Intravenous paracetamol in comparison with ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous (i.v.) paracetamol vs. i.v. ibuprofen for the treatment of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) in preterm infants. This is a multicenter randomized controlled study. Infants with a gestational age of 25+0-31+6 weeks were randomized to receive i.v. paracetamol (15 mg/kg/6 h for 3 days) or i.v. ibuprofen (10-5-5 mg/kg/day). The primary outcome was the closure rate of hsPDA after the first treatment course with paracetamol or ibuprofen. Secondary outcomes included the constriction rate of hsPDA, the re-opening rate, and the need for surgical closure. Fifty-two and 49 infants received paracetamol or ibuprofen, respectively. Paracetamol was less effective in closing hsPDA than ibuprofen (52 vs. 78%; P?=?0.026), but the constriction rate of the ductus was similar (81 vs. 90%; P?=?0.202), as confirmed by logistic regression analysis. The re-opening rate, the need for surgical closure, and the occurrence of adverse effects were also similar.Conclusions: Intravenous paracetamol was less effective in closing hsPDA than ibuprofen, but due to a similar constriction effect, its use was associated with the same hsPDA outcome. These results can support the use of i.v. paracetamol as a first-choice drug for the treatment of hsPDA.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov : NCT02422966, Date of registration: 04/09/2015; EudraCT no: 2013-003883-30. What is Known: • The successful closure of patent ductus arteriosus with oral paracetamol has been recently reported in several preterm infants, but only one randomized controlled study investigated the efficacy of intravenous paracetamol. What is New: • Intravenous paracetamol is less effective in closing hsPDA than ibuprofen, but have a similar constriction effect. • These results can support the use of i.v. paracetamol as a first-choice drug for the treatment of hsPDA.
Project description:Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of most common complications in preterm infants. Although ibuprofen represents the first choice for the closure of PDA, this treatment can cause severe gastrointestinal and adverse renal effects and worsen platelet function. The successful closure of the PDA with paracetamol has been recently reported in several preterm infants, and the safety of paracetamol for this use has been suggested by the available data.We present the design of a randomized, multicenter, controlled study, whose aim is to assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous paracetamol in comparison to intravenous ibuprofen for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants. A total of 110 infants born at 25(+0) to 31(+6) weeks of gestational age will be enrolled and randomized to receive paracetamol or ibuprofen (55 patients per group) starting at 24-72 h of life. The primary endpoint of the study is the comparison of the PDA closing rate observed after a 3-day course with paracetamol or ibuprofen. The secondary endpoints include the closure rate of PDA after the second course of treatment with ibuprofen, the re-opening rate of the PDA, the incidence of surgical ligation, and the occurrence of adverse effects.The results of this study will provide new information about the possible use of paracetamol in the treatment of PDA. Paracetamol could offer several important therapeutic advantages over current treatment options, and it could become the treatment of choice for the management of PDA, mainly due to its more favorable side effect profile.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02422966 . Eudract no. 2013-003883-30.
Project description:Haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Existing medical therapies with ibuprofen or indomethacin have multiple adverse effects. Hence, an alternative drug like paracetamol given through oral route with less side effects need to be tested in an appropriate study design with least risk of bias to arrive at a conclusion.Multisite, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority design. The primary objective is to study the efficacy of oral paracetamol for closure of hsPDA in comparison to oral ibuprofen in preterm neonates of <32 weeks' gestation. Randomisation web-based and allocation concealment would be done; the treating team, investigators, outcome assessors and laboratory personnel would be blinded from the intervention. Echocardiography images would be coded for independent review. Closure of PDA by the end of last dose of study drug or earlier would be the study endpoint. A sample size of 196 neonates would be enrolled with a non-inferiority margin of 15%. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis will be done to assess the effect of contamination and protocol violations in the primary outcome.The trial would follow international code of ethics for clinical trial. The trial protocol was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee of all three centres. All serious adverse events would be reported in detail to the Institute Ethics Committee. A written informed consent would be obtained from one of the parents. No plan has been made for dissemination.CTRI/2014/08/004805.
Project description:TRIAL DESIGN: Oral ibuprofen has demonstrated good effects on symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but with many contraindications and potential side-effects. In the past two years, oral paracetamol administration to several preterm infants with PDA has been reported. Here, a randomized, non-blinded, parallel-controlled and non-inferiority trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of oral paracetamol to those of standard ibuprofen for PDA closure in premature infants. METHODS: One hundred and sixty infants (gestational age ? 34 weeks) with echocardiographically confirmed PDA were randomly assigned to receive either oral paracetamol (n = 80) or ibuprofen (n = 80). After the initial treatment course in both groups, the need for a second course was determined by echocardiographic evaluation. The main outcome was rate of ductal closure, and secondary outcomes were adverse effects and complications. RESULT: The ductus was closed in 65 (81.2%) infants of the paracetamol group compared with 63 (78.8%) of the ibuprofen group. The 95% confidence interval of the difference between these groups was [-0.080,0.128], demonstrating that the effectiveness of paracetamol treatment was not inferior to that of ibuprofen. In fact, the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia or gastrointestinal bleeding in the paracetamol group was significantly lower than that of the ibuprofen group. No significant differences in other clinical side effects or complications were noted. CONCLUSION: This comparison of drug efficacy and safety profiles in premature infants with PDA revealed that oral paracetamol was comparable to ibuprofen in terms of the rate of ductal closure and even showed a decreased risk of hyperbilirubinemia or gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, paracetamol may be accepted as a first-line drug treatment for PDA in preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-TRC-12002177.
Project description:Background: Indomethacin and ibuprofen, two commonly used prostaglandin inhibitors, are the drugs of choice for patent ductus arteriosus. However, paracetamol is an alternative choice when these drugs are ineffective or contraindicated. This study aimed to confirm paracetamol's efficacy and safety compared with those of other drugs or placebos for patent ductus arteriosus closure in premature infants. Methods: We conducted a literature search using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to direct the process and PICO (P, population; I, intervention/interest; C, comparator; O, outcome) principle to constitute the theme. We combined the research data through qualitative summaries or meta-analyses. Results: The final analyses included 15 trials (N = 1,313). No significant differences were noted between paracetamol and ibuprofen except for shorter mean days needed for patent ductus arteriosus closure, lower risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, and hyperbilirubinemia. No significant difference existed between paracetamol and indomethacin. Oral paracetamol was more effective than placebo in infants weighing 1,501-2,500 g. Conclusions: Our study findings tentatively conclude that paracetamol can induce early patent ductus arteriosus closure without significant side effects but that its efficacy is not superior to that of indomethacin.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In preterm infants, the standard pharmacologic treatment for a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) is either ibuprofen or indomethacin. However, these medications may be less effective after 2 weeks of age. We investigated the use of acetaminophen in hsPDA closure beyond 2 weeks of age. METHODS:An observational study of 11 infants, <30 weeks' gestation at birth and postnatal age > 2 weeks, who received acetaminophen treatment for their hsPDA. Echocardiograms (ECHOs), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) were obtained before and after treatment to analyze ductal characteristics. Renal and liver functions were monitored pretreatment and posttreatment to look for potential medication side effects. RESULTS:Of the 10 infants with ECHO data for before and after acetaminophen treatments, 4/10 (40%) had a decrease in PDA size, with no infants having complete closure immediately posttreatment. Eight of 11 (73%) infants had a decreased FiO2 requirement after treatment. Of the 5 infants with pretreatment and posttreatment BNP data, 2/5 (40%) infants had a decrease in BNP level. One infant received an additional course of acetaminophen. Four infants underwent a surgical ligation. Two infants died. No medication side effects occurred with regard to hepatic and renal function. CONCLUSION:Acetaminophen is a safe and effective pharmacologic treatment to reduce the significance of the hsPDA in some infants beyond 2 weeks of age, as shown by ECHO and BNP data.
Project description:In preterm infants, failure or delay in spontaneous closure of Ductus Arteriosus (DA), resulting in the condition of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA), represents a significant issue. A prolonged situation of PDA can be associated with several short- and long-term complications. Despite years of researches and clinical experience on PDA management, unresolved questions about the treatment and heterogeneity of clinical practices in different centers still remain, in particular regarding timing and modality of intervention. Nowadays, the most reasonable strategy seems to be reserving the treatment only to hemodynamically significant PDA. The first-line therapy is medical, and ibuprofen, related to several side effects especially in terms of nephrotoxicity, is the drug of choice. Administration of oral or intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) recently gained attention, appearing effective as traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in PDA closure, with lower toxicity. The results of the studies analyzed in this review mostly support paracetamol efficacy in ductal closure, with inconstant low and transient elevation of liver enzymes as reported side effect. However, more studies are needed to confirm if this therapy shows a real safety profile and to evaluate its long-term outcomes, before considering paracetamol as first-choice drug in PDA treatment.
Project description:Background: Currently, the first line treatment of persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is either indomethacin or ibuprofen. However, the potentially life-threatening side effects associated to their use have prompted physicians to look for alternative options. The incorporation of paracetamol as an alternative to ibuprofen in the management of PDA is still based on insufficient clinical evidence. Hence, more clinical trials are needed to establish a therapeutic role for paracetamol in the management of PDA that take into consideration short- and long-term safety and efficacy outcomes. Study Design: This is a non-inferiority, randomized, multicenter, double-blinded study to evaluate the efficacy, and safety of intravenous (IV) paracetamol vs. IV ibuprofen (standard treatment) for PDA in preterm patients with a gestational age ? 30 weeks. At baseline, patients will be randomized (1:1) to treatment with paracetamol or ibuprofen. The primary endpoint is closure of the ductus after the first treatment course. Secondary endpoints are related to effectiveness (need for a second treatment course, rescue treatment, reopening rate, time to definitive closure, need for surgical ligation), safety (early and long-term complications), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacoeconomics, and genotoxicity. Long-term follow-up to 24 months of corrected postnatal age will be performed using Bayley III neurodevelopmental scale. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04037514. EudraCT: 2015-003177-14.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The optimal management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) remains contentious. The medications used to treat PDA are often non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are associated with a number of unwanted adverse effects. Paracetamol is a medication with an excellent safety profile in infants and has been suggested as a safe alternative medication in situations where other medications have failed or are contraindicated. There are limited data on the use of early, intravenous paracetamol in preterm infants. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This trial aims to address whether early treatment with paracetamol will reduce the number of infants requiring intervention for PDA. This is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in preterm infants <29 weeks' gestation. At 6?hours of life, infants with a ductus arteriosus >0.9?mm will be randomised to receive either (1) intravenous paracetamol at a dose of 15?mg/kg initially, followed by every 6?hours at a dose of 7.5?mg/kg for 5?days; or (2) intravenous 5% dextrose every 6?hours for 5?days. The primary outcome is the need for any intervention for management of PDA up to 5?days. Secondary outcomes include closure of the ductus arteriosus at 5?days, size of the ductus arteriosus, ductal reopening, systemic blood flow, mortality and significant morbidities. The target sample size of 100 infants yields >80% power, at the two-sided 5% level significance, to detect a 50% reduction in the need for intervention assuming that approximately 60% of infants in this study would otherwise have required intervention for PDA. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:A report on the results of the planned analyses will be prepared. The results of the primary analysis of all end points will be presented at medical conferences and submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Separate manuscripts pertaining to the second aim of the study may be written, and these will also be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12616001517460.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness of drugs used to constrict patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in newborns?<?28 weeks. METHODS:We performed a secondary analysis of the multi-center PDA-TOLERATE trial (NCT01958320). Infants with moderate-to-large PDAs were randomized 1:1 at 8.1?±?2.1 days to either Drug treatment (n?=?104) or Conservative management (n?=?98). Drug treatments were assigned by center rather than within center (acetaminophen: 5 centers, 27 infants; ibuprofen: 7 centers, 38 infants; indomethacin: 7 centers, 39 infants). RESULTS:Indomethacin produced the greatest constriction (compared with spontaneous constriction during Conservative management): RR (95% CI)?=?3.21 (2.05-5.01)), followed by ibuprofen?=?2.03 (1.05-3.91), and acetaminophen?=?1.33 (0.55-3.24). The initial rate of acetaminophen-induced constriction was 27%. Infants with persistent moderate-to-large PDA after acetaminophen were treated with indomethacin. The final rate of constriction after acetaminophen?±?indomethacin was 60% (similar to the rate in infants receiving indomethacin-alone (62%)). CONCLUSION:Indomethacin was more effective than acetaminophen in producing ductus constriction.
Project description:<label>Importance</label>Despite increasing emphasis on conservative management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants, different pharmacotherapeutic interventions are used to treat those developing a hemodynamically significant PDA.<label>Objectives</label>To estimate the relative likelihood of hemodynamically significant PDA closure with common pharmacotherapeutic interventions and to compare adverse event rates.<label>Data Sources and Study Selection</label>The databases of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until August 15, 2015, and updated on December 31, 2017, along with conference proceedings up to December 2017. Randomized clinical trials that enrolled preterm infants with a gestational age younger than 37 weeks treated with intravenous or oral indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen vs each other, placebo, or no treatment for a clinically or echocardiographically diagnosed hemodynamically significant PDA.<label>Data Extraction and Synthesis</label>Data were independently extracted in pairs by 6 reviewers and synthesized with Bayesian random-effects network meta-analyses.<label>Main Outcomes and Measures</label>Primary outcome: hemodynamically significant PDA closure; secondary: included surgical closure, mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage.<label>Results</label>In 68 randomized clinical trials of 4802 infants, 14 different variations of indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen were used as treatment modalities. The overall PDA closure rate was 67.4% (2867 of 4256 infants). A high dose of oral ibuprofen was associated with a significantly higher odds of PDA closure vs a standard dose of intravenous ibuprofen (odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.64-8.17; absolute risk difference, 199 [95% CrI, 95-258] more per 1000 infants) and a standard dose of intravenous indomethacin (OR, 2.35 [95% CrI, 1.08-5.31]; absolute risk difference, 124 [95% CrI, 14-188] more per 1000 infants). Based on the ranking statistics, a high dose of oral ibuprofen ranked as the best pharmacotherapeutic option for PDA closure (mean surface under the cumulative ranking [SUCRA] curve, 0.89 [SD, 0.12]) and to prevent surgical PDA ligation (mean SUCRA, 0.98 [SD, 0.08]). There was no significant difference in the odds of mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, or intraventricular hemorrhage with use of placebo or no treatment compared with any of the other treatment modalities.<label>Conclusions and Relevance</label>A high dose of oral ibuprofen was associated with a higher likelihood of hemodynamically significant PDA closure vs standard doses of intravenous ibuprofen or intravenous indomethacin; placebo or no treatment did not significantly change the likelihood of mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, or intraventricular hemorrhage.<label>Trial Registration</label>PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42015015797.