Population epidemiology and concordance for plasma amino acids and precursors in 11-12-year-old children and their parents.
ABSTRACT: Amino acid (AA) concentrations are influenced by both exogenous (e.g. diet, lifestyle) and endogenous factors (e.g. genetic, transcriptomic, epigenetic, and metabolomic). Fasting plasma AA profiles in adulthood are predictive of diabetes risk over periods of up to 12 years. Data on AA profiles in cross-generational cohorts, including individuals from shared gene-environment settings are scarce, but would allow the identification of the contribution of heritable and environmental factors characterising the levels of circulating AAs. This study aimed to investigate parent-child (familial dyad) concordance, absolute differences between generations- (children versus adults), age- (in adults: 28-71 years), and sex-dependent differences in plasma AA concentrations. Plasma AA concentrations were measured by UHPLC/MS-MS in 1166 children [mean (SD) age 11 (0.5) years, 51% female] and 1324 of their parents [44 (5.1) years, 87% female]. AA concentrations were variably concordant between parents and their children (5-41% of variability explained). Most AA concentrations were higher in adults than children, except for the non-essential AAs arginine, aspartic acid, glutamine, hydroxy-proline, proline, and serine. Male adults and children typically had higher AA concentrations than females. The exceptions were alanine, glutamine, glycine, hydroxy-proline, serine, and threonine in girls; and glycine and serine in women. Age, sex, and shared familial factors are important determinants of plasma AA concentrations.
Project description:Different amino acids (AAs) may exert distinct effects on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. A quantitative comparison of the effects of AAs on glucose and insulin kinetics in humans is currently lacking. PubMed was queried to identify intervention studies reporting glucose and insulin concentrations after acute ingestion and/or intravenous infusion of AAs in healthy adults and those living with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The systematic literature search identified 55 studies that examined the effects of l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-alanine, l-glutamine, l-arginine, l-lysine, glycine, l-proline, l-phenylalanine, l-glutamate, branched-chain AAs (i.e., l-leucine, l-isoleucine, and l-valine), and multiple individual l-AAs on glucose and insulin concentrations. Oral ingestion of most individual AAs induced an insulin response, but did not alter glucose concentrations in healthy participants. Specific AAs (i.e., leucine and isoleucine) co-ingested with glucose exerted a synergistic effect on the postprandial insulin response and attenuated the glucose response compared to glucose intake alone in healthy participants. Oral AA ingestion as well as intravenous AA infusion was able to stimulate an insulin response and decrease glucose concentrations in T2DM and obese individuals. The extracted information is publicly available and can serve multiple purposes such as computational modeling.
Project description:Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus. In this study, a comprehensive profile of phloem sap amino acids (AA) in four permissive host plants of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and three non-permissive Rutaceae plants was conducted to gain a better understanding of host factors that may promote or suppress the bacterium. The AA profiles of Diaphorina citri nymphs and adults were similarly analyzed. A total of 38 unique AAs were detected in phloem sap of the various plants and D. citri samples, with phloem sap of young shoots containing more AAs and at higher concentrations than their mature counterparts. All AAs detected in phloem sap of non-permissive plants were also present in CLas -permissive hosts plus additional AAs in the latter class of plants. However, the relative composition of 18 commonly shared AAs varied between CLas -permissive hosts and non-permissive plants. Multivariate analysis with a partial least square discriminant methodology revealed a total of 12 AAs as major factors affecting CLas host status, of which seven were positively related to CLas tolerance/resistance and five positively associated with CLas susceptibility. Most of the AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility were predominantly of the glutamate family, notably stressed-induced AAs such as arginine, GABA and proline. In contrast, AAs positively correlated with CLas tolerance/resistance were mainly of the serine family. Further analysis revealed that whereas the relative proportions of AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility did not vary with host developmental stages, those associated with CLas tolerance/resistance increased with flush shoot maturity. Significantly, the proline-to-glycine ratio was determined to be an important discriminating factor for CLas permissivity with higher values characteristic of CLas -permissive hosts. This ratio could be exploited as a biomarker in HLB-resistance breeding programs.
Project description:Milk protein is crucial for milk quality in sows and health of newborn piglets. Plasma amino acids (AA) in sows are important precursors for milk protein synthesis in the mammary gland. In order to study the regulation of AA transported in sow mammary glands and possible underlying mechanisms, we measured the expression of genes coding for milk proteins, AA transporter expressions, and plasma AA concentrations in sows at three different physiological stages (D-17, D1 and D17 of lactation), and then further investigated the regulation of AA transport across the cell membrane by adaptive mechanisms using pig mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) as an in vitro model. PMEC were cultured in DMEM:F12 with 4 amino acid concentrations (0 × AA complex, 1 × AA complex, 5 × AA complex, and 25 × AA complex). Classes of AA complexes evaluated in this study included neutral AAs (L-Ala + L-Ser + L-Cys), acidic AAs (L-Asp, L-Glu) and neutral + basic AAs (L-Ala + L-Ser + L-Cys + L-Lys).Our results indicated that mRNA expression of genes coding for milk protein (αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein and κ-casein) increased significantly with the advance of physiological stage (P < 0.05), and plasma concentrations of most AAs including threonine, serine, glutamate, alanine, valine, cysteine, methionine, isoleucine and tyrosine were greater at D1 of lactation compared with D-17 and D17 of lactation (P < 0.05). Additionally, protein and gene expressions of AA transporters including excitatory AA transporter 3 (EAAT3), alanine/serine/cysteine/threonine transporter (ASCT1) and sodium-coupled neutral AA transporter 1 (SNAT2) were greater in lactating sow mammary glands compared with sow mammary glands in late pregnancy (P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of SLC38A2, SLC1A1, SLC6A14 increased significantly in the cell mediums supplemented with 5 × and 25 × of AA complexes compared with those cells cultured in DMEM/F12 cell medium (P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of SLC38A, SLC1A4, and SLC6A14 also increased in EBSS cell medium compared to DMEM/F12. However, only mRNA expression of SLC38A decreased when AA complex was added into EBSS (P < 0.05).AA transportation was positively regulated in sow mammary glands with the advance of physiological stage from late pregnancy to peak of lactation and AA transporters in PMECs were adaptively regulated by changed AA concentrations.
Project description:PURPOSE: To identify an association between amino acids (AAs) metabolism and reproductive outcome. METHODS: Prospective collection, observational study, in patients undergoing fresh, double embryo transfer (ET), in a tertiary hospital referral IVF unit. Spent day 1 and day 3 media were collected. Concentrations of taurine, aspartic acid, proline, and serine in the medium were determined using a liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometer (LCMS/MS). Data was analyzed according to excretion versus uptake, and a cut-off value was calculated based on a receiver operating curve (ROC). Pregnancy rates were also calculated after stratification into subgroups in accordance with AA metabolism. RESULTS: Seven out of 19 patients conceived (36.8 %). The ORs for pregnancy when the zygotes secreted aspartic acid, serine and proline above the cut-off value were 2.9, 5.67 and 5.21 (p?<?0.05). When both transferred embryos were above the cut-off value of serine the PR's were 62.5 %, 12.5 % when both were below, and 33.3 % when one was above and the other below (p?=?0.04). Similar results were obtained for proline; PR's were 66.7, 18.7 and 28.6 % respectively, but with a borderline statistical significance (p?=?0.08). The same trend was observed in the case of aspartic acid but not near statistical significance. No differences in PRs were found in association with taurine turnover during fertilization or any of the studied AAs during the cleavage stage. There was no correlation between zygote or embryo AAs metabolism and embryo morphology. CONCLUSIONS: Serine and possibly proline decreased uptake from the fertilization medium is associated with pregnancy and might be useful for embryo selection.
Project description:Serum amino acid (AA) concentrations are correlated with childhood stunting, but their relation to linear growth velocity has not been explored. This was a secondary analysis of a clinical trial where Malawian infants aged 6-12 mo were given a legume supplement providing 8.2 g/d of protein; anthropometry was conducted at multiple intervals, and fasted serum AA concentrations were measured at 12 mo of age. Lysine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine concentrations were higher in infants with a linear growth velocity z-score >0 than those <0. Corrected Spearman correlation coefficients between individual AA concentrations and weight-for-height and length velocity from 6 to 12 mo of age were positively correlated for glycine, isoleucine, proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine. Additionally, weight-for-height was correlated with arginine, asparagine, glutamine, leucine, lysine, methionine, and phenylalanine. The observed associations suggest that testing the hypothesis that essential AA provision will reduce linear growth faltering is warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02472262.
Project description:This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs) in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg) were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05) across all treatments. The amino acid (AA) profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05). The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Poor nutritional status is frequently observed in end-stage renal disease patients and associated with adverse clinical outcomes and increased mortality. Loss of amino acids (AAs) during hemodialysis (HD) may contribute to protein malnutrition in these patients. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to assess the extent of AA loss during HD in end-stage renal disease patients consuming their habitual diet. METHODS:Ten anuric chronic HD patients (mean ± SD age: 67.9 ± 19.3 y, BMI: 23.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2), undergoing HD 3 times per week, were selected to participate in this study. Spent dialysate was collected continuously and plasma samples were obtained directly before and after a single HD session in each participant. AA profiles in spent dialysate and in pre-HD and post-HD plasma were measured through ultra-performance liquid chromatography to determine AA concentrations and, as such, net loss of AAs. In addition, dietary intake before and throughout HD was assessed using a 24-h food recall questionnaire during HD. Paired-sample t tests were conducted to compare pre-HD and post-HD plasma AA concentrations. RESULTS:During an HD session, 11.95 ± 0.69 g AAs were lost via the dialysate, of which 8.26 ± 0.46 g were nonessential AAs, 3.69 ± 0.31 g were essential AAs, and 1.64 ± 0.17 g were branched-chain AAs. As a consequence, plasma total and essential AA concentrations declined significantly from 2.88 ± 0.15 and 0.80 ± 0.05 mmol/L to 2.27 ± 0.11 and 0.66 ± 0.05 mmol/L, respectively (P < 0.05). AA profiles of pre-HD plasma and spent dialysate were similar. Moreover, AA concentrations in pre-HD plasma and spent dialysate were strongly correlated (Spearman's ? = 0.92, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:During a single HD session, ?12 g AAs are lost into the dialysate, causing a significant decline in plasma AA concentrations. AA loss during HD can contribute substantially to protein malnutrition in end-stage renal disease patients. This study was registered at the Netherlands Trial Registry (NTR7101).
Project description:Plasma amino acid concentrations were determined in virgin female rats, in pregnant rats (12 and 21 days after impregnation) and in 21-day foetuses. The total amino acid concentration in plasma decreases significantly with pregnancy, being lower at 12 than at 21 days. Alanine, glutamine+glutamate and other 'gluconeogenic' amino acids decrease dramatically by mid-term, but regain their original concentrations at the end of the pregnancy. With most other amino acids, mainly the essential ones, the trend is towards lower concentrations which are maintained throughout pregnancy. These data agree with known nitrogen-conservation schemes in pregnancy and with the important demands on amino acids provoked by foetal growth. In the 21-day foetuses, concentrations of individual amino acids are considerably higher than in their mothers, with high plasma foetal/maternal concentration ratios, especially for lysine, phenylalanine and hydroxy-proline, suggesting active protein biosynthesis and turnover. All other amino acids also have high concentration ratios, presumably owing to their requirement by the foetuses for growth. Alanine, glutamine+glutamate, asparagine+aspartate, glycine, serine and threonine form a lower proportion of the total amino acids in foetuses than in the virgin controls or pregnant rats, probably owing to their role primarily in energy metabolism in the adults. The results indicate that at this phase of foetal growth, the placental amino acid uptake is considerable and seems to be higher than immediately before birth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is behaviorally and biologically heterogeneous and likely represents a series of conditions arising from different underlying genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors. There are currently no reliable diagnostic biomarkers for ASD. Based on evidence that dysregulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of ASD, we tested whether dysregulation of amino acids (AAs) was a pervasive phenomenon in individuals with ASD. This is the first article to report results from the Children's Autism Metabolome Project (CAMP), a large-scale effort to define autism biomarkers based on metabolomic analyses of blood samples from young children. METHODS:Dysregulation of AA metabolism was identified by comparing plasma metabolites from 516 children with ASD with those from 164 age-matched typically developing children recruited into the CAMP. ASD subjects were stratified into subpopulations based on shared metabolic phenotypes associated with BCAA dysregulation. RESULTS:We identified groups of AAs with positive correlations that were, as a group, negatively correlated with BCAA levels in ASD. Imbalances between these two groups of AAs identified three ASD-associated amino acid dysregulation metabotypes. The combination of glutamine, glycine, and ornithine amino acid dysregulation metabotypes identified a dysregulation in AA/BCAA metabolism that is present in 16.7% of the CAMP subjects with ASD and is detectable with a specificity of 96.3% and a positive predictive value of 93.5% within the ASD subject cohort. CONCLUSIONS:Identification and utilization of metabotypes of ASD can lead to actionable metabolic tests that support early diagnosis and stratification for targeted therapeutic interventions.
Project description:In recent years the number of disorders known to affect amino acid synthesis has grown rapidly. Nor is it just the number of disorders that has increased: the associated clinical phenotypes have also expanded spectacularly, primarily due to the advances of next generation sequencing diagnostics. In contrast to the "classical" inborn errors of metabolism in catabolic pathways, in which elevated levels of metabolites are easily detected in body fluids, synthesis defects present with low values of metabolites or, confusingly, even completely normal levels of amino acids. This makes the biochemical diagnosis of this relatively new group of metabolic diseases challenging. Defects in the synthesis pathways of serine metabolism, glutamine, proline and, recently, asparagine have all been reported. Although these amino acid synthesis defects are in unrelated metabolic pathways, they do share many clinical features. In children the central nervous system is primarily affected, giving rise to (congenital) microcephaly, early onset seizures and varying degrees of mental disability. The brain abnormalities are accompanied by skin disorders such as cutis laxa in defects of proline synthesis, collodion-like skin and ichthyosis in serine deficiency, and necrolytic erythema in glutamine deficiency. Hypomyelination with accompanying loss of brain volume and gyration defects can be observed on brain MRI in all synthesis disorders. In adults with defects in serine or proline synthesis, spastic paraplegia and several forms of polyneuropathy with or without intellectual disability appear to be the major symptoms in these late-presenting forms of amino acid disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the disorders in amino acid synthesis.