Osteoclast-derived small extracellular vesicles induce osteogenic differentiation via inhibiting ARHGAP1.
ABSTRACT: Activated osteoclasts release large amounts of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) during bone remodeling. However, little is known about whether osteoclast-derived sEVs affect surrounding cells. In this study, osteoclasts were generated by stimulating bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear actor ?B ligand (RANKL). We performed microarray analysis of sEV-microRNAs (miRNAs)s secreted from osteoclast at different stages and identified four miRNAs that were highly expressed in mature osteoclast-derived sEVs. One of these miRNAs, miR-324, significantly induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro by targeting ARHGAP1, a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation. We next fabricated an sEV-modified scaffold by coating decalcified bone matrix (DBM) with osteoclast-derived sEVs, and the pro-osteogenic regeneration activities of the sEV-modified scaffold were validated in a mouse calvarial defect model. Notably, miR-324-enriched sEV-modified scaffold showed the highest capacity on bone regeneration, whereas inhibition of miR-324 in sEVs abrogated these effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-324-contained sEVs released from mature osteoclast play an essential role in the regulation of osteogenic differentiation and potentially bridge the coupling between osteoclasts and MSCs.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play critical roles in regulating bone metastatic microenvironment through mediating intercellular crosstalks. However, little is known about the contribution of EVs derived from cancer cells to the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. Here, we report a direct regulatory mode between tumour cells and osteoclasts in metastatic niche of prostate cancer via vesicular miRNAs transfer. Combined analysis of miRNAs profiles both in tumour-derived small EVs (sEVs) and osteoclasts identified miR-152-3p as a potential osteolytic molecule. sEVs were enriched in miR-152-3p, which targets osteoclastogenic regulator MAFB. Blocking miR-152-3p in sEVs upregulated the expression of MAFB and impaired osteoclastogenesis in vitro. In vivo experiments of xenograft mouse model found that blocking of miR-152-3p in sEVs significantly slowed down the loss of trabecular architecture, while systemic inhibition of miR-152-3p using antagomir-152-3p reduced the osteolytic lesions of cortical bone while preserving basic trabecular architecture. Our findings suggest that miR-152-3p carried by prostate cancer-derived sEVs deliver osteolytic signals from tumour cells to osteoclasts, facilitating osteolytic progression in bone metastasis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Increased activity of osteoclasts is responsible for bone loss and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. For osteoclast development and bone resorption activity, cytoskeletal organization must be properly regulated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small noncoding RNAs that suppress expression of their target genes. This study was conducted to identify crucial miRNAs to control osteoclasts. METHODS: miRNA expression in the bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) with or without receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) stimulation was analyzed by miRNA array. To examine the role of specific miRNAs in osteoclast formation, bone resorption activity and actin ring formation, the BMM were retrovirally transduced with miRNA antagomirs. To confirm whether the suppressive effects on osteoclastogenesis by miR-31 inhibition were mediated by targeting RhoA, osteoclast formation was analyzed in the presence of the RhoA inhibitor, exoenzyme C3. RESULTS: miR-31 was identified as one of the highly upregulated miRNAs during osteoclast development under RANKL stimulation. Inhibition of miR-31 by specific antagomirs suppressed the RANKL-induced formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. Phalloidin staining of osteoclasts revealed that actin ring formation at the cell periphery was severely impaired by miR-31 inhibition, and clusters of small ringed podosomes were observed instead. In these osteoclasts, expression of RhoA, one of the miR-31 target genes, was upregulated by miR-31 inhibition in spite of the impaired osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with the RhoA inhibitor, exoenzyme C3, rescued the osteoclastogenesis impaired by miR-31 inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: miR-31 controls cytoskeleton organization in osteoclasts for optimal bone resorption activity by regulating the expression of RhoA.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that osteoclasts direct osteoblastic bone formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a crucial role in regulating osteoclast and osteoblast function. However, whether miRNAs mediate osteoclast-directed osteoblastic bone formation is mostly unknown. Here, we show that increased osteoclastic miR-214-3p associates with both elevated serum exosomal miR-214-3p and reduced bone formation in elderly women with fractures and in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Osteoclast-specific miR-214-3p knock-in mice have elevated serum exosomal miR-214-3p and reduced bone formation that is rescued by osteoclast-targeted antagomir-214-3p treatment. We further demonstrate that osteoclast-derived exosomal miR-214-3p is transferred to osteoblasts to inhibit osteoblast activity in vitro and reduce bone formation in vivo. Moreover, osteoclast-targeted miR-214-3p inhibition promotes bone formation in ageing OVX mice. Collectively, our results suggest that osteoclast-derived exosomal miR-214-3p transfers to osteoblasts to inhibit bone formation. Inhibition of miR-214-3p in osteoclasts may be a strategy for treating skeletal disorders involving a reduction in bone formation.
Project description:Loss of functionality during aging of cells and organisms is caused and accompanied by altered cell-to-cell communication and signalling. One factor thereby is the chronic accumulation of senescent cells and the concomitant senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that contributes to microenvironment remodelling and a pro-inflammatory status. While protein based SASP factors have been well characterized, little is known about small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and their miRNA cargo. Therefore, we analysed secretion of sEVs from senescent human dermal fibroblasts and catalogued the therein contained miRNAs. We observed a four-fold increase of sEVs, with a concomitant increase of >80% of all cargo miRNAs. The most abundantly secreted miRNAs were predicted to collectively target mRNAs of pro-apoptotic proteins, and indeed, senescent cell derived sEVs exerted anti-apoptotic activity. In addition, we identified senescence-specific differences in miRNA composition of sEVs, with an increase of miR-23a-5p and miR-137 and a decrease of miR-625-3p, miR-766-3p, miR-199b-5p, miR-381-3p, miR-17-3p. By correlating intracellular and sEV-miRNAs, we identified miRNAs selectively retained in senescent cells (miR-21-3p and miR-17-3p) or packaged specifically into senescent cell derived sEVs (miR-15b-5p and miR-30a-3p). Therefore, we suggest sEVs and their miRNA cargo to be novel, members of the SASP that are selectively secreted or retained in cellular senescence.
Project description:MiR-21 is being gradually more and more recognized as a molecule regulating bone tissue homeostasis. However, its function is not fully understood due to the dual role of miR-21 on bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells. In this study, we investigated the impact of miR-21 inhibition on pre-osteoblastic cells differentiation and paracrine signaling towards pre-osteoclasts using indirect co-culture model of mouse pre-osteoblast (MC3T3) and pre-osteoclast (4B12) cell lines. The inhibition of miR-21 in MC3T3 cells (MC3T3inh21) modulated expression of genes encoding osteogenic markers including collagen type I (Coll-1), osteocalcin (Ocl), osteopontin (Opn), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2). Inhibition of miR-21 in osteogenic cultures of MC3T3 also inflected the synthesis of OPN protein which is essential for proper mineralization of extracellular matrix (ECM) and anchoring osteoclasts to the bones. Furthermore, it was shown that in osteoblasts miR-21 regulates expression of factors that are vital for survival of pre-osteoclast, such as receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL). The pre-osteoclast cultured with MC3T3inh21 cells was characterized by lowered expression of several markers associated with osteoclasts' differentiation, foremost tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap) but also receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (Rank), cathepsin K (Ctsk), carbonic anhydrase II (CaII), and matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp-9). Collectively, our data indicate that the inhibition of miR-21 in MC3T3 cells impairs the differentiation and ECM mineralization as well as influences paracrine signaling leading to decreased viability of pre-osteoclasts.
Project description:Understanding the mechanism by which tumor cells influence osteoclast differentiation is crucial for improving treatment of osteolytic metastasis. Here, we report broad microRNA (miRNA) expression changes in differentiating osteoclasts after exposure to tumor-conditioned media, in part through activation of NF?B signaling by soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM1) secreted from bone-metastatic cancer cells. Ectopic expression of multiple miRNAs downregulated during osteoclastogenesis suppresses osteoclast differentiation by targeting important osteoclast genes. Intravenous delivery of these miRNAs in vivo inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces osteolytic bone metastasis. Importantly, serum levels of sICAM1 and two osteoclast miRNAs, miR-16 and miR-378, which are elevated in osteoclast differentiation, correlate with bone metastasis burden. These findings establish miRNAs as potential therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers of bone metastasis.
Project description:Paracrine signaling between tumor and surrounding stromal cells is critical for the maintenance of tumor microenvironment during ovarian cancer progression. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs; exosomes in particular) are nano-sized vesicles secreted actively by many cells including tumor cells and are found to have fundamental roles in intercellular communication through shuttling functional RNAs. Although microRNAs (also called miRNAs or miRs), small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression, are selectively accumulated in tumor sEVs and can mediate intercellular communication, the exact biological mechanisms underlying the functions of exosomal miRNAs in ovarian tumor angiogenesis remain unclear. In this study, sEVs were isolated from conditioned medium of the human ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV-3 using ExoQuick Exosome Precipitation Solution, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and immunoblotting. To elucidate the possible paracrine effects on ovarian tumor cell-derived sEVs (TD-sEVs), we investigated the angiogenesis-related signaling events triggered by TD-sEVs in endothelial cells. Due to the possible role in ovarian tumor pathogenesis, we focused on miR-141-3p which was detected to be enriched in TD-sEVs compared with their corresponding donor cells. We identified that sEV transfer of miR-141-3p considerably reduced the expression levels of cytokine-inducible suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-5 leading to up-regulated JAK-STAT3 pathway in endothelial cells. We also observed that sEV-shuttled miR-141-3p may up-regulate the expression of VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells which leads to promoting endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. The putative role of miR-141-3p shuttled by TD-sEVs in regulating VEGFR-2 expression was demonstrated by the ability of anti-miR-141-3p to rescue the promoting effects of TD-sEVs on the expression of VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells. Our results also revealed that TD-sEVs trigger the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of NF-?B signaling in endothelial cells. Taken together, our findings propose a novel model in which sEV transfer of epithelial ovarian cancer-secreted miR-141-3p plays as a significant mediator of intercellular communication, promoting endothelial cell angiogenesis.
Project description:Lipedema is a chronic, progressive disease of adipose tissue with lack of consistent diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was a thorough comparative characterization of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of healthy and lipedema adipose tissue. For this, we analyzed 187 extracellular miRNAs in concentrated conditioned medium (cCM) and specifically in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) enriched thereof by size exclusion chromatography. No significant difference in median particle size and concentration was observed between sEV fractions in healthy and lipedema. We found the majority of miRNAs located predominantly in cCM compared to sEV enriched fraction. Surprisingly, hierarchical clustering of the most variant miRNAs showed that only sEVmiRNA profiles - but not cCMmiRNAs - were impacted by lipedema. Seven sEVmiRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-454-p, miR-144-5p, miR-130a-3p, let-7c-5p) were differently regulated in lipedema and healthy individuals, whereas only one cCMmiRNA (miR-188-5p) was significantly downregulated in lipedema. Comparing SVF from healthy and lipedema patients, we identified sEVs as the lipedema relevant miRNA fraction. This study contributes to identify the potential role of SVF secreted miRNAs in lipedema.
Project description:Serum small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have recently drawn considerable interest because of the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of their miRNAs content. However, the characteristics of human, mouse and rat serum sEVs and their differences in small RNA contents are still unknown. In this study, through nanoparticle tracking analysis and small RNA sequencing, we found that human, rat, and mouse serum sEVs exhibited distinct sizes and particle numbers as well as small RNA contents. Serum sEVs contained not only abundant miRNAs but also a large number of tRNA fragments. Most serum miRNAs existed both inside and outside of sEVs but were enriched in sEVs. Common serum sEV miRNAs (188 miRNAs) and species-specific serum sEV miRNAs (265, 58, and 159 miRNAs, respectively) were identified in humans, rats, or mice. The serum sEVs contained miRNAs from tissues and organs throughout the body, with blood cells as the main contributors. In conclusion, our findings confirmed the rationality of exploring serum sEV miRNAs as noninvasive diagnostic markers and revealed great differences in serum sEV small RNAs between humans, rats, and mice. Inadequate attention to these differences and the contribution of blood cells to serum sEV miRNAs could hinder the clinical translation of basic studies.
Project description:In psoriatic arthritis (PsA), progressive bone destruction is mediated by monocyte-derived osteoclasts. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many pathophysiological processes; however, their function in PsA patient monocytes has not been examined. This study aims to address whether specific miRNAs in CD14? monocytes and monocyte-derived osteoclasts cause active osteoclastogenesis in PsA patients. Candidate miRNAs related to monocyte activation (miR-146a-5p, miR-146b-5p and miR-155-5p) were measured in circulatory CD14? monocytes collected from 34 PsA patients, 17 psoriasis without arthritis (PsO) patients, and 34 normal controls (NCs). CD14? monocytes were cultured with media containing TNF-? and RANKL to differentiate into osteoclasts. Osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were measured by TRAP immunostaining and dentin slice resorption, respectively. The results showed that the miR-146a-5p expression was higher in PsA patient-derived CD14? monocytes compared to PsO and NCs. Activation and bone resorption were selectively enhanced in osteoclasts from PsA patients, but both were abrogated by RNA interference against miR-146a-5p. More importantly, after clinical improvement using biologics, the increased miR-146a-5p expression in CD14? monocytes from PsA patients was selectively abolished, and associated with blood CRP level. Our findings indicate that miR-146a-5p expression in CD14? monocytes derived from PsA patients correlates with clinical efficacy, and induction of osteoclast activation and bone resorption.