Soft-Tissue Management and Neurovascular Protection During Opening-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy.
ABSTRACT: Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OW-HTO) is an excellent surgical option for patients with varus knee osteoarthritis. Medial collateral ligament (MCL) release and posterior neurovascular structure protection during OW-HTO are steps that often induce stress and nervousness during surgery, especially for surgeons in the earlier stages of their learning curve. While is it well-known that the MCL should be released during OW-HTO, the standard retraction techniques pose challenges in visualization and instrument placement in the surgical field. We present our technique, which illustrates an alternative method to manage the MCL and safely protect the neurovascular structures using a second and more posterior surgical window during OW-HTO.
Project description:Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OW-HTO) is an excellent surgical option for patients with varus knee osteoarthritis. This article presents a technique of performing a minimally invasive OW-HTO using a patient-specific cutting guide (PSCG). Preoperative 3-dimensional planning with computed tomography imaging is essential. The correction parameters, the final plate position, as well as the 3-dimensional position of the hinge as well as wedge are verified preoperatively before the PSCG is produced. After exposure with an oblique incision over the posteromedial tibia, the hamstring tendons are released for later re-attachment and the medial collateral ligament is released slightly. The PSCG is then used to perform the OW-HTO with protection of the posterior neurovascular structures by a retractor placed posterior to the medial collateral ligament. The final fixation of the osteotomy is achieved with a low-profile locking plate and a femoral head allograft wedge.
Project description:Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OW-HTO) is an effective surgical intervention for medial-compartment knee osteoarthritis. However, the osteotomized gap might be a disadvantage in OW-HTO because it can cause problems such as delayed bone union or loss of correction. These issues can be minimized by using autologous bone graft in the osteotomized gap, which is known to be the fastest and most clinically satisfactory gap filler. The primary mechanical stability of the osteotomy site in OW-HTO is essential for early weight bearing after surgery. Therefore, we introduce the combination of a cylindrical autologous bone grafting technique and a metallic block insertion for faster bone union and better primary stability of the site in OW-HTO. We expect that the described procedure will enable early postoperative weight bearing and, thereby, allow an early return to normal function.
Project description:Osteophytes are physiological bony outgrowths that develop at the margins of the articular surfaces during the progression of osteoarthritis; they are associated with active endochondral bone formation processes and expressions of various growth factors. We believe they could be a source of bone grafts as a result of a potentially strong osteoinductive effect. Moreover, osteophytes can be easily harvested by arthroscopy in patients undergoing open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OW-HTO) for medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. Therefore, we have been using osteophyte autografts for osteotomy gaps in OW-HTO with positive preliminary results indicating rapid bone healing of osteotomy sites. In this technical note, we introduce a technique for harvesting autologous osteophytes by arthroscopy and implanting them into the gap formed after OW-HTO. We expect that autologous osteophyte grafting can be a useful method for accelerating bone union and therefore enabling weight bearing from an early stage after surgery, which will lead to an early return to social activities.
Project description:High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although it is well-known that the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) should be released during HTO, there is still no agreement on performing its reattachment. Considering the function of the sMCL, after its release during HTO, increased medial joint instability may be expected. We present a technique for sMCL reattachment that prevents medial gapping development and maintains nearly native pressure on the medial compartment of the knee joint by matching the tension on the sMCL to the size of the osteotomy gap. This technique is suitable for any correction angle.
Project description:High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been widely used for clinical treatment of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee, and both opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO are the most commonly used methods. However, it remains unclear which technique has better clinical and radiological outcomes in practice. To systematically evaluate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis by pooling all available data for the opening-wedge HTO and closing-wedge HTO techniques from the electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Wed of Science and Cochrane Library. A total of 22 studies encompassing 2582 cases were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference regarding surgery time, duration of hospitalization, knee pain VAS, Lysholm score and HSS knee score (clinical outcomes) between the opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO groups (P > 0.05). However, the opening-wedge HTO group showed wider range of motion than the closing-wedge HTO group (P = 0.003). Moreover, as for Hip-Knee-Ankle angle and mean angle of correction, no significant difference was observed between the opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO groups (P > 0.05), while the opening-wedge HTO group showed greater posterior tibial slope angle (P < 0.001) and lesser patellar height than the closing-wedge HTO group (P < 0.001). On light of the above analysis, we believe that individualized surgical approach should be introduced based on the clinical characteristics of each patient.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study evaluated the medial joint stability after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) releasing the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) without cutting and repairing. METHODS:Twenty-one patients who performed HTO were enrolled. After an L-shaped incision was made in the pes anserinus, the sMCL was released from the distal portion during surgery. After plate fixation, the sMCL was reattached and the pes anserinus was repaired underneath the plate. Plate removal was performed after 31.1?±?14.2?months. Before HTO, a valgus force of 40?N was exerted at extension for reference values. Before and after plate removal, a valgus force of 40?N was exerted at extension and at a flexion position of 20°. Medial stability was evaluated by measuring the joint line convergence angle (JLCA). RESULTS:The JLCAs in the extension state before HTO and plate removal were 1.64°?±?1.15° and 1.83°?±?1.36°, respectively; there was no significant difference (p?=?0.198). There was also no significant difference in JLCA before HTO and after plate removal (p?=?0.835). There was also no significant difference in JLCA before and after plate removal both at a knee extension and flexion position of 20° (p?=?0.348 and p?=?0.456, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Releasing the sMCL without cutting and repairing the pes anserinus underneath the plate during medial open wedge HTO could facilitate the maintenance of medial joint stability.
Project description:High tibial valgus osteotomy (HTO) is an established treatment for medial-compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. We have combined medial open and lateral closed-wedge HTO (hybrid closed-wedge HTO) to overcome the limitations of traditional closed-wedge HTO. Our new hybrid procedure has the following advantages: (1) the bone block removed is smaller in size; (2) the procedure yields optimal geometric characteristics for bone healing; (3) there is no step-off at the lateral osteotomy site; (4) the lateral cortex of the proximal and distal fragments is attached firmly by the oblique osteotomy; and (5) early full weight-bearing walking is possible. This procedure is effective in treating medial-compartment osteoarthritis accompanied by patellofemoral osteoarthritis. The indications for this procedure include a willingness and ability to comply with the postoperative rehabilitation program; a diagnosis of either medial-compartment osteoarthritis or complicated patellofemoral osteoarthritis; and preferably, an age of 70 years or younger, although this is not a strict constraint. Patients are permitted to stand using both legs on the day after surgery and walk with full weight bearing within 2 weeks of undergoing our novel HTO procedure. We describe the details of this surgical technique and the postoperative rehabilitation program for the patients who undergo this treatment.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Favorable clinical results have been reported following high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) in knees with varus alignment. However, the effect on the preoperative neutral alignment of the knee is not known. This study sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of medial open-wedge HTO for MMPRT with neutral alignment.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively reviewed 119 medial open-wedge HTOs and analyzed 22 knees with MMPRT. The knees were divided according to the preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle into a moderate varus alignment group (≤4° of varus alignment) and a varus alignment group (> 4° of varus alignment). The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS-12) values were evaluated preoperatively and at the latest follow-up. The healing status of MMPRT at the time of second-look arthroscopy, performed at a mean of 15.4 ± 4.2 months, was compared with that after the primary HTO.<h4>Results</h4>There were 11 knees in the moderate varus alignment group and 11 in the varus alignment group. In terms of perioperative patient-reported outcome measures, there was no significant difference in the preoperative or postoperative KOOS subscale score or FJS-12 score between the moderate varus and varus alignment groups. The healing rate was significantly higher in the moderate varus alignment group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Favorable clinical results were obtained by medial open-wedge HTO in knees with MMPRT and moderate varus alignment in the short term. Surgeons should consider the indications for medial open-wedge HTO, even with moderate varus alignment, when planning treatment for MMPRT with persistent knee pain.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>IV.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We aimed to evaluate clinical and radiological results after simultaneous open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in patients with ACL deficiency combined with medial uni-compartmental osteoarthritis (OA) and varus deformity.<h4>Methods</h4>This retrospective study was performed using data collected from 2005 to 2011 on a total of 24 patients who were diagnosed with ACL injury and medial unicompartmental OA with varus deformity, and who subsequently underwent simultaneous open-wedge HTO and arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. The mean follow-up duration was 5.2 years. For clinical outcomes, we evaluated Lysholm score, Tegner activity score, range of motion, Lachmann test, and pivot-shift test, and for radiological outcomes, we evaluated the degree of varus deformity, progression of medial OA, tibial posterior slope, anterior instability, and postoperative complication.<h4>Results</h4>There were no limitations in range of motion found in any cases. Three patients showed progressive osteoarthritis on the medial compartment. The mechanical femorotibial angle was significantly corrected from varus 7.0 degrees to valgus 1.2 degrees, and the tibial posterior slope was not significantly changed. The Lysholm and Tegner activity scores were significantly improved after surgery (from 58 to 94 points on the Lysholm scale and from 4.0 to 5.3 points on the Tegner activity scale). Although the Lachman test and the pivot-shift test showed significant improvements after surgery, instability greater than Gr II was observed in three patients on the Lachman test and in four patients on the pivot-shift test. The side-to-side difference improved from 9.6 mm to 4.2 mm postoperatively as assessed using a Telos® arthrometer. There were no cases of nonunion or fixation loss.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Simultaneous open-wedge HTO and ACL reconstruction in patients with ACL injury with medial compartmental OA showed satisfactory functional outcomes and postoperative activity level scores. However, some patients showed residual instability and progression of OA.
Project description:Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy for medial unicompartmental arthritis of the knee joint is a successful treatment option but is associated with potential intraoperative complications such as tibial plateau fracture, dislocation of the osteotomy hinge, under- or over-correction of the posterior slope, and neurovascular injury. Therefore we devised a protective cutting system and describe our method for the prevention of these complications. The potential advantages of this system are protection of the posterior neurovascular structures using a curved protector, bone cutting along the natural tibial slope using a superior surface aligning with the natural tibial slope, and complete 1-plane sawing of the posterior wall before the lateral hinge.