of biofilm phase of S. aureus. However, when the biofilm was pre-exposed to mild MNP/AMF hyperthermia, the treatment of antibiotics could exhibit bactericidal effects against S. aureus biofilm, which was associated with increased uptake of antibiotics to the bacterial cells. Importantly, the application of MNP/AMF could promote the bactericidal activity of macrophages against intracellular bacteria via MNP-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).<b>Conclusion:</b> Our results validate that the application of mild MNP/AMF hyperthermia within a safe thermal dose threshold is synergistic with conventional antibiotics as well as aids host innate immune response of macrophages for the clearance of intracellular bacteria.
Project description:Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) employs heat dissipation from magnetic nanoparticles to elicit a therapeutic outcome in tumor sites, which results in either cell death (>42 °C) or damage (<42 °C) depending on the localized rise in temperature. We investigated the therapeutic effect of MFH in immortalized T lymphocyte (Jurkat) cells using monodisperse magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (MNPs) synthesized in organic solvents and subsequently transferred to aqueous phase using a biocompatible amphiphilic polymer. Monodisperse MNPs, ∼16 nm diameter, show maximum heating efficiency, or specific loss power (watts/g Fe(3)O(4)) in a 373 kHz alternating magnetic field. Our in vitro results, for 15 min of heating, show that only 40% of cells survive for a relatively low dose (490 μg Fe/ml) of these size-optimized MNPs, compared to 80% and 90% survival fraction for 12 and 13 nm MNPs at 600 μg Fe/ml. The significant decrease in cell viability due to MNP-induced hyperthermia from only size-optimized nanoparticles demonstrates the central idea of tailoring size for a specific frequency in order to intrinsically improve the therapeutic potency of MFH by optimizing both dose and time of application.
Project description:The contactless heating capacity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been exploited in fields such as hyperthermia cancer therapy, catalysis, and enzymatic thermal regulation. Herein, we propose an advanced technology to generate multiple local temperatures in a single-pot reactor by exploiting the unique nanoheating features of iron oxide MNPs exposed to alternating magnetic fields (AMFs). The heating power of the MNPs depends on their magnetic features but also on the intensity and frequency conditions of the AMF. Using a mixture of diluted colloids of MNPs we were able to generate a multi-hot-spot reactor in which each population of MNPs can be selectively activated by adjusting the AMF conditions. The maximum temperature reached at the surface of each MNP was registered using independent fluorescent thermometers that mimic the molecular link between enzymes and MNPs. This technology paves the path for the implementation of a selective regulation of multienzymatic reactions.
Project description:Many efforts are made worldwide to establish magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) as a treatment for organ-confined tumors. However, translation to clinical application hardly succeeds as it still lacks of understanding the mechanisms determining MFH cytotoxic effects. Here, we investigate the intracellular MFH efficacy with respect to different parameters and assess the intracellular cytotoxic effects in detail. For this, MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic tumor cells and L929 murine fibroblasts were loaded with iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and exposed to MFH for either 30?min or 90?min. The resulting cytotoxic effects were assessed via clonogenic assay. Our results demonstrate that cell damage depends not only on the obvious parameters bulk temperature and duration of treatment, but most importantly on cell type and thermal energy deposited per cell during MFH treatment. Tumor cell death of 95% was achieved by depositing an intracellular total thermal energy with about 50% margin to damage of healthy cells. This is attributed to combined intracellular nanoheating and extracellular bulk heating. Tumor cell damage of up to 86% was observed for MFH treatment without perceptible bulk temperature rise. Effective heating decreased by up to 65% after MNP were internalized inside cells.
Project description:Magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (MNPs) are suitable materials for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH), provided their size is carefully tailored to the applied alternating magnetic field (AMF) frequency. Since aqueous synthesis routes produce polydisperse MNPs that are not tailored for any specific AMF frequency, we have developed a comprehensive protocol for synthesizing highly monodispersed MNPs in organic solvents, specifically tailored for our field conditions (f = 376 kHz, H(0) = 13.4 kA∕m) and subsequently transferred them to water using a biocompatible amphiphilic polymer. These MNPs (σ(avg.) = 0.175) show truly size-dependent heating rates, indicated by a sharp peak in the specific loss power (SLP, W∕g Fe(3)O(4)) for 16 nm (diameter) particles. For broader size distributions (σ(avg.) = 0.266), we observe a 30% drop in overall SLP. Furthermore, heating measurements in biological medium [Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum] show a significant drop for SLP (∼30% reduction in 16 nm MNPs). Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements show particle hydrodynamic size increases over time once dispersed in DMEM, indicating particle agglomeration. Since the effective magnetic relaxation time of MNPs is determined by fractional contribution of the Neel (independent of hydrodynamic size) and Brownian (dependent on hydrodynamic size) components, we conclude that agglomeration in biological medium modifies the Brownian contribution and thus the net heating capacity of MNPs.
Project description:A combination of carbon ions/photons irradiation and hyperthermia as a novel therapeutic approach for the in-vitro treatment of pancreatic cancer BxPC3 cells is presented. The radiation doses used are 0-2 Gy for carbon ions and 0-7 Gy for 6 MV photons. Hyperthermia is realized via a standard heating bath, assisted by magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) that utilizes magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) exposed to an alternating magnetic field of amplitude 19.5 mTesla and frequency 109.8 kHz. Starting from 37 °C, the temperature is gradually increased and the sample is kept at 42 °C for 30 min. For MFH, MNPs with a mean diameter of 19 nm and specific absorption rate of 110 ± 30 W/gFe3o4 coated with a biocompatible ligand to ensure stability in physiological media are used. Irradiation diminishes the clonogenic survival at an extent that depends on the radiation type, and its decrease is amplified both by the MNPs cellular uptake and the hyperthermia protocol. Significant increases in DNA double-strand breaks at 6 h are observed in samples exposed to MNP uptake, treated with 0.75 Gy carbon-ion irradiation and hyperthermia. The proposed experimental protocol, based on the combination of hadron irradiation and hyperthermia, represents a first step towards an innovative clinical option for pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Iron oxide particles (IOP) are commonly used for Cellular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and in combination with several treatments, like Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH), due to the rise in temperature they provoke under an Alternating Magnetic Field (AMF). Micrometric IOP have a high sensitivity of detection. Nevertheless, little is known about their internalization processes or their potential heat power. Two micrometric commercial IOP (from Bangs Laboratories and Chemicell) were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and their endocytic pathways into glioma cells were analyzed. Their Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and cytotoxicity were evaluated using a commercial AMF inductor. T2-weighted imaging was used to monitor tumor growth in vivo after MFH treatment in mice. The two micron-sized IOP had similar structures and r<sub>2</sub> relaxivities (100 mM<sup>-1</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>) but involved different endocytic pathways. Only ScreenMAG particles generated a significant rise in temperature following AMF (SAR = 113 W g<sup>-1</sup> Fe). After 1 h of AMF exposure, 60% of ScreenMAG-labeled cells died. Translated to a glioma model, 89% of mice responded to the treatment with smaller tumor volume 42 days post-implantation. Micrometric particles were investigated from their characterization to their intracellular internalization pathways and applied in one in vivo cancer treatment, i.e. MFH.
Project description:We explored a series of highly uniform magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with a core-shell nanoarchitecture prepared by an efficient solvothermal approach. In our study, we focused on the water dispersion of MNPs based on two different CoFe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> core sizes and the chemical nature of the shell (MnFe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and spinel iron oxide). We performed an uncommon systematic investigation of the time and temperature evolution of the adiabatic heat release at different frequencies of the alternating magnetic field (AMF). Our systematic study elucidates the nontrivial variations in the heating efficiency of core-shell MNPs concerning their structural, magnetic, and morphological properties. In addition, we identified anomalies in the temperature and frequency dependencies of the specific power absorption (SPA). We conclude that after the initial heating phase, the heat release is governed by the competition of the Brown and Néel mechanism. In addition, we demonstrated that a rational parameter sufficiently mirroring the heating ability is the mean magnetic moment per MNP. Our study, thus, paves the road to fine control of the AMF-induced heating by MNPs with fine-tuned structural, chemical, and magnetic parameters. Importantly, we claim that the nontrivial variations of the SPA with the temperature must be considered, e.g., in the emerging concept of MF-assisted catalysis, where the temperature profile influences the undergoing chemical reactions.
Project description:This study was performed to investigate the Eustachian tube as a potential route for contralateral spreading following intratympanic nanoparticle (NP)-conjugated gentamicin injection in a rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and substances were injected in the right ear: group 1 (fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles [F-MNPs], n?=?4), group 2 (F-MNP-conjugated gentamicin [F-MNP@GM], n?=?2), and control group (no injections, n?=?2). T2-weighted sequences corresponding to the regions of interest at 1, 2, and 3 h after intratympanic injection were evaluated, along with immunostaining fluorescence of both side cochlea. The heterogeneous signal intensity of F-MNPs and F-MNP@GM on T2-weighted images, observed in the ipsilateral tympanum, was also detected in the contralateral tympanum in 4 out of 6 rats, recapitulating fluorescent nanoparticles in the contralateral cochlear hair cells. Computational simulations demonstrate the contralateral spreading of particles by gravity force following intratympanic injection in a rat model. The diffusion rate of the contralateral spreading relies on the sizes and surface charges of particles. Collectively, the Eustachian tube could be a route for contralateral spreading following intratympanic injection. Caution should be taken when using the contralateral ear as a control study investigating inner-ear drug delivery through the transtympanic approach.