Expression Level of Mature miR172 in Wild Type and StSUT4-Silenced Plants of Solanum tuberosum Is Sucrose-Dependent.
ABSTRACT: In potato plants, the phloem-mobile miR172 is involved in the sugar-dependent transmission of flower and tuber inducing signal transduction pathways and a clear link between solute transport and the induction of flowering and tuberization was demonstrated. The sucrose transporter StSUT4 seems to play an important role in the photoperiod-dependent triggering of both developmental processes, flowering and tuberization, and the phenotype of StSUT4-inhibited potato plants is reminiscent to miR172 overexpressing plants. The first aim of this study was the determination of the level of miR172 in sink and source leaves of StSUT4-silenced as well as StSUT4-overexpressing plants in comparison to Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena wild type plants. The second aim was to investigate the effect of sugars on the level of miRNA172 in whole cut leaves, as well as in whole in vitro plantlets that were supplemented with exogenous sugars. Experiments clearly show a sucrose-dependent induction of the level of mature miR172 in short time as well as long time experiments. A sucrose-dependent accumulation of miR172 was also measured in mature leaves of StSUT4-silenced plants where sucrose export is delayed and sucrose accumulates at the end of the light period.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) represents a morphogenetic transition of stolon growth to tuber formation, which is under complex environmental and endogenous regulation. In the present work, we studied the regulatory mechanisms and the role of different morphogenetic factors in a newly isolated potato mutant, which exhibited spontaneous tuberization (ST). The ST mutant was characterized in detail at morphological, physiological and biochemical levels. RESULTS: Tuberization of the ST mutant grown in the soil was photoperiod-insensitive; predominantly sessile tubers formed directly from axillary buds even under continuous light. Single-node cuttings of the ST mutant cultured in vitro frequently formed tubers or basal tuber-like swellings instead of normal shoots under conditions routinely used for shoot propagation. The tuberization response of ST cuttings under light was dependent on sucrose, the concentration of which had to exceed certain threshold that inversely correlated with irradiance. Gibberellic acid prevented tuberization of ST cuttings, but failed to restore normal shoot phenotype and caused severe malformations. Carbohydrate analysis showed increased levels of both soluble sugars and starch in ST plants, with altered carbohydrate partitioning and metabolism. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed only a few differences between ST- and wild-type plants, primary amongst which seemed to be the absence of an isoform of manganese-stabilizing protein, a key subunit of photosystem II. CONCLUSION: ST mutant exhibits complex developmental and phenotypic modifications, with features that are typical for plants strongly induced to tuberize. These changes are likely to be related to altered regulation of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism rather than impaired transduction of inhibitory gibberellin or photoperiod-based signals. The effect of gibberellins on tuberization of ST mutant suggests that gibberellins inhibit tuberization downstream of the inductive effects of sucrose and other positive factors.
Project description:Little is known about the nature of floral inductive cues in day-neutral plants that are insensitive to photoperiod variations and, therefore, rely on endogenous signals to initiate reproductive growth. The INDETERMINATE1 (ID1) transcription factor is a key regulator of the transition to flowering in day-neutral maize. The ID1 gene is expressed exclusively in developing leaves, where it controls the production or transmission of leaf-derived florigenic signals. Florigen-producing source leaves were compared with mature leaves of late-flowering id1 plants, and metabolite and gene expression differences associated with the floral transition in maize were observed. While id1 mutants have a similar capacity for photosynthesis to wild-type siblings, id1 source leaves show quantitative differences in carbohydrate allocation prior to the floral transition stage, with a marked increase in sucrose and other soluble sugars, accompanied by a decrease in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle organic acids. Importantly, source leaves of autonomous-flowering maize are typified by a higher transitory starch to sucrose ratio and a transcript profile enriched for sucrose synthesis and starch metabolism-related gene function. Finally, similar changes in transitory starch and sucrose are not observed in teosinte, the tropical progenitor of maize that requires short-day photoperiods to induce flowering. Together, these data define a transcript and metabolite signature associated with the autonomous floral transition in temperate maize leaves.
Project description:Water availability is an important environmental factor that controls flowering time. Many plants accelerate flowering under drought conditions, a phenomenon called drought escape. Four pathways are involved in controlling flowering time, but which ones participate in drought escape is not yet known. In this study, plants with loss-of-function mutations of GIGANTEA (GI) and CONSTANS (CO) exhibited abnormal drought-escape phenotypes. The peak mRNA levels of GI and FKF1 (Flavin-binding Kelch domain F box protein 1) and the mRNA levels of CO and FT (Flowering locus T) changed under drought stress. The microRNA factor miRNA172E was up-regulated by drought stress, and its up-regulation was dependent on GI, while other miRNA172s were not. Water-loss analyses indicated that gi mutants were more sensitive while miRNA172 over-expressing (miRNA172-OX) plants were less so to drought stress than wild-type plants. Digital gene expression and real-time PCR analyses showed that WRKY44 was down-regulated by GI and miRNA172. The WRKY44 protein could interact with TOE1 (a target of miRNA172) in a yeast two-hybrid system. We proposed that GI-miRNA172-WRKY44 may regulate drought escape and drought tolerance by affecting sugar signaling in Arabidopsis.
Project description:This study presents the characterization of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases in potato, focusing on their role in stolon and tuber development. Seven PM H+-ATPase genes were identified in the Solanum tuberosum genome, designated PHA1-PHA7. PHA genes show distinct expression patterns in different plant tissues and under different stress treatments. Application of PM H+-ATPase inhibitors arrests stolon growth, promotes tuber induction, and reduces tuber size, indicating that PM H+-ATPases are involved in tuberization, acting at different stages of the process. Transgenic potato plants overexpressing PHA1 were generated (PHA1-OE). At early developmental stages, PHA1-OE stolons elongate faster and show longer epidermal cells than wild-type stolons; this accelerated growth is accompanied by higher cell wall invertase activity, lower starch content, and higher expression of the sucrose-H+ symporter gene StSUT1. PHA1-OE stolons display an increased branching phenotype and develop larger tubers. PHA1-OE plants are taller and also present a highly branched phenotype. These results reveal a prominent role for PHA1 in plant growth and development. Regarding tuberization, PHA1 promotes stolon elongation at early stages, and tuber growth later on. PHA1 is involved in the sucrose-starch metabolism in stolons, possibly providing the driving force for sugar transporters to maintain the apoplastic sucrose transport during elongation.
Project description:SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins, a novel family of sugar transporters, mediate the diffusion of sugars across cell membranes and acts as key players in sucrose phloem loading. Manipulation of SWEET genes in plants leads to various effects on resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses due to disruption of sugar efflux and changes in sugar distribution. In this study, a member of the SWEET gene family, IbSWEET10, was cloned from the sweet potato line ND98. mRNA expression analysis in sweet potato and promoter ?-Glucuronidase analysis in Arabidopsis showed that IbSWEET10 is highly expressed in leaves, especially in vascular tissue. Transient expression in tobacco epidermal cells revealed plasma membrane localization of IbSWEET10, and heterologous expression assays in yeast indicated that IbSWEET10 encodes a sucrose transporter. The expression level of IbSWEET10 was significantly up-regulated in sweet potato infected with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. batatas. Further characterization revealed IbSWEET10-overexpressing sweet potato lines to be more resistant to F. oxysporum, exhibiting better growth after infection compared with the control; conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) lines showed the opposite results. Additionally, the sugar content of IbSWEET10-overexpression sweet potato was significantly reduced, whereas that in RNAi plants was significantly increased compared with the control. Therefore, we suggest that the reduction in sugar content caused by IbSWEET10 overexpression is the major reason for the enhanced F. oxysporum resistance of the transgenic plants. This is the first report that the IbSWEET10 transporter contributes to the resistance of sweet potato to F. oxysporum. The IbSWEET10 gene has the great potential to be used for improving the resistance to F. oxysporum in sweet potato and other plants.
Project description:Reproductive processes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) are particularly sensitive to salinity. We tested whether limited photoassimilate availability contributes to reproductive failure in salt-stressed chickpea. Rupali, a salt-sensitive genotype, was grown in aerated nutrient solution, either with non-saline (control) or 30mM NaCl treatment. At flowering, stems were either infused with sucrose solution (0.44M), water only or maintained without any infusion, for 75 d. The sucrose and water infusion treatments of non-saline plants had no effect on growth or yield, but photosynthesis declined in response to sucrose infusion. Salt stress reduced photosynthesis, decreased tissue sugars by 22-47%, and vegetative and reproductive growth were severely impaired. Sucrose infusion of salt-treated plants increased total sugars in stems, leaves and developing pods, to levels similar to those of non-saline plants. In salt-stressed plants, sucrose infusion increased dry mass (2.6-fold), pod numbers (3.8-fold), seed numbers (6.5-fold) and seed yield (10.4-fold), yet vegetative growth and reproductive failure were not rescued completely by sucrose infusion. Sucrose infusion partly rescued reproductive failure in chickpea by increasing vegetative growth enabling more flower production and by providing sucrose for pod and seed growth. We conclude that insufficient assimilate availability limits yield in salt-stressed chickpea.
Project description:Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, attacks many crops including potato and tomato. Major genes for complete resistance to B. cinerea are not known in plants, but a few quantitative trait loci have been described in tomato. Loss of function of particular susceptibility (S) genes appears to provide a new source of resistance to B. cinerea in Arabidopsis.In this study, orthologs of Arabidopsis S genes (DND1, DMR6, DMR1 and PMR4) were silenced by RNAi in potato and tomato (only for DND1). DND1 well-silenced potato and tomato plants showed significantly reduced diameters of B. cinerea lesions as compared to control plants, at all-time points analysed. Reduced lesion diameter was also observed on leaves of DMR6 silenced potato plants but only at 3 days post inoculation (dpi). The DMR1 and PMR4 silenced potato transformants were as susceptible as the control cv Desiree. Microscopic analysis was performed to observe B. cinerea infection progress in DND1 well-silenced potato and tomato leaves. A significantly lower number of B. cinerea conidia remained attached to the leaf surface of DND1 well-silenced potato and tomato plants and the hyphal growth of germlings was hampered.This is the first report of a cytological investigation of Botrytis development on DND1-silenced crop plants. Silencing of DND1 led to reduced susceptibility to Botrytis, which was associated with impediment of conidial germination and attachment as well as hyphal growth. Our results provide new insights regarding the use of S genes in resistance breeding.
Project description:Potato is the 4th largest staple food in the world currently. As a high biomass crop, potato harbors excellent potential to produce energy-rich compounds such as triacylglycerol as a valuable co-product. We have previously reported that transgenic potato tubers overexpressing WRINKLED1, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE 1, and OLEOSIN genes produced considerable levels of triacylglycerol. In this study, the same genetic engineering strategy was employed on potato leaves. The overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana WRINKED1 under the transcriptional control of a senescence-inducible promoter together with Arabidopsis thaliana DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE 1 and Sesamum indicum OLEOSIN driven by the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter and small subunit of Rubisco promoter respectively, resulted in an approximately 30- fold enhancement of triacylglycerols in the senescent transgenic potato leaves compared to the wild type. The increase of triacylglycerol in the transgenic potato leaves was accompanied by perturbations of carbohydrate accumulation, apparent in a reduction in starch content and increased total soluble sugars, as well as changes of polar membrane lipids at different developmental stages. Microscopic and biochemical analysis further indicated that triacylglycerols and lipid droplets could not be produced in chloroplasts, despite the increase and enlargement of plastoglobuli at the senescent stage. Possibly enhanced accumulation of fatty acid phytyl esters in the plastoglobuli were reflected in transgenic potato leaves relative to wild type. It is likely that the plastoglobuli may have hijacked some of the carbon as the result of WRINKED1 expression, which could be a potential factor restricting the effective accumulation of triacylglycerols in potato leaves. Increased lipid production was also observed in potato tubers, which may have affected the tuberization to a certain extent. The expression of transgenes in potato leaf not only altered the carbon partitioning in the photosynthetic source tissue, but also the underground sink organs which highly relies on the leaves in development and energy deposition.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plants use different light signals to adjust their growth and development to the prevailing environmental conditions. Studies in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and rice indicate that these adjustments are mediated by large changes in the transcriptome. Here we compared transcriptional responses to light in different species of the Solanaceae to investigate common as well as species-specific changes in gene expression. RESULTS: cDNA microarrays were used to identify genes regulated by a transition from long days (LD) to short days (SD) in the leaves of potato and tobacco plants, and by phytochrome B (phyB), the photoreceptor that represses tuberization under LD in potato. We also compared transcriptional responses to photoperiod in Nicotiana tabacum Maryland Mammoth (MM), which flowers only under SD, with those of Nicotiana sylvestris, which flowers only under LD conditions. Finally, we identified genes regulated by red compared to far-red light treatments that promote germination in tomato. CONCLUSION: Most of the genes up-regulated in LD were associated with photosynthesis, the synthesis of protective pigments and the maintenance of redox homeostasis, probably contributing to the acclimatization to seasonal changes in irradiance. Some of the photoperiodically regulated genes were the same in potato and tobacco. Others were different but belonged to similar functional categories, suggesting that conserved as well as convergent evolutionary processes are responsible for physiological adjustments to seasonal changes in the Solanaceae. A beta-ZIP transcription factor whose expression correlated with the floral transition in Nicotiana species with contrasting photoperiodic responses was also regulated by photoperiod and phyB in potato, and is a candidate gene to act as a general regulator of photoperiodic responses. Finally, GIGANTEA, a gene that controls flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, was regulated by photoperiod in the leaves of potato and tobacco and by red compared to far-light treatments that promote germination in tomato seeds, suggesting that a conserved light signaling cascade acts across developmental contexts and species.
Project description:Some potato species require a short-day (SD) photoperiod for tuberization, a process that is negatively affected by gibberellins (GAs). Here we report the isolation of StGA3ox2, a gene encoding a GA 3-oxidase, whose expression is increased in the aerial parts and is repressed in the stolons after transfer of photoperiod-dependent potato plants to SD conditions. Over-expression of StGA3ox2 under control of constitutive or leaf-specific promoters results in taller plants which, in contrast to StGA20ox1 over-expressers previously reported, tuberize earlier under SD conditions than the controls. By contrast, StGA3ox2 tuber-specific over-expression results in non-elongated plants with slightly delayed tuber induction. Together, our experiments support that StGA3ox2 expression and gibberellin metabolism significantly contribute to the tuberization time in strictly photoperiod-dependent potato plants.