Exosomal miR?663b exposed to TGF??1 promotes cervical cancer metastasis and epithelial?mesenchymal transition by targeting MGAT3.
ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)??1 is a key cytokine affecting the pathogenesis and progression of cervical cancer. Tumor?derived exosomes contain microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) that interact with cancer and stromal cells, thereby contributing to tissue remodeling in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The present study was designed to clarify how TGF??1 affects tumor biological functions through exosomes released by cervical cancer cells. Deep RNA sequencing found that TGF??1 stimulated cervical cancer cells to secrete more miR?663b?containing exosomes, which could be transferred into new target cells to promote metastasis. Further studies have shown that miR?663b directly targets the 3'-untranslated regions (3'?UTR) of mannoside acetylglucosaminyltransferase 3 (MGAT3) and is involved in the epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Remarkably, the overexpression of MGAT3 suppressed cervical cancer cell metastasis promoted by exosomal miR?663b, causing increased expression of epithelial differentiation marker E?cadherin and decreased expression of mesenchymal markers N?cadherin and ??catenin. Throughout our study, online bioinformation tools and dual luciferase reporter assay were applied to identify MGAT3 as a novel direct target of miR?663b. Exosome PKH67?labeling experiment verified that exosomal miR?663b could be endocytosed by cervical cancer cells and subsequently influence its migration and invasion functions which were measured by wound healing and Transwell assays. The expression of miR?663b and MGAT3 and the regulation of the EMT pathway caused by MGAT3 were detected by quantitative real?time transcription?polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. These results, thus, provide evidence that cancer cell?derived exosomal miR?663b is endocytosed by cervical cancer cells adjacent or distant after TGF??1 exposure and inhibits the expression of MGAT3, thereby accelerating the EMT process and ultimately promoting local and distant metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metastasis is the main cause of lung cancer mortality. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a component of the cancer microenvironment and contribute to cancer progression. Intratumoral hypoxia affects both cancer and stromal cells. Exosomes are recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Here, we aim to further elucidate the communication between BMSC-derived exosomes and cancer cells in the hypoxic niche. METHODS:Exosomal miRNA profiling was performed using a microRNA array. Lung cancer cells and an in vivo mouse syngeneic tumor model were used to evaluate the effects of select exosomal microRNAs. Hypoxic BMSC-derived plasma exosomal miRNAs were assessed for their capacity to discriminate between cancer patients and non-cancerous controls and between cancer patients with or without metastasis. RESULTS:We demonstrate that exosomes derived from hypoxic BMSCs are taken by neighboring cancer cells and promote cancer cell invasion and EMT. Exosome-mediated transfer of select microRNAs, including miR-193a-3p, miR-210-3p and miR-5100, from BMSCs to epithelial cancer cells activates STAT3 signaling and increases the expression of mesenchymal related molecules. The diagnostic accuracy of individual microRNA showed that plasma exosomal miR-193a-3p can discriminate cancer patients from non-cancerous controls. A panel of these three plasma exosomal microRNAs showed a better diagnostic accuracy to discriminate lung cancer patients with or without metastasis than individual exosomal microRNA. CONCLUSIONS:Exosome-mediated transfer of miR-193a-3p, miR-210-3p and miR-5100, could promote invasion of lung cancer cells by activating STAT3 signalling-induced EMT. These exosomal miRNAs may be promising noninvasive biomarkers for cancer progression.
Project description:Cancer cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to hypoxia. Exosomes produced in tumor microenvironments carry microRNAs (miRNAs) that affect proliferation, metastasis, and EMT. Hypoxic regulation of EMT is associated with telomerase content and stability, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We identified a targeting relationship between tumor-suppressing miR-1255b-5p and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) via clinical screening of serum samples in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. EMT suppression via exosomal miR-1255b-5p delivery was investigated by assessing hTERT expression, Wnt/?-catenin signaling, and telomerase activity. We revealed that hypoxia directly affected exosomal miR-1255b-5p content, the delivery of which between CRC cells significantly impacted cell invasion, EMT-related protein expression, and telomerase stability. Specifically, miR-1255b-5p suppressed EMT by inhibiting Wnt/?-catenin activation via hTERT inhibition. Hypoxia reduced exosomal miR-1255b-5p secretion by CRC cells, thereby increasing hTERT expression to enhance EMT and telomerase activity. In a mouse CRC model, hypoxic exosomes containing overexpressed miR-1255b-5p attenuated EMT, tumor progression, and liver metastasis. Our results suggest the antitumor role of miR-1255b-5p and its involvement in the regulation of hTERT-mediated EMT. We propose that miRNA-targeted regulation of telomerase is a promising therapeutic strategy for future CRC treatment.
Project description:Background: Women infected with HIV are more likely to have aggressive cervical cancer, and patients with HIV infection are often more severely ill than those without HIV infection. However, the underlying mechanism for the progression of cervical cancer is not yet fully understood and requires further research. Methods: Exosomes were isolated from cell culture supernatants using differential ultracentrifugation. Confirmation of exosome isolation was based upon identification by electron microscopy and NanoSight particle tracking analysis of the purified fraction. The function of exosomes derived from HIV-infected T-cells in cervical cancer was determined by CCK8 and Transwell invasion assays. Results: Exosomal miR-155-5p derived from HIV-infected T-cells promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that HIV-infected T-cells secrete exosomal miR-155-5p that directly targets ARID2 degradation, leading to activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. MiR-155-5p promotes cervical cancer progression by secreting proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-8. Conclusions: In conclusion, we demonstrate that intercellular crosstalk between HIV-infected T-cells and cervical cancer is mediated by exosomes from HIV-infected T-cells that contribute to the malignant progression of cervical cancer, providing potential targets for the prevention and treatment of HIV-associated cervical cancer.
Project description:Objective:Tumor metastasis is a complex, multistep process that depends on tumor cells and their communication with the tumor microenvironment. A p53 gain-of-function mutant has been shown to enhance the tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis abilities of tumor cells. This study aimed to investigate the roles of p53 R273H mutation in the tumor microenvironment. Methods:The in vitro and in vivo effects of the p53 R273H mutant on the invasion and metastasis of HCT116 cells were investigated. Exosomes from wild-type and HCT116-TP53(R273H) cells were cocultured with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The roles of differentially expressed exosomal microRNAs identified by microarray analysis were investigated. The functions of the p53 R273H mutant in tumor cells were also investigated via gene expression microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses. Results:Introducing p53 R273H mutant into HCT116 cells significantly potentiated pulmonary metastasis in vivo. In the presence of exosomes derived from HCT116-TP53(R273H) cells, the exosomes were taken up by MEFs and became activated. Microarray analysis showed that the p53 R273H mutation increased the exosomal levels of miR-21-3p and miR-769-3p. Intriguingly, in clinical samples, miR-21-3p and miR-769-3p levels were significantly higher in patients with a p53 mutation than in those without this mutation. Furthermore, both miR-21-3p and miR-769-3p activated fibroblasts and exerted a synergistic effect via their target genes on the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/Smad signaling pathway. The activated fibroblasts excreted cytokine TGF-? and may have reciprocally induced cancer cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Indeed, HCT116-TP53(R273H) cells showed increased expression of ZEB1 and SNAI2 and decreased transcription of several cell adhesion molecules. Conclusions:The mutant p53-exosomal miR-21-3p/miR-769-3p-fibroblast-cytokine circuit appears to be responsible for communication between tumor and stromal cells, with exosomal miRNAs acting as a bridge. miR-21-3p and miR-769-3p are potential predictive markers of pulmonary metastasis and candidate targets for therapeutic interventions.
Project description:As an oncogenic virus, HPV16 can lead to the dysfunction of cervical epithelial cells and contribute to the progression of cervical cancer. Components from the cervical-vaginal fluid (CVF) could be used as the basis for cervical cancer screening. Exosomes are widely present in various body fluids and participate in intercellular communication via its cargos of proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs. This study was conducted to explore the changes of miRNAs in exosomes isolated form the cervical-vaginal fluid during HPV16 infection and to predict the potential effects of exosomal miRNAs on the development of cervical cancer. CVF was collected from volunteers with or without HPV16 infection. The exosomes in CVF were identified by electron microscopy. Microarray analysis was subjected to find the differentially expressed miRNAs in CVF exosomes. To confirm the results, 16 miRNAs were randomly selected to go through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, GO and pathway analyses were conducted to reveal potential functions of differentially expressed miRNAs. A total of 2548 conserved miRNAs were identified in the cervical-vaginal fluid-derived exosomes. In response to HPV16 infection, 45 miRNAs are significantly upregulated and 55 miRNAs are significantly downregulated (P < 0.05). The GO and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that these differentially expressed miRNAs are tightly associated with cervical cancer tumorigenesis, through interaction with the Notch signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and TGF-? signaling pathway. These results suggest that exosomal miRNAs in CVF are differentially expressed in HPV16 infection patients and HPV16-free volunteers. It provided a novel insight to understand the underlying mechanism of HPV16 infection in regulating cervical cancer progression.
Project description:Exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication and metastatic progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, cellular communication between heterogeneous HCC cells with different metastatic potentials and the resultant cancer progression are not fully understood in HCC. Here, HCC cells with high-metastatic capacity (97hm and Huhm) were constructed by continually exerting selective pressure on primary HCC cells (MHCC-97H and Huh7). Through performing exosomal miRNA sequencing in HCC cells with different metastatic potentials (MHCC-97H and 97hm), many significantly different miRNA candidates were found. Among these miRNAs, miR-92a-3p was the most abundant miRNA in the exosomes of highly metastatic HCC cells. Exosomal miR92a-3p was also found enriched in the plasma of HCC patient-derived xenograft mice (PDX) model with high-metastatic potential. Exosomal miR-92a-3p promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in recipient cancer cells via targeting PTEN and regulating its downstream Akt/Snail signaling. Furthermore, through mRNA sequencing in HCC cells with different metastatic potentials and predicting potential transcription factors of miR92a-3p, upregulated transcript factors E2F1 and c-Myc were found in high-metastatic HCC cells promote the expression of cellular and exosomal miR-92a-3p in HCC by directly binding the promoter of its host gene, miR17HG. Clinical data showed that a high plasma exosomal miR92a-3p level was correlated with shortened overall survival and disease-free survival, indicating poor prognosis in HCC patients. In conclusion, hepatoma-derived exosomal miR92a-3p plays a critical role in the EMT progression and promoting metastasis by inhibiting PTEN and activating Akt/Snail signaling. Exosomal miR92a-3p is a potential predictive biomarker for HCC metastasis, and this may provoke the development of novel therapeutic and preventing strategies against metastasis of HCC.
Project description:Recently, novel mechanisms underlying the pro-tumorigenic effects of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been identified in several cancers, including breast cancer. CAFs can secrete exosomes that are loaded with proteins, lipids, and RNAs to affect tumor microenvironment. Herein, we identify CAF-derived exosomes that can transfer miR-181d-5p to enhance the aggressiveness of breast cancer. Cancerous tissues and matched paracancerous tissues were surgically resected from 122 patients with breast cancer. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and dual luciferase reporter assays were employed to identify interaction between homeobox A5 (HOXA5) and caudal-related homeobox 2 (CDX2), as well as between CDX2 and miR-181d-5p, respectively. Human breast cancer Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells were cocultured with CAF-derived exosomes. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, TUNEL staining, Transwell invasion assays, and scratch tests were carried out to evaluate MCF-7 cell functions. Nude mice bearing xenografted MCF-7 cells were injected with CAF-derived exosomes, and the tumor formation was evaluated. HOXA5 expressed at a poor level in breast cancer tissues, and its overexpression retarded MCF-7 cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and facilitated its apoptosis in vitro. miR-181d-5p targets CDX2, a transcription factor binding to HOXA5 promoter. Coculture of CAFs and MCF-7 cells showed that CAFs prolonged proliferation and antagonized apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via release of exosomes. Coculture of MCF-7 cells and exosomes derived from CAFs identified miR-181d-5p as a mediator of the exosomal effects on MCF-7 cells, in part, via downregulation of CDX2 and HOXA5. CAF-derived exosomes containing miR-181d-5p promoted the tumor growth of nude mice bearing xenografted MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, exosomal miR-181d-5p plays a key role in CAF-mediated effects on tumor environment in breast cancer, likely via CDX2 and HOXA5.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease of unknown aetiology and cure. Recent studies have reported a dysregulation of exosomal microRNAs (miRs) in the IPF context. However, the impact of IPF-related exosomal miRs on the progression of pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. METHODS:Two independent cohorts were enrolled at the ambulatory care polyclinic of Liège University. Exosomes from sputum were obtained from 19 patients with IPF and 23 healthy subjects (HSs) (cohort 1), and the ones from plasma derived from 14 patients with IPF and 14 HSs (cohort 2). Exosomal miR expression was performed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The functional role of exosomal miRs was assessed in vitro by transfecting miR mimics in human alveolar epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts. RESULTS:Exosomal miR analysis showed that miR-142-3p was significantly upregulated in sputum and plasma of patients with IPF (8.06-fold, p<0.0001; 1.64 fold, p=0.008, respectively). Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between exosomal miR-142-3p and the percentage of macrophages from sputum of patients with IPF (r=0.576, p=0.012), suggesting macrophage origin of exosomal miR-142-3p upregulation. The overexpression of miR-142-3p in alveolar epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts was able to reduce the expression of transforming growth factor ? receptor 1 (TGF?-R1) and profibrotic genes. Furthermore, exosomes isolated from macrophages present antifibrotic properties due in part to the repression of TGF?-R1 by miR-142-3p transfer in target cells. DISCUSSION:Our results suggest that macrophage-derived exosomes may fight against pulmonary fibrosis progression via the delivery of antifibrotic miR-142-3?p to alveolar epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exosomes from cancer cells or immune cells, carrying bio-macromolecules or microRNAs (miRNAs), participate in tumor pathogenesis and progression by modulating microenvironment. Our study aims to investigate the role of these microRNA-501-3p (miR-501-3p) containing exosomes derived from tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) in the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS:Firstly, the function of TAM recruitment in PDAC tissues was assessed, followed by identification of the effects of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes on PDAC cell activities and tumor formation and metastasis in mice. In silico analysis was conducted to predict differentially expressed genes and regulatory miRNAs related to PDAC treated with macrophages, which determined miR-501-3p and TGFBR3 for subsequent experiments. Next, gain- and loss-of-function experiments were performed to examine their role in PDAC progression with the involvement of the TGF-? signaling pathway. RESULTS:TAM recruitment in PDAC tissues was associated with metastasis. Highly expressed miR-501-3p was observed in PDAC tissues and TAM-derived exosomes. Both M2 macrophage-derived exosomes and miR-501-3p promoted PDAC cell migration and invasion, as well as tumor formation and metastasis in nude mice. MiR-501-3p was verified to target TGFBR3. PDAC cells presented with down-regulated TGFBR3, which was further decreased in response to M2 macrophage treatment. TGF-? signaling pathway activation was implicated in the promotion of miR-501-3p in PDAC development. The suppression of macrophage-derived exosomal miR-501-3p resulted in the inhibition of tumor formation and metastasis in vivo. CONCLUSION:M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-501-3p inhibits tumor suppressor TGFBR3 gene and facilitates the development of PDAC by activating the TGF-? signaling pathway, which provides novel targets for the molecular treatment of PDAC.
Project description:Exosomes are nano-vesicles transporting bioactive material between cells. This study explored the prognostic association of exosomal TGF-?1 with lymph node (LN) metastasis of gastric cancer (GC). TGF-?1 expressions in the exosomes isolated from the gastroepiploic veins of 61 GC patients analyzed by ELISA. The regulatory T (Treg) cells in celiac LNs of gastric cancer analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Exosomal TGF-?1 expression and the ratio of Treg cells in draining LNs were both significantly associated with pathological stages and LN metastasis of gastric cancer. Besides, the exosomal TGF-?1 expression and Treg proportion in LN were also significantly correlated in gastric cancer patients. Recombinant TGF-?1 and exosomes isolated from GC patients were used to induce FOXP3+ Treg cells from naïve T cells in vitro. Compared to the control, recombinant TGF-?1 induced more CD25 (41%), FOXP3 (19%) and CTLA-4 (47%), while reduced CD45RA expression by 38% in primary naïve T cell cultures (p<0.01). Exosomes treatment induced more CD25 and 45% higher CTLA-4 expression, and increased 29% higher of CD45RA-negative cells than recombinant TGF-?1 did (p<0.01). Adding TGF-?1 neutralizing antibody partially abrogated the effects of exosomes on Treg induction. Our study showed exosomal TGF-?1 related to lymph node metastasis and the ratio of Treg cells in lymph nodes of gastric cancers. Exosomes from gastric cancer patients could induce Treg cells formation through the effect of TGF-?1.