Low magnetic field promotes recombinant human BMP-2-induced bone formation and influences orientation of trabeculae and bone marrow-derived stromal cells.
ABSTRACT: Effects of high magnetic fields [MFs, ? 1 T (T)] on osteoblastic differentiation and the orientation of cells or matrix proteins have been reported. However, the effect of low MFs (< 1 T) on the orientation of bone formation is not well known. This study was performed to verify the effects of low MFs on osteoblastic differentiation, bone formation, and orientation of both cells and newly formed bone. An apparatus was prepared with two magnets (190 mT) aligned in parallel to generate a parallel MF. In vitro, bone marrow-derived stromal cells of rats were used to assess the effects of low MFs on cell orientation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. A bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-induced ectopic bone model was used to elucidate the effect of low MFs on microstructural indices, trabecula orientation, and the apatite c-axis orientation of newly formed bone. Low MFs resulted in an increased ratio of cells oriented perpendicular to the direction of the MF and promoted osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Moreover, in vivo analysis demonstrated that low MFs promoted bone formation and changed the orientation of trabeculae and apatite crystal in a direction perpendicular to the MF. These changes led to an increase in the mechanical strength of rhBMP-2-induced bone. These results suggest that the application of low MFs has potential to facilitate the regeneration of bone with sufficient mechanical strength by controlling the orientation of newly formed bone.
Project description:Implant loosening remains a major clinical challenge for osteoporotic patients. This is because osteoclastic bone resorption rate is higher than osteoblastic bone formation rate in the case of osteoporosis, which results in poor bone repair. Strontium (Sr) has been widely accepted as an anti-osteoporosis element. In this study, we fabricated a series of apatite and Sr-substituted apatite coatings via electrochemical deposition under different acidic conditions. The results showed that Ca and Sr exhibited different mineralization behaviors. The main mineralization products for Ca were CaHPO4·2H2O and Ca3(PO4)2 with the structure changed from porous to spherical as the pH values increased. The main mineralization products for Sr were SrHPO4 and Sr5(PO4)3OH with the structure changed from flake to needle as the pH values increased. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that coatings fabricated at high pH condition with the presence of Sr were favorable to MSCs adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. In addition, Sr-substituted apatite coatings could evidently inhibit osteoclast differentiation and fusion. Moreover, the in vivo study indicated that nano-needle like Sr-substituted apatite coating could suppress osteoclastic activity, improve new bone formation, and enhance bone-implant integration. This study provided a new theoretical guidance for implant coating design and the fabricated Sr-substituted coating might have potential applications for osteoporotic patients.
Project description:The present study investigated possible therapeutic effects of radiofrequency or hypomagnetic fields on the growth rate of two types of implanted tumours. To this end, mice with implanted fibrosarcoma and pancreatic tumours were exposed continuously to a 2 µT, 10 MHz radiofrequency magnetic field (MF) perpendicular to a 45 µT static MF or to a hypomagnetic (~0.4-1 µT) field. The reasoning for a 10 MHz treatment was based on a current theoretical explanation for MF effects, which predicts a resonance phenomenon in this frequency range. Radiofrequency MFs reduced consistently the growth rate of two implanted tumour types (by ~30% in both cases). Also, hypomagnetic field hindered tumour growth in both tumour types, but the observation was not statistically significant with fibrosarcoma tumours. In conclusion, although experiments included a limited number of animals, the results indicate that MFs may offer a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer.
Project description:Background:Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) have a risk of cognitive impairment and inflammation. Many follow a low-phenylalanine (low-Phe) diet devoid of animal protein in combination with medical foods (MFs). Objective:To assess lipid metabolism in participants with PKU consuming amino acid MFs (AA-MFs) or glycomacropeptide MFs (GMP-MFs), we conducted fatty acid and metabolomics analyses. Methods:We used subsets of fasting plasma and urine samples from our randomized crossover trial in which participants with early-treated classical and variant (milder) PKU consumed a low-Phe diet combined with AA-MFs or GMP-MFs for 3 wk each. Fatty acid profiles of red blood cell (RBC) membranes were determined for 25 adults (aged 18-49 y) with PKU and 143 control participants. Metabolomics analyses of plasma and urine samples were conducted by Metabolon for 9-10 adolescent and adult participants with PKU and for 15 control participants. Results:RBC fatty acid profiles were not significantly different with AA-MFs or GMP-MFs. PKU participants showed higher total n-6:n-3 (?-6:?-3) fatty acids (mean ± SD percentages of total fatty acids: AA-MF = 5.45% ± 1.07%; controls = 4.33%; P < 0.001) and lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; AA-MF = 3.21% ± 0.98%; controls = 3.70% ± 1.01%; P = 0.02) and eicosapentaenoic acid (AA-MF = 0.33% ± 0.12%; controls = 0.60% ± 0.43%; P < 0.001) in RBCs than did control participants. Despite higher carnitine intake from AA-MFs than GMP-MFs (mean ± SE intake: AA-MFs = 58.6 ± 5.3 mg/d; GMP-MFs = 0.3 ± 0.01 mg/d; P < 0.001), plasma concentrations of carnitine were similar and not different from those in the control group (AA-MF compared with GMP-MF, P = 0.73). AA-MFs resulted in higher urinary excretion of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is synthesized by bacteria from carnitine, compared with GMP-MFs (mean ± SE scaled intensity-TMAO: AA-MFs = 1.2 ± 0.1, GMP-MFs = 0.9 ± 0.1; P = 0.005). Plasma deoxycarnitine was lower in PKU participants than in control participants, suggesting reduced carnitine biosynthesis in PKU (AA-MF = 0.9 ± 0.1; GMP-MF = 1.0 ± 0.1; controls = 1.3 ± 0.1; AA-MF compared with controls, P = 0.01; GMP-MF compared with controls, P = 0.04). Conclusions:Supplementation with DHA is needed in PKU. Carnitine supplementation of AA-MFs shows reduced bioavailability due, in part, to bacterial degradation to TMAO, whereas the bioavailability of carnitine is greater with prebiotic GMP-MFs. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.
Project description:Custom-made implants have recently gained attention in veterinary medicine because of their ability to properly fit animal bones having a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The effect of custom-made implants on bone soundness and the regeneration process is not yet clear. We fabricated a 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V custom-made bone plate that fits the shape of the dog radius, and placed it into the radius where an osteotomy had been made. The preferential orientation of the apatite c-axis contributes to the mechanical integrity of the bone and is a reliable measure of bone quality. We determined this parameter as well as the bone shape and bone mineral density (BMD). The bone portion which lies parallel to the bone plate exhibited bone resorption, decreased BMD, and significant degradation of apatite orientation, relative to the portion outside the plate, at 7 months after the operation. This demonstrates the presence of stress shielding in which applied stress is not transmitted to bone due to the insertion of a stiff bone plate. This reduced stress condition clearly influences the bone regeneration process. The apatite orientation in the regenerated site remained different even after 7 months of regeneration, indicating insufficient mechanical function in the regenerated portion. This is the first study in which the apatite orientation and BMD of the radius were evaluated under conditions of stress shielding in dogs. Our results suggest that assessment of bone repair by radiography can indicate the degree of restoration of BMD, but not the apatite orientation.
Project description:To improve the osteoconductivity of apatite cement (AC) for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery, we previously fabricated AC containing atelocollagen (AC(ate)). In the present study, we examined the initial attachment, proliferation and differentiation of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) on the surface of conventional AC (c-AC), AC(ate) and a plastic cell dish. The number of osteoblastic cells showing initial attachment to AC(ate) was greater than those attached to c-AC and similar to the number attached to the plastic cell wells. We also found that osteoblastic cells were well spread and increased their number on AC(ate) in comparison with c-AC and the wells without specimens, while the amount of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal peptide (PIPC) produced in osteoblastic cells after three days on AC(ate) was greater as compared to the others. There was no significant difference in regard to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by osteoblastic cells among the three surface types after three and six days. However, after 12 days, ALP activity and the produced osteocalcin were greater with AC(ate). In conclusion, AC(ate) may be a useful material with high osteoconductivity for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery.
Project description:Intact bone tissue exhibits a characteristic anisotropic microstructure derived from collagen fiber alignment and the related c-axis orientation of apatite crystals, which govern the mechanical properties of bone tissue. In contrast, tumor-invaded bone exhibits a disorganized, less-aligned microstructure that results in severely disrupted mechanical function. Despite its importance both in basic principle and in therapeutic applications, the classical understanding of bone metastasis is limited to alterations in bone mass regulated by metastatic cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism underlying the disruption of bone tissue anisotropy in metastasized bone. We observed that direct attack by cancer cells on osteoblasts induces the less-organized osteoblast arrangement. Importantly, the crystallographic anisotropy of bone tissue is quantitatively determined by the level of osteoblast arrangement. Osteoblast arrangement was significantly disrupted by physical contact with cancer cells such as osteolytic melanoma B16F10, breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and osteoblastic prostate cancer MDA-PCa-2b cells. The present findings demonstrate that the abnormal arrangement of osteoblasts induced by physical contact with cancer cells facilitates the disorganized microstructure of metastasized bone.
Project description:Electrostatic flocking is a textile technology that employs a Coulombic driving force to launch short fibers from a charging source towards an adhesive-covered substrate, resulting in a dense array of aligned fibers perpendicular to the substrate. However, electrostatic flocking of insulative polymeric fibers remains a challenge due to their insufficient charge accumulation. We report a facile method to flock electrostatically insulative poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (MFs) and electrospun PCL nanofiber yarns (NFYs) by incorporating NaCl during pre-flock processing. Both MF and NFY were evaluated for flock functionality, mechanical properties, and biological responses. To demonstrate this platform's diverse applications, standalone flocked NFY and MF scaffolds were synthesized and evaluated as scaffold for cell growth. Employing the same methodology, scaffolds made from poly(glycolide-co-l-lactide) (PGLA) (90:10) MFs were evaluated for their wound healing capacity in a diabetic mouse model. Further, a flock-reinforced polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) disc was fabricated to create an anisotropic artificial vertebral disc (AVD) replacement potentially used as a treatment for lumbar degenerative disc disease. Overall, a salt-based flocking method is described with MFs and NFYs, with wound healing and AVD repair applications presented.
Project description:We developed in vivo reprogramming of myofibroblasts (MFs) into induced hepatocytes (MF-iHeps) using adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (AAV6) vectors expressing hepatic transcription factors in MF fate tracing (Lrat-Cre;R26R-ZsGreen) mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. To determine whether MF-iHeps acquire full hepatocyte differentiation, we used microarrays to profile their global gene expression. We isolated MF-iHeps and primary hepatocytes (Heps) from the same mice by laser-capture microdissection (5 and 3 biological replicates, respectively) and hepatic MFs from CCl4-treated littermates isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (3 biological replicates). Total RNA was extracted, transcribed, amplified and biotin labeled. Labeled cDNA targets were hybridized to GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays (Affymetrix).
Project description:Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to skeletal fragility with increased fracture risk. Calcium phosphates (CaPs) are widely used in bone tissue engineering strategies as they have similarities to bone apatite except for the absence of trace elements (TEs) in the CaPs. Bioactive glasses (BGs) have also been used successfully in clinic for craniomaxillofacial and dental applications during the last two decades due to their excellent potential for bonding with bone and inducing osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we evaluated the osteogenic effects of the ionic dissolution products of the quaternary Si-Sr-Zn-Mg-codoped CaP (TEs-CaP) or 45S5 Bioglass® (45S5 BG), both as mixtures and separately, on rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rOMSCs & rMSCs) from osteoporotic and normal animals, using an MTT test and Alizarin Red S staining. The materials enhanced cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, especially the combination of the BG and TEs-CaP. Analysis by quantitative PCR and ELISA indicated that the expression of osteogenic-specific genes and proteins were elevated. These investigations suggest that the TEs-CaP and 45S5 BG operate synergistically to create an extracellular environment that promotes proliferation and terminal osteogenic differentiation of both osteoporotic and normal rMSCs.
Project description:Bone tissue at nanoscale is a composite mainly made of apatite crystals, collagen molecules and water. This work is aimed to study the diffusion within bone nanostructure through Monte-Carlo simulations. To this purpose, an idealized geometric model of the apatite-collagen structure was developed. Gaussian probability distribution functions were employed to design the orientation of the apatite crystals with respect to the axes (length L, width W and thickness T) of a plate-like trabecula. We performed numerical simulations considering the influence of the mineral arrangement on the effective diffusion coefficient of water. To represent the hindrance of the impermeable apatite crystals on the water diffusion process, the effective diffusion coefficient was scaled with the tortuosity, the constrictivity and the porosity factors of the structure. The diffusion phenomenon was investigated in the three main directions of the single trabecula and the introduction of apatite preferential orientation allowed the creation of an anisotropic medium. Thus, different diffusivities values were observed along the axes of the single trabecula. We found good agreement with previous experimental results computed by means of a genetic algorithm.