Interventions to address mental health issues in healthcare workers during infectious disease outbreaks: A systematic review.
ABSTRACT: Considering the importance of evidence on interventions to tackle mental health problems in healthcare workers (HCWs) during pandemics, we conducted a systematic review, aiming to identify and summarize the implemented interventions to deal with mental health issues of HCWs during infectious disease outbreaks and report their effectiveness. Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, CINAHL and PsycInfo electronic databases were searched until October 2nd, 2020. Primary-data articles, describing any implemented interventions and their effectiveness were considered pertinent. Studies were screened according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and subsequently data extraction was performed. Twenty-four articles, referring to SARS, Ebola, Influenza AH1N1 and COVID-19 were included. Interventions addressing mental health issues in HCWs during pandemics/epidemics were grouped into four categories: 1) informational support (training, guidelines, prevention programs), 2) instrumental support (personal protective equipment, protection protocols); 3) organizational support (manpower allocation, working hours, re-organization of facilities/structures, provision of rest areas); 4) emotional and psychological support (psychoeducation and training, mental health support team, peer-support and counselling, therapy, digital platforms and tele-support). These results might be helpful for researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers to develop evidence-based sustainable interventions and guidelines, aiming to prevent or reduce the immediate and long-term effect of pandemics on mental health status of HCWs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to significantly affect the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs), who stand in the frontline of this crisis. It is, therefore, an immediate priority to monitor rates of mood, sleep and other mental health issues in order to understand mediating factors and inform tailored interventions. The aim of this review is to synthesize and analyze existing evidence on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and insomnia among HCWs during the Covid-19 outbreak.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic search of literature databases was conducted up to April 17th, 2020. Two reviewers independently assessed full-text articles according to predefined criteria. Risk of bias for each individual study was assessed and data pooled using random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the prevalence of specific mental health problems. The review protocol is registered in PROSPERO and is available online.<h4>Findings</h4>Thirteen studies were included in the analysis with a combined total of 33,062 participants. Anxiety was assessed in 12 studies, with a pooled prevalence of 23·2% and depression in 10 studies, with a prevalence rate of 22·8%. A subgroup analysis revealed gender and occupational differences with female HCPs and nurses exhibiting higher rates of affective symptoms compared to male and medical staff respectively. Finally, insomnia prevalence was estimated at 38·9% across 5 studies.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Early evidence suggests that a considerable proportion of HCWs experience mood and sleep disturbances during this outbreak, stressing the need to establish ways to mitigate mental health risks and adjust interventions under pandemic conditions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:During a pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) are essential to the health system response. Based on our knowledge, little information is available regarding the psychosocial impact on HCWs or interventions for supporting them during pandemics. Therefore, the study aimed to assess available literature on perceived stress and psychological responses to influenza pandemics in HCWs and identify implications for healthcare practice and future research. METHODS:This is a rapid review of the literature. The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. RESULTS:Across all the studies-both qualitative and quantitative-HCWs working during the epidemic reported frequent concerns regarding their own health and the fear of infecting their families, friends and colleagues. Moreover, social isolation, uncertainty, fears of stigmatization and reluctance to work or considering absenteeism were frequently reported. Moreover, many studies highlighted a high prevalence of high levels of stress, anxiety and depression symptoms, which could have long-term psychological implications in HCWs. CONCLUSIONS:This rapid review offers an overview of the major concerns regarding HCWs' psychosocial well-being and possible preventive strategies, which could be useful for the current COVID-19 outbreak and similar future pandemics. Studies suggested to invest on preventive psychological, social, family and physical support and to guaranteeing reasonable work conditions and others in order to protect HCWs from the long-lasting psychological effect of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Project description:The covid-19 pandemic has heavily burdened healthcare systems throughout the world. We performed a rapid systematic review to identify, assess and summarize research on the mental health impact of the covid-19 pandemic on HCWs (healthcare workers). We utilized the Norwegian Institute of Public Health's Live map of covid-19 evidence on 11 May and included 59 studies. Six reported on implementing interventions, but none reported on effects of the interventions. HCWs reported low interest in professional help, and greater reliance on social support and contact. Exposure to covid-19 was the most commonly reported correlate of mental health problems, followed by female gender, and worry about infection or about infecting others. Social support correlated with less mental health problems. HCWs reported anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and distress during the covid-19 pandemic. We assessed the certainty of the estimates of prevalence of these symptoms as very low using GRADE. Most studies did not report comparative data on mental health symptoms before the pandemic or in the general population. There seems to be a mismatch between risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes among HCWs in the current pandemic, their needs and preferences, and the individual psychopathology focus of current interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a global reminder of the need to attend to the mental health of patients and health professionals who are suddenly facing this public health crisis. In the last two decades, a number of medical pandemics have yielded insights on the mental health impact of these events. Based on these experiences and given the magnitude of the current pandemic, rates of mental health disorders are expected to increase. Mental health interventions are urgently needed to minimize the psychological sequelae and provide timely care to affected individuals.<h4>Method</h4>We conducted a rapid systematic review of mental health interventions during a medical pandemic, using three electronic databases. Of the 2404 articles identified, 21 primary research studies are included in this review.<h4>Result</h4>We categorized the findings from the research studies using the following questions: What kind of emotional reactions do medical pandemics trigger? Who is most at risk of experiencing mental health sequelae? What works to treat mental health sequelae (psychosocial interventions and implementation of existing or new training programs)? What do we need to consider when designing and implementing mental health interventions (cultural adaptations and mental health workforce)? What still needs to be known?<h4>Conclusion</h4>Various mental health interventions have been developed for medical pandemics, and research on their effectiveness is growing. We offer recommendations for future research based on the evidence for providing mental health interventions and supports to those most in need.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Children and young people with long-term physical health conditions are at increased risk of experiencing mental health and well-being difficulties. However, there is a lack of research that explores the experiences of and attitudes towards interventions aiming to improve their mental health and well-being. This systematic review seeks to address this gap in the literature by exploring what children and young people with long-term conditions, their caregivers, and health practitioners perceive to be important aspects of interventions aiming to improve their mental health and well-being. METHODS:An information specialist searched five academic databases using predefined criteria for qualitative evaluations of interventions aiming to improve the mental health or well-being of children with long-term physical conditions. Reviewers also performed supplementary citation and grey literature searches. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts that met the inclusion criteria and conducted data extraction and quality assessment. Meta-ethnography was used to synthesize the findings. RESULTS:Screening identified 60 relevant articles. We identified five overarching constructs through the synthesis: (a) Getting In and Staying In, (b) Therapeutic Foundation, (c) Social Support, (d) A Hopeful Alternative, and (e) Empowerment. The line of argument that links these constructs together indicates that when interventions can provide an environment that allows young people to share their experiences and build empathetic relationships, it can enable participants to access social support and increase feelings of hope and empowerment. CONCLUSION:These findings may provide a framework to inform the development of mental health interventions for this population and evaluate existing interventions that already include some of the components or processes identified by this research. Further research is needed to establish which of the constructs identified by the line of argument are most effective in improving the mental well-being of young people living with long-term conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The onset of mental health problems peaks between adolescence and young adulthood; however, young people face barriers to treatment and are often reluctant to seek professional help. Many are instead seeking support and information regarding their mental health via the Web, especially via social networking sites (SNSs), and hence, there is a promising opportunity to use SNSs to deliver or integrate with youth-focused online mental health interventions. Previous reviews have evaluated the effectiveness of SNSs for specific disorders in young people; however, none of the reviews have covered the breadth of SNS-based youth mental health interventions available across all mental health issues. OBJECTIVE:This review aimed to systematically identify available evidence regarding the use of SNS-based interventions to support the mental health of young people aged up to 25 years, to evaluate their effectiveness, suitability, and safety, and identify gaps and opportunities for future research. METHODS:The PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched using Medical Subject Headings terms and exploded keywords and phrases. Retrieved abstracts (n=974) were double screened, yielding 235 articles for screening at the full-text level. Of these, 9 articles met the review inclusion criteria. Given the small number of studies, and the variety of outcome measures used, a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. RESULTS:The 9 articles (quantitative studies, qualitative studies, and descriptions of the iterative design process) covered 5 separate interventions. Of the 5 interventions, 2 interventions used purpose-built platforms based on the moderated online social therapy (MOST) model, 2 used Facebook, and 1 evaluated a purpose-built mobile app. The 2 MOST interventions targeted specific mental health issues (depression and psychosis), whereas the others focused on improving mental health literacy, social support, and general well-being. Only 3 quantitative studies were identified, and all used a pre-post design (without a control group) to establish proof of concept. Of the outcome variables assessed, there were significant improvements in mental health knowledge and number of depressive symptoms but no improvement in anxiety or psychosis symptoms. Acceptability of and engagement with the SNS platforms were generally high, as were perceptions of usefulness and safety. Moderation by clinical experts was identified as a key component of the more successful interventions. When offered a choice, users showed a preference for mobile apps over Web-based interfaces. CONCLUSIONS:The evidence reviewed suggests young people find SNS-based interventions highly usable, engaging, and supportive. However, future studies need to address the current lack of high-quality evidence for their efficacy in reducing mental health symptoms. Given young people are already turning to SNSs to engage in knowledge seeking and peer-to-peer support, SNS-based youth mental health interventions provide an opportunity to address some of the barriers young people face in accessing qualified mental health support and information.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic has subjected healthcare workers (HCWs) to high risk of infection through direct workplace exposure, coupled with increased workload and psychological stress. This review aims to determine the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on mental health outcomes of hospital-based HCWs and formulate recommendations for future action. METHODS:A systematic review was performed between 31st December 2019 and 17th June 2020 through Ovid Medline and Embase databases (PROSPERO ID CRD42020181204). Studies were included for review if they investigated the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on mental health outcomes of hospital-based HCWs and used validated psychiatric scoring tools. Prevalence of ICD-10 classified psychiatric disorders was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS:The initial search returned 436 articles. Forty-four studies were included in final analysis, with a total of 69,499 subjects. Prevalence ranges of six mental health outcomes were identified: depression 13.5%-44.7%; anxiety 12.3%-35.6%; acute stress reaction 5.2%-32.9%; post-traumatic stress disorder 7.4%-37.4%; insomnia 33.8%-36.1%; and occupational burnout 3.1%-43.0%. Direct exposure to SARS-CoV-2 patients was the most common risk factor identified for all mental health outcomes except occupational burnout. Nurses, frontline HCWs, and HCWs with low social support and fewer years of working experience reported the worst outcomes. CONCLUSION:The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has significantly impacted the mental health of HCWs. Frontline staff demonstrate worse mental health outcomes. Hospitals should be staffed to meet service provision requirements and to mitigate the impact onmental health. This can be improved with access to rapid-response psychiatric teams and should be continually monitored throughout the pandemic and beyond its conclusion.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Research on interventions to positively impact health and housing status of people who are homeless has received substantially increased attention over the past 5 years. This rapid review examines recent evidence regarding interventions that have been shown to improve the health of homeless people, with particular focus on the effect of these interventions on housing status.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 1,546 articles were identified by a structured search of five electronic databases, a hand search of grey literature and relevant journals, and contact with experts. Two reviewers independently screened the first 10% of titles and abstracts for relevance. Inter-rater reliability was high and as a result only one reviewer screened the remaining titles and abstracts. Articles were included if they were published between January 2004 and December 2009 and examined the effectiveness of an intervention to improve the health or healthcare utilization of people who were homeless, marginally housed, or at risk of homelessness. Two reviewers independently scored all relevant articles for quality.<h4>Results</h4>Eighty-four relevant studies were identified; none were of strong quality while ten were rated of moderate quality. For homeless people with mental illness, provision of housing upon hospital discharge was effective in improving sustained housing. For homeless people with substance abuse issues or concurrent disorders, provision of housing was associated with decreased substance use, relapses from periods of substance abstinence, and health services utilization, and increased housing tenure. Abstinent dependent housing was more effective in supporting housing status, substance abstinence, and improved psychiatric outcomes than non-abstinence dependent housing or no housing. Provision of housing also improved health outcomes among homeless populations with HIV. Health promotion programs can decrease risk behaviours among homeless populations.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These studies provide important new evidence regarding interventions to improve health, housing status, and access to healthcare for homeless populations. The additional studies included in this current review provide further support for earlier evidence which found that coordinated treatment programs for homeless persons with concurrent mental illness and substance misuse issues usually result in better health and access to healthcare than usual care. This review also provides a synthesis of existing evidence regarding interventions that specifically support homeless populations with HIV.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed at examining the impact of providing healthcare during health emergencies caused by viral epidemic outbreaks on healthcare workers' (HCWs) mental health; to identify factors associated with worse impact, and; to assess the available evidence base regarding interventions to reduce such impact. METHOD:Rapid systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO (inception to August 2020). We pooled data using random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the prevalence of specific mental health problems, and used GRADE to ascertain the certainty of evidence. RESULTS:We included 117 studies. The pooled prevalence was higher for acute stress disorder (40% (95%CI 39 to 41%)), followed by anxiety (30%, (30 to 31%)), burnout (28% (26 to 31%)), depression (24% (24 to 25%)), and post-traumatic stress disorder (13% (13 to 14%)). We identified factors associated with the likelihood of developing those problems, including sociodemographic (younger age and female gender), social (lack of social support, stigmatization), and occupational (working in a high-risk environment, specific occupational roles, and lower levels of specialised training and job experience) factors. Four studies reported interventions for frontline HCW: two educational interventions increased confidence in pandemic self-efficacy and in interpersonal problems solving (very low certainty), whereas one multifaceted intervention improved anxiety, depression, and sleep quality (very low certainty). LIMITATIONS:We only searched three databases, and the initial screening was undertaken by a single reviewer. CONCLUSION:Given the very limited evidence regarding the impact of interventions to tackle mental health problems in HCWs, the risk factors identified represent important targets for future interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mental health difficulties and mental disorders are common in adolescents living with HIV or who are affected by HIV because of living in HIV-affected households in low- and middle-income (LMICs) countries, but little is known about the interventions that target these individuals and whether they are effective. AIMS:This systematic review aims to address these gaps by examining what has worked and what has not worked to support the mental health of adolescents living with HIV or affected by HIV in low- and middle-income contexts (PROSPERO Number: CRD42018103269). METHOD:A systematic literature review of online databases from the year 2000 to 2018, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, included English-language publications of quantitative evaluations of psychosocial interventions aiming to improve mental health among adolescents living with HIV and adolescents from HIV-affected households (aged 10-24 years) in LMICs. RESULTS:Out of 2956 articles, 16 studies from 8 LMICs met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies focused on adolescents affected by HIV and only three studies on adolescents living with HIV. Only five studies included were from Sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions most often used a family-strengthening approach strengthening caregiver-adolescent relationships and communication and some problem-solving in groups or individually. Five studies reported statistically significant changes in adolescent and caregiver mental health or mental well-being, five among adolescents only and two among caregivers only. CONCLUSIONS:Research on what works to improve mental health in adolescents living with HIV in LMIC is in its nascent stages. Family-based interventions and economic strengthening show promise.