ABSTRACT: We describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Oncorhynchus masou formosanus, which is a critically endangered landlocked salmon of Taiwan by using next-generation sequencing. The circle genome (16,653?bp) has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a non-coding control region. The overall base composition of O. m. formosanus is 28.6% for A, 26.8% for T, 16.5% for G and 28.1% for C, with a slight AT bias of 55.4%.
Project description:Rhinogobius formosanus Oshima, 1919 has long been considered an amphidromous goby. However, a landlocked population recently found in the Jingualiao Creek upstream of the Feitsui Reservoir in Taipei suggests that R. formosanus may complete its life in the river. This study aims to verify the habitat use of the landlocked population of R. formosanus collected from the Feitsui Reservoir and an amphidromous population collected in Malian Creek using otolith Sr:Ca ratio analysis. The hypothesis that early life history varies between the landlocked and migratory gobies was also tested. Genetic analyses show that the Feitsui Reservoir and Malian Creek populations are not genetically different. Rhinogobius formosanus from Malian Creek showed high-to-low otolith Sr:Ca ratios suggesting that these specimens spent a planktonic larval stage in the sea followed by a freshwater life at later stages. In contrast, R. formosanus from the Feitsui Reservoir showed constant lower otolith Sr:Ca ratios, implying a landlocked life history of fish in the creek upstream of the reservoir. In addition, the analysis of growth increments showed a longer pelagic larval duration for the fish in the Malian Creek (58.8 days) than those in the Feitsui Reservoir (38.8). Variation of pelagic larval duration in two genetically homogenous populations implies acclimatization to the reservoir by the landlocked gobies. This study shows that R. formosanus, like some other congeners, is capable of adapting to a freshwater landlocked environment in its early developmental stage and supports the hypothesis that landlocked populations may have a shorter pelagic larval duration.
Project description:We developed tetranucleotide-repeat microsatellite markers for the masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) complex. 454 pyrosequencing was used to discover repeat motifs, and seven polymorphic microsatellite-primer sets were identified. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from four to 24 and the expected heterozygosity varied from 0.57 to 0.92. Cross-subspecies amplification for O. m. masou, O. m. ishikawae and O. m. subsp. was successful. These microsatellites can be utilized in studies of genetic structure, genetic diversity, and intra- and inter-subspecific hybridization, making a contribution to conservation and management of the Oncorhynchus masou complex.
Project description:Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was used to identify meat from biwa trout (Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus), amago trout (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae), yamame trout (Oncorhynchus masou masou), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). PCR amplification was conducted using primers flanking conserved regions of NADH dehydrogenase subunits 4 and 5 (ND4-ND5) (2848 bp) and ND1 (1091 bp) genes of mitochondrial DNA following restriction digestion with the enzyme HaeIII. Although the segments of ND4-ND5 and ND1 genes showed intraspecies variation, the generation of DNA fragments larger than 300 bp and 160 bp following cleavage by HaeIII of ND4-ND5 and ND1, respectively, was efficient to differentiate the four species. Furthermore, this method was successful in species identification even when using PCR-amplified products obtained from thermally processed biwa trout samples. This sensitive technique can be utilized to reveal commercial fraud, where biwa trout is adulterated with meat from cheaper counterparts.
Project description:Stocking hatchery fish can lead to disturbance and extinction of the local indigenous population. Masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou masou, which is endemic across Japan, is a commonly stocked fish for recreational fishing in Japan. To conserve the indigenous resource, their genetic information is required, however, especially on Kyushu Island, the paucity of genetic information for this species has hindered proper resource management. Here, to identify hatchery mitogenome haplotypes of this species, stocked in the Kase River system, Kyushu Island, Japan, and to provide mitogenomic information for the resource management of this species, we analyzed the whole-mitogenome of masu salmon in this river system and several hatcheries potentially used for stocking. Whole-mitogenome sequencing clearly identified hatchery haplotypes, like fingerprints: among the 21 whole-mitogenome haplotypes obtained, six were determined to be hatchery haplotypes. These hatchery haplotypes were distributed in 13 out of 17 sites, suggesting that informal stocking of O. m. masou has been performed widely across this river system. The population of no hatchery haplotypes mainly belonged to clade I, a clade not found in Hokkaido Island in previous studies. Sites without hatchery haplotypes, and the non-hatchery haplotypes in clade I might be candidates for conservation as putative indigenous resources. The whole-mitogenome haplotype analysis also clarified that the same reared strain was used in multiple hatcheries. Analysis of molecular variance suggested that stocked hatchery haplotypes reduce the genetic variation among populations in this river system. It will be necessary to pay attention to genetic fluctuations so that the resources of this river system will not deteriorate further. The single nucleotide polymorphism data obtained here could be used for resource management in this and other rivers: e.g., for monitoring of informal stocking and stocked hatchery fishes, and/or putative indigenous resources.
Project description:Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) is an important pest in the world. Serratia marcescens have a high lethal effect on O. formosanus, but the specific insecticidal mechanisms of S. marcescens on O. formosanus are unclear, and the immune responses of O. formosanus to S. marcescens have not been clarified. At present, genetic database resources of O. formosanus are extremely scarce. Therefore, using O. formosanus workers infected by S. marcescens and the control as experimental materials, a full-length transcriptome was sequenced using the PacBio Sequel sequencing platform. A total of 10,364 isoforms were obtained as the final transcriptome. The unigenes were further annotated with the Nr, Swiss-Prot, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Ortholog public databases. In a comparison between the control group and a Serratia marcescens-infected group, a total of 259 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 132 upregulated and 127 downregulated genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, oxidative stress genes and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in O. formosanus may be associated with S. marcescens treatment. This research intensively studied O. formosanus at the high-throughput full-length transcriptome level, laying a foundation for further development of molecular markers and mining of target genes in this species and thereby promoting the biological control of O. formosanus. Furthermore, these results will be helpful to clarify the action mechanisms of S. marcescens on O. formosanus, and also explore the relationship between O. formosanus and S. marcescens. In addition, this study will identify the immune response of O. formosanus to S. marcescens, which will provide a theoretical foundation for the development of new immunosuppressants for O. formosanus.
Project description:The medicinal effects and techniques for cultivating Anoectochilus formosanus are well-documented, but little is known about the mycorrhizal fungi associated with A. formosanus. Rhizoctonia (Thanatephorus) anastomosis group 6 (AG-6) was the most common species isolated from fungal pelotons in native A. formosanus and represented 67% of the sample. Rhizoctonia (Ceratobasidium) AG-G, P, and R were also isolated and represent the first occurrence in the Orchidaceae. Isolates of AG-6, AG-R, and AG-P in clade I increased seed germination 44-91% and promoted protocorm growth from phases III to VI compared to asymbiotic treatments and isolates of AG-G in clade II and Tulasnella species in clade III. All isolates in clades I to III formed fungal pelotons in tissue-cultured seedlings of A. formosanus, which exhibited significantly greater growth than nonmycorrhizal seedlings. An analysis of the relative effect of treatment ([Formula: see text]) showed that the low level of colonization ([Formula: see text]) by isolates in clade I resulted in a significant increase in seedling growth compared to isolates in clades II (0.63-0.82) and III (0.63-0.75). There was also a negative correlation (r?=?-0.8801) with fresh plant weight and fungal colonization. Our results suggest that isolates in clade I may represent an important group associated with native populations of A. formosanus and can vary in their ability to establish a symbiotic association with A. formosanus. The results presented here are potentially useful for advancing research on the medicinal properties, production, and conservation of A. formosanus in diverse ecosystems.
Project description:The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32-34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.