Single-bubble EHD behavior into water two-phase flow under electric-field stress and gravitational acceleration using PFM.
ABSTRACT: In this study, single-bubble electro-hydrodynamic effects on the two-phase laminar flow of water under electric field stress are investigated using numerical modeling. A 2D axisymmetric model is also developed to study the growth and departure of a single bubble. The phase-field method is applied to track the interphase between liquid and gas. The growth of the attached vapor bubble nucleus to a superheat at 7.0?°C and 8.5?°C are evaluated with 50° and 90° contact angles. The results show that the enhancement of the contact angle changes the velocity and temperature fields around the bubble. It is observed that the growing size and base of the bubble is increased with increasing the wall superheat, but the bubble departure diameter and time are decreased. The electric field results in raising the number of detached bubbles from the superheat at a certain time interval but decreasing the bubbles departure size. Additionally, the formation of stretched bubbles enhances the rate of heat flux and there is a non-linear relationship between the applied voltage and heat flux.
Project description:Bubble nucleation control, growth and departure dynamics is important in understanding boiling phenomena and enhancing nucleate boiling heat transfer performance. We report a novel bi-functional heterogeneous surface structure that is capable of tuning bubble nucleation, growth and departure dynamics. For the fabrication of the surface, hydrophobic polymer dot arrays are first printed on a substrate, followed by hydrophilic ZnO nanostructure deposition via microreactor-assisted nanomaterial deposition (MAND) processing. Wettability contrast between the hydrophobic polymer dot arrays and aqueous ZnO solution allows for the fabrication of heterogeneous surfaces with distinct wettability regions. Heterogeneous surfaces with various configurations were fabricated and their bubble dynamics were examined at elevated heat flux, revealing various nucleate boiling phenomena. In particular, aligned and patterned bubbles with a tunable departure frequency and diameter were demonstrated in a boiling experiment for the first time. Taking advantage of our fabrication method, a 6 inch wafer size heterogeneous surface was prepared. Pool boiling experiments were also performed to demonstrate a heat flux enhancement up to 3X at the same surface superheat using bi-functional surfaces, compared to a bare stainless steel surface.
Project description:For phase-change cooling schemes for electronics, quick activation of nucleate boiling helps safeguard the electronics components from thermal shocks associated with undesired surface superheating at boiling incipience, which is of great importance to the long-term system stability and reliability. Previous experimental studies show that bubble nucleation can occur surprisingly early on mixed-wettability surfaces. In this paper, we report unambiguous evidence that such unusual bubble generation at extremely low temperatures-even below the boiling point-is induced by a significant presence of incondensable gas retained by the hydrophobic surface, which exhibits exceptional stability even surviving extensive boiling deaeration. By means of high-speed imaging, it is revealed that the consequently gassy boiling leads to unique bubble behaviour that stands in sharp contrast with that of pure vapour bubbles. Such findings agree qualitatively well with numerical simulations based on a diffuse-interface method. Moreover, the simulations further demonstrate strong thermocapillary flows accompanying growing bubbles with considerable gas contents, which is associated with heat transfer enhancement on the biphilic surface in the low-superheat region.
Project description:Based on bubble electrospinning (BE), a modified free surface electrospinning (MFSE) using a cone-shaped air nozzle combined with a solution reservoir made of copper tubes was presented to increase the production of quality nanofibers. In the MFSE process, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates (SDBS) were added in the electrospun solution to generate bubbles on a liquid surface. The effects of applied voltage and generated bubbles on the morphology and production of nanofibers were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical analysis results of the electric field were in good agreement with the experimental data and showed that the quality and production of nanofibers were improved with the increase of applied voltage, and the generated bubbles would decrease the quality and production of nanofibers.
Project description:Interactions between gas-liquid mass transfer and bubble behaviours were investigated to improve the understanding of the relationship between the two sides. The CO2/N2-water system was applied to study the bubble behaviours based on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) model. The mass transfer conditions were taken into consideration when the fluid field was analysed. The bubble behaviours were compared with and without mass transfer. The results show that the absolute slopes of the curves for mass fraction inside the single rising bubbles, with diameters from 3 to 6 mm, decrease from 0.09325 to 0.02818. It means that small single bubbles have higher mass transfer efficiency. The daughter bubbles of cutting behaviour and initial side-by-side bubbles of coalescence behaviour also perform better than the initial large bubbles and coalesced bubbles, respectively. The bubble behaviours affect the mass transfer process. However, the latter also reacts upon the former. The critical intervals between the side-by-side bubbles decrease from 2.0 to 0.9 mm when the bubble diameter changes from 3 to 7 mm. For the coalescence behaviour without mass transfer, the critical intervals are larger because there is no influence of concentration around the bubbles on the bubble motion. The coalescence of cut daughter bubbles is also influenced by the concentration. It was suggested that the interaction between the gas-liquid mass transfer and bubble behaviours cannot be ignored.
Project description:Microscopic residual bubble nuclei can persist on the order of 1 s following a cavitation event. These bubbles can limit the efficacy of ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, because they attenuate pulses that arrive subsequent to their formation and seed repetitive cavitation activity at a discrete set of sites (cavitation memory). Here, we explore a strategy for the removal of these residual bubbles following a cavitation event, using low-amplitude ultrasound pulses to stimulate bubble coalescence. All experiments were conducted in degassed water and monitored using high-speed photography. In each case, a 2-MHz histotripsy transducer was used to initiate cavitation activity (a cavitational bubble cloud), the collapse of which generated a population of residual bubble nuclei. This residual nuclei population was then sonicated using a 1 ms pulse from a separate 500-kHz transducer, which we term the bubble removal pulse. Bubble removal pulse amplitudes ranging from 0 to 1.7 MPa were tested, and the backlit area of shadow from bubbles remaining in the field following bubble removal was calculated to quantify efficacy. It was found that an ideal amplitude range exists (roughly 180 to 570 kPa) in which bubble removal pulses stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of residual bubble nuclei, effectively removing them from the field. Further optimization of bubble removal pulse sequences stands to provide an adjunct to cavitation-based ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, mitigating the effects of residual bubble nuclei that currently limit their efficacy.
Project description:Magnetic skyrmion is a swirling topological spin texture behaving as an individual particle. It shows a gyro-motion similarly to that of a charged particle under a magnetic field, being led to the transverse shift to the electric current, i.e., skyrmion Hall effect. With the open boundaries of a sample, this results in an accumulation of skyrmions on one side and their depletion on the other side. Here we demonstrate experimentally that this effect propagates non-locally over tens of micrometers even where the electric current is absent, when the narrow wires bridge bar-shaped Pt/Co/Ir heterostructure thin film systems. This nonlocality can be understood in terms of the "chemical potential" gradient for the skyrmion bubble induced by the skyrmion Hall effect in the nonequilibrium steady state under the electric current. The present result shows that the skyrmion Hall effect acts as the skyrmion pump and the thermodynamic concepts can be applied to the aggregate of skyrmion bubbles.
Project description:We have imaged Néel skyrmion bubbles in perpendicularly magnetised polycrystalline multilayers patterned into 1?µm diameter dots, using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The skyrmion bubbles can be nucleated by the application of an external magnetic field and are stable at zero field with a diameter of 260?nm. Applying an out of plane field that opposes the magnetisation of the skyrmion bubble core moment applies pressure to the bubble and gradually compresses it to a diameter of approximately 100?nm. On removing the field the skyrmion bubble returns to its original diameter via a hysteretic pathway where most of the expansion occurs in a single abrupt step. This contradicts analytical models of homogeneous materials in which the skyrmion compression and expansion are reversible. Micromagnetic simulations incorporating disorder can explain this behaviour using an effective thickness modulation between 10?nm grains.
Project description:The motion and mixing of granular media are observed in several contexts in nature, often displaying striking similarities to liquids. Granular dynamics occur in geological phenomena and also enable technologies ranging from pharmaceuticals production to carbon capture. Here, we report the discovery of a family of gravitational instabilities in granular particle mixtures subject to vertical vibration and upward gas flow, including a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT)-like instability in which lighter grains rise through heavier grains in the form of "fingers" and "granular bubbles." We demonstrate that this RT-like instability arises due to a competition between upward drag force increased locally by gas channeling and downward contact forces, and thus the physical mechanism is entirely different from that found in liquids. This gas channeling mechanism also generates other gravitational instabilities: the rise of a granular bubble which leaves a trail of particles behind it and the cascading branching of a descending granular droplet. These instabilities suggest opportunities for patterning within granular mixtures.
Project description:Four-dimensional imaging, which indicates imaging in three spatial dimensions as a function of time, provides useful evidence to investigate the interactions of rising bubbles. However, this has been largely unexplored for microbubbles, mostly due to problems associated with strong light scattering and shallow depth of field in optical imaging. Here, tracking x-ray microtomography is used to visualize rising microbubbles in four dimensions. Bubbles are tracked by moving the cell to account for their rise velocity. The sizes, shapes, time-dependent positions, and velocities of individual rising microbubbles are clearly identified, despite substantial overlaps between bubbles in the field of view. Our tracking x-ray microtomography affords opportunities for understanding bubble-bubble (or particle) interactions at microscales - important in various fields such as microfluidics, biomechanics, and floatation.
Project description:One way to focus the diffuse energy of a sound field in a liquid is by acoustically driving bubbles into nonlinear oscillation. A rapid and nearly adiabatic bubble collapse heats up the bubble interior and produces intense concentration of energy that is able to emit light (sonoluminescence) and to trigger chemical reactions (sonochemistry). Such phenomena have been extensively studied in bulk liquid. We present here a realization of sonoluminescence and sonochemistry created from bubbles confined within a narrow channel of polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic devices. In the microfluidics channels, the bubbles form a planar/pancake shape. During bubble collapse we find the formation of OH radicals and the emission of light. The chemical reactions are closely confined to gas-liquid interfaces that allow for spatial control of sonochemical reactions in lab-on-a-chip devices. The decay time of the light emitted from the sonochemical reaction is several orders faster than that in the bulk liquid. Multibubble sonoluminescence emission in contrast vanishes immediately as the sound field is stopped.