PH-responsive delivery vehicle based on RGD-modified polydopamine-paclitaxel-loaded poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nanoparticles for targeted therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: A limitation of current anticancer nanocarriers is the contradiction between multiple functions and favorable biocompatibility. Thus, we aimed to develop a compatible drug delivery system loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. A basic backbone, PTX-loaded poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) PHBV nanoparticle (PHBV-PTX-NPs), was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation. As a gatekeeper, the pH-sensitive coating was formed by self-polymerization of dopamine (PDA). The HCC-targeted arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-peptide and PDA-coated nanoparticles (NPs) were combined through the Michael addition. Subsequently, the physicochemical properties of RGD-PDA-PHBV-PTX-NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering-autosizer, transmission electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and X-ray spectroscopy. As expected, the RGD-PDA-PHBV-PTX-NPs showed robust anticancer efficacy in a xenograft mouse model. More importantly, they exhibited lower toxicity than PTX to normal hepatocytes and mouse in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that the RGD-PDA-PHBV-PTX-NPs are potentially beneficial for easing conflict between multifunction and biocompatible characters of nanocarriers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains the most aggressive cancers with a 5-year survival below 10%. Systemic delivery of chemotherapy drugs has severe side effects in patients with PDA and does not significantly improve overall survival rate. It is highly desirable to advance the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs by targeting their delivery and increasing accumulation at the tumor site. MUC1 is a membrane-tethered glycoprotein that is aberrantly overexpressed in >?80% of PDA thus making it an attractive antigenic target. METHODS:Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) conjugated to a tumor specific MUC1 antibody, TAB004, was used as a nanocarrier for targeted delivery into human PDA cell lines in vitro and in PDA tumors in vivo. The PLGA NPs were loaded with fluorescent imaging agents, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and Nile Red (NR) or isocyanine green (ICG) for in vitro and in vivo imaging respectively or with a chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel (PTX) for in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize internalization of the nanocarrier in vitro in PDA cells with high and low MUC1 expression. The in vivo imaging system (IVIS) was used to visualize in vivo tumor targeting of the nanocarrier. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay was used to determine in vitro cell survival of cells treated with PTX-loaded nanocarrier. One-sided t-test comparing treatment groups at each concentration and two-way ANOVAs comparing internalization of antibody and PLGA nanoparticles. RESULTS:In vitro, TAB004-conjugated ICG-nanocarriers were significantly better at internalizing in PDA cells than its non-conjugated counterpart. Similarly, TAB004-conjugated PTX-nanocarriers were significantly more cytotoxic in vitro against PDA cells than its non-conjugated counterpart. In vivo, TAB004-conjugated ICG-nanocarriers showed increased accumulation in the PDA tumor compared to the non-conjugated nanocarrier while sparing normal organs. CONCLUSIONS:The study provides promising data for future development of a novel MUC1-targeted nanocarrier for direct delivery of imaging agents or drugs into the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:Photothermal therapy (PTT) has emerged as a promising cancer therapeutic method. In this study, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide-conjugated polydopamine-coated gold nanostars (Au@PDA-RGD NPs) were prepared for targeting PTT of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A polydopamine (PDA) shell was coated on the surface of gold nanostars by the oxidative self-polymerization of dopamine (termed as Au@PDA NPs). Au@PDA NPs were further functionalized with polyethylene glycol and RGD peptide to improve biocompatibility as well as selectivity toward the HCC cells. Au@PDA-RGD NPs showed an intense absorption at 822 nm, which makes them suitable for near-infrared-excited PTT. Our results indicated that the Au@PDA-RGD NPs were effective for the PTT therapy of the α<sub>V</sub>β<sub>3</sub> integrin receptor-overexpressed HepG2 cells <i>in vitro</i>. Further antitumor mechanism studies showed that the Au@PDA-RGD NPs-based PTT induced human liver cancer cells death via the mitochondrial-lysosomal and autophagy pathways. <i>In vivo</i> experiments showed that Au@PDA-RGD NPs had excellent tumor treatment efficiency and negligible side effects. Thus, our study showed that Au@PDA-RGD NPs could offer an excellent nanoplatform for PTT of HCC.
Project description:One major challenge of current surface modification of nanoparticles is the demand for chemical reactive polymeric layers, such modification is always complicated, inefficient, and may lead the polymer lose the ability to encapsulate drug. To overcome this limitation, we adopted a pH-sensitive platform using polydopamine (PDA) as a way of functionalizing nanoparticles (NPs) surfaces. All this method needed to be just a brief incubation in weak alkaline solution of dopamine, which was simple and applicable to a variety of polymer carriers regardless of their chemical reactivity. We successfully conjugated the doxorubicin (DOX)-PDA-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs with two typical surface modifiers: folate (FA) and a peptide (Arg-Gly-Asp, RGD). The DOX-PDA-FA-NPs and DOX-PDA-RGD-NPs (targeting nanoparticles) were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and surface morphology. They were quite stable in various physiological solutions and exhibited pH-sensitive property in drug release. Compared to DOX-NPs, the targeting nanoparticles possessed an excellent targeting ability against HeLa cells. In addition, the in vivo study demonstrated that targeting nanoparticles achieved a tumor inhibition rate over 70%, meanwhile prominently decreased the side effects of DOX and improve drug distribution in tumors. Our studies indicated that the DOX-PLGA-NPs modified with PDA and various functional ligands are promising nanocarriers for targeting tumor therapy.
Project description:We have developed a nanocarrier drug-delivery system based on micelles formed by a new class of well-defined linear PEGylated two-arm oligomer of cholic acids in aqueous solution. By varying the length of the linear PEG chains and the configuration of cholic acid oligomer, one can easily fine-tune the physicochemical properties of the amphiphilic polymers and the resulting micelles. These include particle size, critical micelle concentration, and drug-loading capacity. High level of hydrophobic anticancer drugs such as PTX, etoposide and SN-38 can be readily loaded into such nanocarriers. The loading capacity of the nanocarrier for PTX (PTX) is extremely high (12.0mg/mL), which is equivalent to 37.5% (w/w) of the total mass of the micelle. PTX-loaded nanocarriers are much more stable than Abraxane (PTX/human serum albumin nanoaggregate) when stored in bovine serum albumin solution or dog plasma. PTX release profile from the micelles is burst-free and sustained over a period of seven days. The anti-tumor activity of PTX-loaded nanocarriers against ovarian cancer cell line in vitro, with continuous drug exposure, is similar to Taxol (formulation of PTX dissolved in Cremophor EL and ethanol) or Abraxane. Targeted drug delivery to tumor site with these novel micelles was demonstrated by near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging in nude mice bearing ovarian cancer xenograft. Furthermore, PTX-loaded nanocarriers demonstrated superior anti-tumor efficacy compared to Taxol at equivalent PTX dose in ovarian cancer xenograft model.
Project description:The safety of nanomaterials, a crucial consideration for clinical translation, is enhanced by using building blocks that are biologically nontoxic. Here, we used poly(<i>γ</i>-glutamic acid) (<i>γ</i>-PGA) and dopamine as building blocks of polymeric nanomaterials for carrying hydrophobic anticancer drugs. The introduction of phenylalanine onto <i>γ</i>-PGA enabled the resulting amphiphilic derivative of <i>γ</i>-PGA acid to self-assemble in the presence of the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) to form PTX-encapsulated micelles. The surfaces of PTX-loaded micelles were then coated with polymerized dopamine (PDA). The PDA-coated, amphiphilic <i>γ</i>-PGA-based micelles (AM) carrying PTX (PDA/AM/P) exerted near-infrared-responsive photothermal effects. Near-infrared irradiation of cancer cells treated with PDA/AM/P nanoparticles produced a greater anticancer effect than that observed in other treatment groups, indicating a synergistic effect. Intravenous administration of PDA/AM/P completely ablated tumors and prevented their recurrence. Notably, the <i>in vivo</i> safety profile of PDA/AM/P nanoparticles allowed PTX to be delivered at a 3.6-fold higher dose than was possible with PTX solubilized in surfactant, and circumvented the side effects of the surfactant. These results support the multifunctional potential of PDA/AM for the delivery of various hydrophobic drugs and imaging dyes for safe translation of nanomaterials into the clinic.
Project description:The combination of photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer treatment has attracted much attention in recent years. However, developing highly efficient and targeted therapeutic nanoagents for amplifying PTT and PDT treatments remains challenging. In this work, we developed a novel photothermal and photodynamic therapeutic nanoplatform for treatment of cancer cells overexpressing integrin ?<sub>v</sub>?? through the coating of polydopamine (PDA) on indocyanine green (ICG)-loaded laponite (LAP) and then further conjugating polyethylene glycol-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (PEG-RGD) as targeted agents on the surface. The ICG/LAP?PDA?PEG?RGD (ILPR) nanoparticles (NPs) formed could load ICG with a high encapsulation efficiency of 94.1%, improve the photostability of loaded ICG dramatically via the protection of PDA and LAP, and display excellent colloidal stability and biocompatibility due to the PEGylation. Under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, the ILPR NPs could exert enhanced photothermal conversion reproducibly and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) efficiently. More importantly, in vitro experiments proved that ILPR NPs could specifically target cancer cells overexpressing integrin ?<sub>v</sub>??, enhance cellular uptake due to RGD-mediated targeting, and exert improved photothermal and photodynamic killing efficiency against targeted cells under NIR laser irradiation. Therefore, ILPR may be used as effective therapeutic nanoagents with enhanced photothermal conversion performance and ROS generating ability for targeted PTT and PDT treatment of cancer cells with integrin ?<sub>v</sub>?? overexpressed.
Project description:To create poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), where a drug-encapsulating NP core is covered with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in a normal condition but exposes a cell-interactive TAT-modified surface in an environment rich in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).PLGA NPs were modified with TAT peptide (PLGA-pDA-TAT NPs) or dual-modified with TAT peptide and a conjugate of PEG and MMP-substrate peptide (peritumorally activatable NPs, PANPs) via dopamine polymerization. Cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled NPs was observed with or without a pre-treatment of MMP-2 by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. NPs loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) were tested against SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells to evaluate the contribution of surface modification to cellular delivery of PTX.While the size and morphology did not significantly change due to the modification, NPs modified with dopamine polymerization were recognized by their dark color. TAT-containing NPs (PLGA-pDA-TAT NPs and PANPs) showed changes in surface charge, indicative of effective conjugation of TAT peptide on the surface. PLGA-pDA-TAT NPs and MMP-2-pre-treated PANPs showed relatively good cellular uptake compared to PLGA NPs, MMP-2-non-treated PANPs, and NPs with non-cleavable PEG. After 3 h treatment with cells, PTX loaded in cell-interactive NPs showed greater toxicity than non-interactive ones as the former could enter cells during the incubation period. However, due to the initial burst drug release, the difference was not as clear as microscopic observation.PEGylated polymeric NPs that could expose cell-interactive surface in response to MMP-2 were successfully created by dual modification of PLGA NPs using dopamine polymerization.
Project description:Current nanoparticle (NP) drug carriers mostly depend on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect for selective drug delivery to solid tumors. However, in the absence of a persistent EPR effect, the peritumoral endothelium can function as an access barrier to tumors and negatively affect the effectiveness of NPs. In recognition of the peritumoral endothelium as a potential barrier in drug delivery to tumors, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs are modified with a quinic acid (QA) derivative, synthetic mimic of selectin ligands. QA-decorated NPs (QA-NP) interact with human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressing E-/P-selectins and induce transient increase in endothelial permeability to translocate across the layer. QA-NP reach selectin-upregulated tumors, achieving greater tumor accumulation and paclitaxel (PTX) delivery than polyethylene glycol-decorated NPs (PEG-NP). PTX-loaded QA-NP show greater anticancer efficacy than Taxol or PTX-loaded PEG-NP at the equivalent PTX dose in different animal models and dosing regimens. Repeated dosing of PTX-loaded QA-NP for two weeks results in complete tumor remission in 40-60% of MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice, while those receiving control treatments succumb to death. QA-NP can exploit the interaction with selectin-expressing peritumoral endothelium and deliver anticancer drugs to tumors to a greater extent than the level currently possible with the EPR effect.
Project description:We reported a simple polydopamine (PDA)-based surface modification method to prepare novel targeted doxorubicin-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles and peptide CSNRDARRC conjugation (DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA-PEP) for enhancing the therapeutic effects on bladder cancer. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and drug loading content. In vitro drug release indicated that DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA and MSNs@PDA-PEP had similar release kinetic profiles of DOX. The PDA coating well controlled DOX release and was highly sensitive to pH value. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that drug-loaded MSNs could be internalized by human bladder cancer cell line HT-1376, and DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA-PEP had the highest cellular uptake efficiency due to ligand-receptor recognition. The antitumor effects of DOX-loaded nanoparticles were evaluated by the MTT assay in vitro and by a xenograft tumor model in vivo, demonstrating that targeted nanocarriers DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA-PEP were significantly superior to free DOX and DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA. The novel DOX-loaded MSNs@PDA-PEP, which specifically recognized HT-1376 cells, can be used as a potential targeted drug delivery system for bladder cancer therapy.
Project description:Abstract: The development of versatile nanoscale drug delivery systems that integrate with multiple therapeutic agents or methods and improve the efficacy of cancer therapy is urgently required. To satisfy this demand, polydopamine (PDA)-modified polymeric nanoplatforms were constructed for the dual loading of chemotherapeutic drugs. The hydrophobic anticancer drug docetaxel (DTX) was loaded into the polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) which were fabricated from the star-shaped copolymer CA-PLGA. Then DTX-loaded NPs were coated with PDA, followed by conjugation of polyelethyl glycol (PEG)-modified targeting ligand aptamer AS1411(Apt) and adsorption of the hydrophilic anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). This "four-in-one" nanoplatform, referred to as DTX/NPs@PDA/DOX-PEG-Apt, demonstrated high near-infrared photothermal conversion efficiency and exhibited pH and thermo-responsive drug release behavior. Furthermore, it was able to specifically target MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells and provide synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy to further improve the anticancer effect both in vitro and in vivo, providing a novel promising strategy for cancer therapy.