Prediction and control of COVID-19 spreading based on a hybrid intelligent model.
ABSTRACT: The coronavirus (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease that emerged in the late December 2019 in Wuhan, China. It caused a worldwide outbreak and a major threat to global health. It is important to design prediction and control strategies to restrain its exploding. In this study, a hybrid intelligent model is proposed to simulate the spreading of COVID-19. First, considering the effect of control measures, such as government investment, media publicity, medical treatment, and law enforcement in epidemic spreading. Then, the infection rates are optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) and a modified susceptible-infected-quarantined-recovered (SIQR) epidemic spreading model is proposed. In addition, the long short-term memory (LSTM) is imbedded into the SIQR model to design the hybrid intelligent model to further optimize other parameters of the system model, which can obtain the optimal predictive model and control measures. Simulation results show that the proposed hybrid intelligence algorithm has good predictive ability. This study provide a reliable model to predict cases of infection and death, and reasonable suggestion to control COVID-19.
Project description:The control of spreading of COVID-19 in emergency situation the entire world is a challenge, and therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a spherical intelligent fuzzy decision model for control and diagnosis of COVID-19. The emergency event is known to have aspects of short time and data, harmfulness, and ambiguity, and policy makers are often rationally bounded under uncertainty and threat. There are some classic approaches for representing and explaining the complexity and vagueness of the information. The effective tool to describe and reduce the uncertainty in data information is fuzzy set and their extension. Therefore, we used fuzzy logic to develop fuzzy mathematical model for control of transmission and spreading of COVID19. The fuzzy control of early transmission and spreading of coronavirus by fuzzy mathematical model will be very effective. The proposed research work is on fuzzy mathematical model of intelligent decision systems under the spherical fuzzy information. In the proposed work, we will develop a newly and generalized technique for COVID19 based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and complex proportional assessment (COPRAS) methods under spherical fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative the emergency situation of COVID-19 is given for demonstrating the effectiveness of the suggested method, along with a sensitivity analysis and comparative analysis, showing the feasibility and reliability of its results.
Project description:The entire world has suffered a lot since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in 2019, so simulation models of COVID-19 dynamics are urgently needed to understand and control the pandemic better. Meanwhile, emotional contagion, the spread of vigilance or panic, serves as a negative feedback to the epidemic, but few existing models take it into consideration. In this study, we proposed an innovative multi-layer hybrid modelling and simulation approach to simulate disease transmission and emotional contagion together. In each layer, we used a hybrid simulation method combining agent-based modelling (ABM) with system dynamics modelling (SDM), keeping spatial heterogeneity while reducing computation costs. We designed a new emotion dynamics model IWAN (indifferent, worried, afraid and numb) to simulate emotional contagion inside a community during an epidemic. Our model was well fit to the data of China, the UK and the US during the COVID-19 pandemic. If there weren't emotional contagion, our experiments showed that the confirmed cases would increase rapidly, for instance, the total confirmed cases during simulation in Guangzhou, China would grow from 334 to 2096, which increased by 528%. We compared the calibrated emotional contagion parameters of different countries and found that the suppression effect of emotional contagion in China is relatively more visible than that in the US and the UK. Due to the experiment results, the proposed multi-layer network model with hybrid simulation is valid and can be applied to the quantitative analysis of the epidemic trends and the suppression effect of emotional contagion in different countries. Our model can be modified for further research to study other social factors and intervention policies in the COVID-19 pandemic or future epidemics.
Project description:The new COVID-19 pandemic has challenged policymakers on key issues. Most countries have adopted "lockdown" policies to reduce the spatial spread of COVID-19, but they have damaged the economic and moral fabric of society. Mathematical modeling in non-pharmaceutical intervention policy management has proven to be a major weapon in this fight due to the lack of an effective COVID-19 vaccine. A new hybrid model for COVID-19 dynamics using both an age-structured mathematical model based on the SIRD model and spatio-temporal model in silico is presented, analyzing the data of COVID-19 in Israel. Using the hybrid model, a method for estimating the reproduction number of an epidemic in real-time from the data of daily notification of cases is introduced. The results of the proposed model are confirmed by the Israeli Lockdown experience with a mean square error of 0.205 over 2 weeks. The use of mathematical models promises to reduce the uncertainty in the choice of "Lockdown" policies. The unique use of contact details from 2 classes (children and adults), the interaction of populations depending on the time of day, and several physical locations, allow a new look at the differential dynamics of the spread and control of infection.
Project description:A novel coronavirus pneumonia, first identified in Wuhan City and referred to as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization, has been quickly spreading to other cities and countries. To control the epidemic, the Chinese government mandated a quarantine of the Wuhan city on January 23, 2020. To explore the effectiveness of the quarantine of the Wuhan city against this epidemic, transmission dynamics of COVID-19 have been estimated. A well-mixed "susceptible exposed infectious recovered" (SEIR) compartmental model was employed to describe the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic based on epidemiological characteristics of individuals, clinical progression of COVID-19, and quarantine intervention measures of the authority. Considering infected individuals as contagious during the latency period, the well-mixed SEIR model fitting results based on the assumed contact rate of latent individuals are within 6-18, which represented the possible impact of quarantine and isolation interventions on disease infections, whereas other parameter were suppose as unchanged under the current intervention. The present study shows that, by reducing the contact rate of latent individuals, interventions such as quarantine and isolation can effectively reduce the potential peak number of COVID-19 infections and delay the time of peak infection.
Project description:Highlights • A predicting model for the long-term epidemic trend of COVID-19 by using LSTM with rolling update mechanism is proposed.• The 150-days ahead epidemic trend of COVID-19 in Russia, Peru and Iran are estimated by our proposed model.• The results provide that the epidemic of Peru will end in early December.• The number of daily cases in Russia and Iran is expected to fall below 2000 and 1000 by mid-November and early December.• By introducing diffusion index, the effectiveness of preventive measures taken by the government are analyzed. The COVID-19 outbreak in late December 2019 is still spreading rapidly in many countries and regions around the world. It is thus urgent to predict the development and spread of the epidemic. In this paper, we have developed a forecasting model of COVID-19 by using a deep learning method with rolling update mechanism based on the epidemical data provided by Johns Hopkins University. First, as traditional epidemical models use the accumulative confirmed cases for training, it can only predict a rising trend of the epidemic and cannot predict when the epidemic will decline or end, an improved model is built based on long short-term memory (LSTM) with daily confirmed cases training set. Second, considering the existing forecasting model based on LSTM can only predict the epidemic trend within the next 30 days accurately, the rolling update mechanism is embedded with LSTM for long-term projections. Third, by introducing Diffusion Index (DI), the effectiveness of preventive measures like social isolation and lockdown on the spread of COVID-19 is analyzed in our novel research. The trends of the epidemic in 150 days ahead are modeled for Russia, Peru and Iran, three countries on different continents. Under our estimation, the current epidemic in Peru is predicted to continue until November 2020. The number of positive cases per day in Iran is expected to fall below 1000 by mid-November, with a gradual downward trend expected after several smaller peaks from July to September, while there will still be more than 2000 increase by early December in Russia. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of preventive measures which have been taken by the government, which shows that the strict controlment can significantly reduce the spread of COVID-19.
Project description:Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is causing a severe pandemic that has resulted in millions of confirmed cases and deaths around the world. In the absence of effective drugs for treatment, non-pharmaceutical interventions are the most effective approaches to control the disease. Although some countries have the pandemic under control, all countries around the world, including the United States (US), are still in the process of controlling COVID-19, which calls for an effective epidemic model to describe the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. Meeting this need, we have extensively investigated the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 from 22 January 2020 to 14 February 2021 for the 50 states of the United States, which revealed the general principles underlying the spread of the virus in terms of intervention measures and demographic properties. We further proposed a time-dependent epidemic model, named T-SIR, to model the long-term transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in the US. It was shown in this paper that our T-SIR model could effectively model the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 for all 50 states, which provided insights into the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in the US. The present study will be valuable to help understand the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 and thus help governments determine and implement effective intervention measures or vaccine prioritization to control the pandemic.
Project description:In December 2019, the outbreak of a new coronavirus-caused pneumonia (COVID-19) in Wuhan attracted close attention in China and the world. The Chinese government took strong national intervention measures on January 23 to control the spread of the epidemic. We are trying to show the impact of these controls on the spread of the epidemic. We proposed an SEIR(Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed) model to analyze the epidemic trend in Wuhan and use the AI model to analyze the epidemic trend in non-Wuhan areas. We found that if the closure was lifted, the outbreak in non-Wuhan areas of mainland China would double in size. Our SEIR and AI model was effective in predicting the COVID-19 epidemic peaks and sizes. The epidemic control measures taken by the Chinese government, especially the city closure measures, reduced the scale of the COVID-19 epidemic.
Project description:Pandemics have been recognized as a serious global threat to humanity. To effectively prevent the spread and outbreak of the epidemic disease, theoretical models intended to depict the disease dynamics have served as the main tools to understand its underlying mechanisms and thus interrupt its transmission. Two commonly-used models are mean-field compartmental models and agent-based models (ABM). The former ones are analytically tractable for describing the dynamics of subpopulations by cannot explicitly consider the details of individual movements. The latter one is mainly used to the spread of epidemics at a microscopic level but have limited simulation scale for the randomness of the results. To overcome current limitations, a hierarchical hybrid modeling and simulation method, combining mean-field compartmental model and ABM, is proposed in this paper. Based on this method, we build a hybrid model, which takes both individual heterogeneity and the dynamics of sub-populations into account. The proposed model also investigates the impact of combined interventions (i. e. vaccination and pre-deployment training) for healthcare workers (HCWs) on the spread of disease. Taking the case of 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone as an example, we examine its spreading mechanism and evaluate the effect of prevention by our parameterized and validated hybrid model. According to our simulation results, an optimal combination of pre-job training and vaccination deployment strategy has been identified. To conclude, our hybrid model helps informing the synergistic disease control strategies and the corresponding hierarchical hybrid modeling and simulation method can further be used to understand the individual dynamics during epidemic spreading in large scale population and help inform disease control strategies for different infectious disease.
Project description:Optimizing allocation of vaccine, a highly scarce resource, is an urgent and critical issue during fighting against on-going COVID-19 epidemic. Prior studies suggested that vaccine should be prioritized by age and risk groups, but few of them have considered the spatial prioritization strategy. This study aims to examine the spatial heterogeneity of COVID-19 transmission in the city naturally, and optimize vaccine distribution strategies considering spatial prioritization. We proposed an integrated spatial model of agent-based model and SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered). It simulated spatiotemporal process of COVID-19 transmission in a realistic urban context. Individual movements were represented by trajectories of 8,146 randomly sampled mobile phone users on December 28, 2016 in Guangzhou, China, 90% of whom aged 18-60. Simulations were conducted under seven scenarios. Scenarios 1 and 2 examined natural spreading process of COVID-19 and its final state of herd immunity. Scenarios 3-6 applied four vaccination strategies (random strategy, age strategy, space strategy, and space & age strategy), and identified the optimal vaccine strategy. Scenario 7 assessed the most appropriate vaccine coverage. The results demonstrates herd immunity is heterogeneously distributed in space, thus, vaccine intervention strategies should be spatialized. Among four strategies, space & age strategy is substantially most efficient, with 7.7% fewer in attack rate and 44 days longer than random strategy under 20% vaccine uptake. Space & age strategy requires 30%-40% vaccine coverage to control the epidemic, while the coverage for a random strategy is 60%-70% as a comparison. The application of our research would greatly improves the effectiveness of the vaccine usability.
Project description:In this study, we proposed a new data-driven hybrid technique by integrating an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), with a nonlinear autoregressive artificial neural network (NARANN), called the EEMD-ARIMA-NARANN model, to perform time series modeling and forecasting based on the COVID-19 prevalence and mortality data from 28 February 2020 to 27 June 2020 in South Africa and Nigeria. By comparing the accuracy level of forecasting measurements with the basic ARIMA and NARANN models, it was shown that this novel data-driven hybrid model did a better job of capturing the dynamic changing trends of the target data than the others used in this work. Our proposed mixture technique can be deemed as a helpful policy-supportive tool to plan and provide medical supplies effectively. The overall confirmed cases and deaths were estimated to reach around 176,570 [95% uncertainty level (UL) 173,607 to 178,476] and 3454 (95% UL 3384 to 3487), respectively, in South Africa, along with 32,136 (95% UL 31,568 to 32,641) and 788 (95% UL 775 to 804) in Nigeria on 12 July 2020 using this data-driven EEMD-ARIMA-NARANN hybrid technique. The contributions of this study include three aspects. First, the proposed hybrid model can better capture the dynamic dependency characteristics compared with the individual models. Second, this new data-driven hybrid model is constructed in a more reasonable way relative to the traditional mixture model. Third, this proposed model may be generalized to estimate the epidemic patterns of COVID-19 in other regions.