Adjuvant Selection for Influenza and RSV Prefusion Subunit Vaccines.
ABSTRACT: Subunit vaccines exhibit favorable safety and immunogenicity profiles and can be designed to mimic native antigen structures. However, pairing with an appropriate adjuvant is imperative in order to elicit effective humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, we aimed to determine an optimal adjuvant pairing with the prefusion form of influenza haemagglutinin (HA) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) subunit vaccines in BALB/c mice in order to inform future subunit vaccine adjuvant selection. We tested a panel of adjuvants, including aluminum hydroxide (alhydrogel), QS21, Addavax, Addavax with QS21 (AdQS21), and Army Liposome Formulation 55 with monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 (ALF55). We found that all adjuvants elicited robust humoral responses in comparison to placebo, with the induction of potent neutralizing antibodies observed in all adjuvanted groups against influenza and in AdQS21, alhydrogel, and ALF55 against RSV. Upon HA vaccination, we observed that none of the adjuvants were able to significantly increase the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-?+ cells when compared to unadjuvanted antigen. The varying responses to antigens with each adjuvant highlights that those adjuvants most suited for pairing purposes can vary depending on the antigen used and/or the desired immune response. We therefore suggest that an adjuvant trial for different subunit vaccines in development would likely be necessary in preclinical studies.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory illness, particularly in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised adults. There is no licensed commercial vaccine against RSV. Importantly, formalin-inactivated RSV vaccines mediate enhanced respiratory disease. RSV fusion (F) protein with pre-fusion conformation is a promising candidate subunit vaccine. However, some problems remain to be solved, such as low immunogenicity and humoral immunity bias. Adjuvants can effectively enhance and adjust vaccine immune responses. In this study, we formulated pre-fusion RSV-F protein with the adjuvants, Alhydrogel, MF59, AS03, AS02, and glycol chitosan (GCS). We then conducted head-to-head comparisons of vaccine-induced immune responses in BALB/c mice. All adjuvanted vaccines enhanced antigen-specific and neutralizing antibody titers and viral clearance and gave an order of adjuvant activity: AS02 > AS03, MF59 > GCS, and Alhydrogel. Among them, AS02 elicited the highest antibody expression, which persisted until week 18. Moreover, AS02 significantly enhanced Th1 type immune response in immunized mice. Mice in the AS02 group also showed faster recovery from viral attacks in challenge tests. Further transcriptome analysis revealed that AS02 regulates immune balance by activating TLR-4 and promotes Th1-type immune responses. These results suggest that AS02 may be an excellent candidate adjuvant for RSV-F subunit vaccines. This study also provides valuable information regarding the effect of other adjuvants on immune responses of RSV-F subunit vaccines.
Project description:Appropriate adjuvant selection may be essential to optimize the potency and to tailor the immune response of subunit vaccines. To induce protective responses against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-a highly prevalent childhood pathogen without a licensed vaccine-we previously engineered a pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric RSV F (pre-F) "DS-Cav1" immunogen, which induced high titer RSV-neutralizing antibodies, in mice and non-human primates, when formulated with adjuvants Poly (I:C) and Poly (IC:LC), respectively. To assess the impact of different adjuvants, here we formulated RSV F DS-Cav1 with multiple adjuvants and assessed immune responses. Very high RSV-neutralizing antibody responses (19,006 EC50) were observed in naïve mice immunized with 2 doses of DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with Sigma adjuvant system (SAS), an oil-in-water adjuvant, plus Carbopol; high responses (3658-7108) were observed with DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with Alum, SAS alone, Adjuplex, Poly (I:C) and Poly (IC:LC); and moderate responses (1251-2129) were observed with DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with the TLR4 agonist MPLA, Alum plus MPLA or AddaVax. In contrast, DS-Cav1 without adjuvant induced low-level responses (6). A balanced IgG1 and IgG2a (Th2/Th1) immune response was elicited in most of the high to very high response groups (all but Alum and Adjuplex). We also tested the immune response induced by DS-Cav1 in elderly mice with pre-existing DS-Cav1 immunity; we observed that DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with SAS plus Carbopol boosted the response 2-3-fold, whereas DS-Cav1 adjuvanted with alum boosted the response 5-fold. Finally, we tested whether a mixture of ISA 71 VG and Carbopol would enhanced the antibody response in DS-Cav1 immunized calves. While pre-F-stabilized bovine RSV F induced very high titers in mice when adjuvanted with SAS plus Carbopol, the addition of Carbopol to ISA 71 VG did not enhance immune responses in calves. The vaccine response to pre-F-stabilized RSV F is augmented by adjuvant, but the degree of adjuvant-induced enhancement appears to be both context-dependent and species-specific.
Project description:Humoral immune responses have the potential to maintain protective antibody levels for years due to the immunoglobulin-secreting activity of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). However, many subunit vaccines under development fail to generate robust LLPC responses, and therefore a variety of strategies are being employed to overcome this limitation, including conjugation to carrier proteins and/or formulation with potent adjuvants. Pfs25, an antigen expressed on malaria zygotes and ookinetes, is a leading transmission blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate for Plasmodium falciparum. Currently, the conjugate vaccine Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel is in Phase 1 clinical trials in the USA and Africa. Thus far, it has proven to be safe and immunogenic, but it is expected that a more potent formulation will be required to establish antibody titers that persist for several malaria transmission seasons. We sought to determine the contribution of carrier determinants and adjuvants in promoting high-titer, long-lived antibody responses against Pfs25. We found that both adjuvants and carrier proteins influence the magnitude and capacity of Pfs25-specific humoral responses to remain above a protective level. Furthermore, a liposomal adjuvant with QS21 and a TLR4 agonist (GLA-LSQ) was especially effective at inducing T follicular helper (Tfh) and LLPC responses to Pfs25 when coupled to immunogenic carrier proteins.
Project description:Purpers: To verify the effect of adjuvants (Alhydrogel, AS02, AS03) on immunity of BALB/c mice induced by RSV-F subunit vaccine at the level of gene expression. Methodes:Four groups ((1) RSV-F, (2) RSV-F + Alhydrogel, (3) RSV-F + AS02, and (4) RSV-F + AS03) were analyzed in the transcriptome sequencing experiment. On days 0 and 14, vaccines were administered intramuscularly into the thigh muscle. 14 days after the last vaccination, blood samples from three BALB/c mice in each group were collected. RNA degradation and contamination were assayed. Concentration were measured using a Qubit RNA Assay Kit and a Qubit 2.0 Fluorometer. RNA integrity was assessed using an RNA Nano 6000 Assay Kit and a Bioanalyzer 2100 system. 3 μg RNA per qualified sample was used as input material for RNA library preparation. Sequencing libraries were generated using a NEBNext Ultra RNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina (New England Biolabs, US), and unique index codes were added to each sample. Result: We obtained sample gene expression information. The subsequent differentially expressed gene GO and KEGG enrichment analysis result suggested that AS02 regulates immune balance by activating TLR-4 and promotes Th1-type immune responses. Overall design: Total RNA transcriptome sequencing of four groups administered intramuscularly RSV-F subunit vaccine with or without adjuvants
Project description:Protein/subunit vaccines often require external adjuvants to induce protective immunity. Due to the safety concern of chemical adjuvants, physical adjuvants were recently explored to boost vaccination. Physical adjuvants use physical energies rather than chemicals to stimulate tissue stress and endogenous danger signal release to boost vaccination. Here we present the safety and potency of non-invasive radiofrequency treatment to boost intradermal vaccination in murine models. We show non-invasive radiofrequency can increase protein antigen-induced humoral and cellular immune responses with adjuvant effects comparable to widely used chemical adjuvants. Radiofrequency adjuvant can also safely boost pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination with adjuvant effects comparable to MF59-like AddaVax adjuvant. We find radiofrequency adjuvant induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) release and activates MyD88 to mediate the adjuvant effects. Physical radiofrequency can potentially be a safe and potent adjuvant to augment protein/subunit vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses.
Project description:Adjuvants have long been critical components of vaccines, but the exact mechanisms of their action and precisely how they alter or enhance vaccine-induced immune responses are often unclear. In this study, we used broad immunoprofiling of antibody, cellular, and cytokine responses, combined with data integration and machine learning to gain insight into the impact of different adjuvant formulations on vaccine-induced immune responses. A Self-Assembling Protein Nanoparticles (SAPN) presenting the malarial circumsporozoite protein (CSP) was used as a model vaccine, adjuvanted with three different liposomal formulations: liposome plus Alum (ALFA), liposome plus QS21 (ALFQ), and both (ALFQA). Using a computational approach to integrate the immunoprofiling data, we identified distinct vaccine-induced immune responses and developed a multivariate model that could predict the adjuvant condition from immune response data alone with 92% accuracy (p?=?0.003). The data integration also revealed that commonly used readouts (i.e. serology, frequency of T cells producing IFN-?, IL2, TNF?) missed important differences between adjuvants. In summary, broad immune-profiling in combination with machine learning methods enabled the reliable and clear definition of immune signatures for different adjuvant formulations, providing a means for quantitatively characterizing the complex roles that adjuvants can play in vaccine-induced immunity. The approach described here provides a powerful tool for identifying potential immune correlates of protection, a prerequisite for the rational pairing of vaccines candidates and adjuvants.
Project description:With the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Africa still rising, a prophylactic vaccine against the region's most prolific subtype (subtype C) would be a significant step forward. In this paper we report on the effect of 2 different adjuvants, AddaVax and AlhydroGel, formulated with HIV-1 subtype C gp140, on the development of binding and neutralising antibody titres in rabbits. AddaVax is a squalene-based oil-in-water nano-emulsion (similar to MF59) which can enhance both cellular and humoral immune responses, whilst AlhydroGel (aluminium hydroxide gel) mainly drives a Th2 response. The gp140 gene tested was derived from the superinfecting virus (SU) from participant CAP256 in the CAPRISA 002 Acute infection cohort. The furin cleavage site of the Env protein was replaced with a flexible linker and an I559P mutation introduced. Lectin affinity purified soluble Env protein was mainly trimeric as judged by molecular weight using BN-PAGE and contained intact broadly neutralising epitopes for the V3-glycan supersite (monoclonal antibodies PGT128 and PGT135), the CD4 binding site (VRC01) and the V2-glycan (PG9) but not for the trimer-specific monoclonal antibodies PG16, PGT145 and CAP256-VRC26_08. When this soluble Env protein was tested in rabbits, AlhydroGel significantly enhanced soluble Env and V1V2 binding antibodies when compared to AddaVax. Finally, AlhydroGel resulted in significantly higher neutralization titres for a subtype C Tier 1A virus (MW965.26) and increased neutralization breadth to Tier 1A and 1B viruses. However, no autologous Tier 2 neutralisation was observed. These data suggest that adjuvant selection is critical for developing a successful vaccine and AlhydroGel should be further investigated. Additional purification of trimeric native-like CAP256 Env and/or priming with DNA or MVA might enhance the induction of neutralizing antibodies and possible Tier 2 HIV-1 neutralisation.
Project description:Aluminum salts, developed almost a century ago, remain the most commonly used adjuvant for licensed human vaccines. Compared to more recently developed vaccine adjuvants, aluminum adjuvants such as Alhydrogel are heterogeneous in nature, consisting of 1-10 micrometer-sized aggregates of nanoparticle aluminum oxyhydroxide fibers. To determine whether the particle size and aggregated state of aluminum oxyhydroxide affects its adjuvant activity, we developed a scalable, top-down process to produce stable nanoparticles (nanoalum) from the clinical adjuvant Alhydrogel by including poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polymer as a stabilizing agent. Surprisingly, the PAA:nanoalum adjuvant elicited a robust TH1 immune response characterized by antigen-specific CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-? and TNF, as well as high IgG2 titers, whereas the parent Alhydrogel and PAA elicited modest TH2 immunity characterized by IgG1 antibodies. ASC, NLRP3 and the IL-18R were all essential for TH1 induction, indicating an essential role of the inflammasome in this adjuvant's activity. Compared to microparticle Alhydrogel this nanoalum adjuvant provided superior immunogenicity and increased protective efficacy against lethal influenza challenge. Therefore PAA:nanoalum represents a new class of alum adjuvant that preferentially enhances TH1 immunity to vaccine antigens. This adjuvant may be widely beneficial to vaccines for which TH1 immunity is important, including tuberculosis, pertussis, and malaria.
Project description:The stockpiling of live vaccinia virus vaccines has enhanced biopreparedness against the intentional or accidental release of smallpox. Ongoing research on future generation smallpox vaccines is providing key insights into protective immune responses as well as important information about subunit-vaccine design strategies. For protein-based recombinant subunit vaccines, the formulation and stability of candidate antigens with different adjuvants are important factors to consider for vaccine design. In this work, a non-tagged secreted L1-protein, a target antigen on mature virus, was expressed using recombinant baculovirus technology and purified. To identify optimal formulation conditions for L1, a series of biophysical studies was performed over a range of pH and temperature conditions. The overall physical stability profile was summarized in an empirical phase diagram. Another critical question to address for development of an adjuvanted vaccine was if immunogenicity and protection could be affected by the interactions and binding of L1 to aluminum salts (Alhydrogel) with and without a second adjuvant, CpG. We thus designed a series of vaccine formulations with different binding interactions between the L1 and the two adjuvants, and then performed a series of vaccination-challenge experiments in mice including measurement of antibody responses and post-challenge weight loss and survival. We found that better humoral responses and protection were conferred with vaccine formulations when the L1-protein was adsorbed to Alhydrogel. These data demonstrate that designing vaccine formulation conditions to maximize antigen-adjuvant interactions is a key factor in smallpox subunit-vaccine immunogenicity and protection.
Project description:The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines--chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 and the orthopoxvirus MVA. A variety of promising "mixed-modality" regimens were tested. All volunteers were primed with ChAd63, and then subsequently boosted with MVA and/or protein-in-adjuvant using either an 8- or 16-week prime-boost interval. We report on the safety of these regimens, as well as the T cell, B cell, and serum antibody responses. Notably, IgG antibody responses primed by ChAd63 were comparably boosted by AMA1 protein vaccine, irrespective of whether CPG 7909 was included in the Alhydrogel adjuvant. The ability to improve the potency of a relatively weak aluminium-based adjuvant in humans, by previously priming with an adenoviral vaccine vector encoding the same antigen, thus offers a novel vaccination strategy for difficult or neglected disease targets when access to more potent adjuvants is not possible.