Optimisation of an Electrochemical DNA Sensor for Measuring KRAS G12D and G13D Point Mutations in Different Tumour Types.
ABSTRACT: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is widely used in liquid biopsies due to having a presence in the blood that is typically in proportion to the stage of the cancer and because it may present a quick and practical method of capturing tumour heterogeneity. This paper outlines a simple electrochemical technique adapted towards point-of-care cancer detection and treatment monitoring from biofluids using a label-free detection strategy. The mutations used for analysis were the KRAS G12D and G13D mutations, which are both important in the initiation, progression and drug resistance of many human cancers, leading to a high mortality rate. A low-cost DNA sensor was developed to specifically investigate these common circulating tumour markers. Initially, we report on some developments made in carbon surface pre-treatment and the electrochemical detection scheme which ensure the most sensitive measurement technique is employed. Following pre-treatment of the sensor to ensure homogeneity, DNA probes developed specifically for detection of the KRAS G12D and G13D mutations were immobilized onto low-cost screen printed carbon electrodes using diazonium chemistry and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling. Prior to electrochemical detection, the sensor was functionalised with target DNA amplified by standard and specialist PCR methodologies (6.3% increase). Assay development steps and DNA detection experiments were performed using standard voltammetry techniques. Sensitivity (as low as 0.58 ng/?L) and specificity (>300%) was achieved by detecting mutant KRAS G13D PCR amplicons against a background of wild-type KRAS DNA from the representative cancer sample and our findings give rise to the basis of a simple and very low-cost system for measuring ctDNA biomarkers in patient samples. The current time to receive results from the system was 3.5 h with appreciable scope for optimisation, thus far comparing favourably to the UK National Health Service biopsy service where patients can wait for weeks for biopsy results.
Project description:There are limited data on circulating, cell-free, tumour (ct)DNA analysis in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Digital droplet (dd)PCR was used to investigate KRAS/BRAF mutations in ctDNA from baseline blood samples of 97 LARC patients who were treated with CAPOX followed by chemoradiotherapy, surgery and adjuvant CAPOX?±?cetuximab in a randomised phase II trial. KRAS mutation in G12D, G12V or G13D was detected in the ctDNA of 43% and 35% of patients with tumours that were mutant and wild-type for these hotspot mutations, respectively, according to standard PCR-based analyses on tissue. The detection rate in the ctDNA of 10 patients with less common mutations was 50%. In 26 cases ctDNA analysis revealed KRAS mutations that were not previously found in tissue. Twenty-two of these (84.6%) were detected following repeat tissue testing by ddPCR. Overall, the ctDNA detection rate in the KRAS mutant population was 66%. Detection of KRAS mutation in ctDNA failed to predict prognosis or refine patient selection for cetuximab. While this study confirms the feasibility of ctDNA analysis in LARC and the high sensitivity of ddPCR, larger series are needed to better address the role of ctDNA as a prognostic or predictive tool in this setting.
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death. Two-thirds of cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage that is refractory to curative treatment. Therefore, strategies for the early detection of lung cancer are urgently sought. Total circulating free DNA (cfDNA) and tumour-derived circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) are emerging as important biomarkers within a 'liquid biopsy' for monitoring human disease progression and response to therapy. Owing to the late clinical diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma, the potential for cfDNA and ctDNA as early detection biomarkers remains unexplored. Here, using a Cre-regulated genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma development, driven by Kras<sup>G12D</sup> (the <i>Kras<sup>LSL-G12D</sup></i> mouse), we serially tracked the release of cfDNA/ctDNA and compared this with tumour burden as determined by micro-computed tomography (CT). To monitor ctDNA, a droplet digital PCR assay was developed to permit discrimination of the <i>Kras<sup>Lox-G12D</sup></i> allele from the <i>Kras<sup>LSL-G12D</sup></i> and <i>Kras<sup>WT</sup></i> alleles. We show that micro-CT correlates with endpoint histology and is able to detect pre-malignant tumours with a combined volume larger than 7?mm<sup>3</sup> Changes in cfDNA/ctDNA levels correlate with micro-CT measurements in longitudinal sampling and are able to monitor the emergence of lesions before the adenoma-adenocarcinoma transition. Potentially, this work has implications for the early detection of human lung adenocarcinoma using ctDNA/cfDNA profiling.A video abstract for this article is available at https://youtu.be/Ku8xJJyGs3UThis article has an associated First Person interview with the joint first authors of the paper.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>About 25-37% of resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) had a great chance of early recurrence after radical resection, which is mainly due to preoperative micrometastasis. We herein demonstrated the profiles of ctDNA in resectable PDAC and use of ctDNA to identify patients with potential micrometastasis.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 113 and 44 resectable PDACs were enrolled in discovery and validation cohorts, separately. A panel containing 50 genes was used to screen ctDNA by an NGS-based assessment with high specificity.<h4>Results</h4>In the discovery cohort, the overall detection rate was 38.05% (43/113). Among positive ctDNA, KRAS mutation had the highest detection rate (23.01%, 26/113), while the others were <5%. Survival analysis showed that plasma KRAS mutations, especially KRAS G12D mutation, had significant association with OS and RFS of resectable PDAC. Plasma KRAS G12D mutation showed a strong correlation with early distant metastasis. In the validation cohort, survival analysis showed similar association between plasma KRAS G12D mutation and poor outcomes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study demonstrated that plasma KRAS mutations, especially KRAS G12D mutation, served as a useful predictive biomarker for prognosis of resectable PDAC. More importantly, due to high correlation with micrometastasis, preoperative detection of plasma KRAS G12D mutation helps in optimising surgical selection of resectable PDAC.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Establishing the KRAS mutational status of tumor samples is essential to manage patients with colorectal or lung cancer, since these mutations preclude treatment with monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies. We report an inexpensive, rapid multiplex allele-specific qPCR method detecting the 7 most clinically relevant KRAS somatic mutations with concomitant amplification of non-mutated KRAS in tumor cells and tissues from CRC patients. Positive samples evidenced in the multiplex assay were further subjected to individual allele-specific analysis, to define the specific mutation. Reference human cancer DNA harbouring either G12A, G12C, G12D, G12R, G12S, G12V and G13D confirmed assay specificity with ?1% sensitivity of mutant alleles. KRAS multiplex mutation analysis usefulness was also demonstrated with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) from CRC biopsies.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Co-amplification of non-mutated DNA avoided false negatives from degraded samples. Moreover, this cost effective assay is compatible with mutation detection by DNA sequencing in FFPE tissues, but with a greater sensitivity when mutant DNA concentrations are limiting.
Project description:Ras GTPases are mutated at codons 12, 13, and 61, with different frequencies in KRas, HRas, and NRas and in a cancer-specific manner. The G13D mutant appears in 25% of KRas-driven colorectal cancers, while observed only rarely in HRas or NRas. Structures of Ras G13D in the three isoforms show an open active site, with adjustments to the D13 backbone torsion angles and with disconnected switch regions. KRas G13D has unique features that destabilize the nucleotide-binding pocket. In KRas G13D bound to GDP, A59 is placed in the Mg2+ binding site, as in the HRas-SOS complex. Structure and biochemistry are consistent with an intermediate level of KRas G13D bound to GTP, relative to wild-type and KRas G12D, observed in genetically engineered mouse models. The results explain in part the elevated frequency of the G13D mutant in KRas over the other isoforms of Ras.
Project description:KRAS mutations occur in one third of human cancers and cluster in several hotspots, with codons 12 and 13 being most commonly affected. It has been suggested that the position and type of amino acid exchange influence the transforming capacity of mutant KRAS proteins. We used MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells to establish isogenic cell lines that express different cancer-associated KRAS mutations (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13C, G13D, A18D, Q61H, K117N) at physiological or elevated levels, and investigated the biochemical and functional consequences of the different variants. The overall effects of low-expressing mutants were moderate compared to overexpressed variants, but allowed delineation of biological functions that were related to specific alleles rather than KRAS expression level. None of the mutations induced morphological changes, migratory abilities, or increased phosphorylation of ERK, PDK1, and AKT. KRAS-G12D, G12V, G13D, and K117N mediated EGF-independent proliferation, whereas anchorage-independent growth was primarily induced by K117N and Q61H. Both codon 13 mutations were associated with increased EGFR expression. Finally, global gene expression analysis of MCF10A-G13D versus MCF10A-G12D revealed distinct transcriptional changes. Together, we describe a useful resource for investigating the function of multiple KRAS mutations and provide insights into the differential effects of these variants in MCF10A cells.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Non-invasive mutation testing using circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is an attractive premise. This could enable patients without available tumour sample to access more treatment options.<h4>Materials & methods</h4>Peripheral blood and matched tumours were analysed from 45 NSCLC patients. We investigated the impact of pre-analytical variables on DNA yield and/or KRAS mutation detection: sample collection tube type, incubation time, centrifugation steps, plasma input volume and DNA extraction kits.<h4>Results</h4>2 hr incubation time and double plasma centrifugation (2000 x g) reduced overall DNA yield resulting in lowered levels of contaminating genomic DNA (gDNA). Reduced "contamination" and increased KRAS mutation detection was observed using cell-free DNA Blood Collection Tubes (cfDNA BCT) (Streck), after 72 hrs following blood draw compared to EDTA tubes. Plasma input volume and use of different DNA extraction kits impacted DNA yield.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrated that successful ctDNA recovery for mutation detection in NSCLC is dependent on pre-analytical steps. Development of standardised methods for the detection of KRAS mutations from ctDNA specimens is recommended to minimise the impact of pre-analytical steps on mutation detection rates. Where rapid sample processing is not possible the use of cfDNA BCT tubes would be advantageous.
Project description:Molecular diagnostic testing of KRAS and BRAF mutations has become critical in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Some progress has been made in liquid biopsy detection of mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), which is a fraction of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), but slow analysis for DNA sequencing methods has limited rapid diagnostics. Other methods such as quantitative PCR and more recently, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), have limitations in multiplexed capacity and the need for expensive specialized equipment. Hence, a robust, rapid and facile strategy is needed for detecting multiple ctDNA mutations to improve the management of CRC patients. To address this significant problem, herein, we propose a new application of multiplex PCR/SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) assay for the detection of ctDNA in CRC, in a fast and non-invasive manner to diagnose and stratify patients for effective treatment. Methods: To discriminate ctDNA mutations from wild-type cfDNA, allele-specific primers were designed for the amplification of three clinically important DNA point mutations in CRC including KRAS G12V, KRAS G13D and BRAF V600E. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags were labelled with a short and specific sequence of oligonucleotide, which can hybridize with the corresponding PCR amplicons. The PCR/SERS assay was implemented by firstly amplifying the multiple mutations, followed by binding with multicolor SERS nanotags specific to each mutation, and subsequent enrichment with magnetic beads. The mutation status was evaluated using a portable Raman spectrometer where the fingerprint spectral peaks of the corresponding SERS nanotags indicate the presence of the mutant targets. The method was then applied to detect ctDNA from CRC patients under a blinded test, the results were further validated by ddPCR. Results: The PCR/SERS strategy showed high specificity and sensitivity for genotyping CRC cell lines and plasma ctDNA, where as few as 0.1% mutant alleles could be detected from a background of abundant wild-type cfDNA. The blinded test using 9 samples from advanced CRC patients by PCR/SERS assay was validated with ddPCR and showed good consistency with pathology testing results. Conclusions: With ddPCR-like sensitivity yet at the convenience of standard PCR, the proposed assay shows great potential in sensitive detection of multiple ctDNA mutations for clinical decision-making.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage, leading to a poor prognosis. Therefore, interest in the development of non-invasive biomarkers for prognostic prediction has grown rapidly. Here, we assessed the clinical implications of v-Ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutated circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) as a useful surrogate biomarker in patients with resectable PDAC.<h4>Methods</h4>We used droplet digital polymerase chain reaction to detect rare mutant tumour-derived KRAS genes in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as ctDNA. Samples were collected from 105 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for PDAC at a single institution. Overall survival (OS) was analysed according to the presence of ctDNA.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 105 cases, ctDNA was detected in 33 (31%) plasma samples. The median OS durations were 13.6 months for patients with ctDNA (ctDNA+) and 27.6 months for patients without ctDNA. Patients who were ctDNA+ had a significantly poorer prognosis with respect to OS (P<0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings suggested that the presence of ctDNA in plasma samples could be an important and powerful predictor of poor survival in patients with PDAC. Accordingly, ctDNA detection might be a promising approach with respect to PDAC treatment.
Project description:PURPOSE:In research settings, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) shows promise as a tumor-specific biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study aims to perform analytical and clinical validation of a KRAS ctDNA assay in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and College of American Pathology-certified clinical laboratory. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Digital-droplet PCR was used to detect the major PDAC-associated somatic KRAS mutations (G12D, G12V, G12R, and Q61H) in liquid biopsies. For clinical validation, 290 preoperative and longitudinal postoperative plasma samples were collected from 59 patients with PDAC. The utility of ctDNA status to predict PDAC recurrence during follow-up was assessed. RESULTS:ctDNA was detected preoperatively in 29 (49%) patients and was an independent predictor of decreased recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherapy were less likely to have preoperative ctDNA than were chemo-naïve patients (21% vs. 69%; P < 0.001). ctDNA levels dropped significantly after tumor resection. Persistence of ctDNA in the immediate postoperative period was associated with a high rate of recurrence and poor median RFS (5 months). ctDNA detected during follow-up predicted clinical recurrence [sensitivity 90% (95% confidence interval (CI), 74%-98%), specificity 88% (95% CI, 62%-98%)] with a median lead time of 84 days (interquartile range, 25-146). Detection of ctDNA during postpancreatectomy follow-up was associated with a median OS of 17 months, while median OS was not yet reached at 30 months for patients without ctDNA (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS:Measurement of KRAS ctDNA in a CLIA laboratory setting can be used to predict recurrence and survival in patients with PDAC.