Minimally Invasive High Tibial Osteotomy Using a Patient-Specific Cutting Guide.
ABSTRACT: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OW-HTO) is an excellent surgical option for patients with varus knee osteoarthritis. This article presents a technique of performing a minimally invasive OW-HTO using a patient-specific cutting guide (PSCG). Preoperative 3-dimensional planning with computed tomography imaging is essential. The correction parameters, the final plate position, as well as the 3-dimensional position of the hinge as well as wedge are verified preoperatively before the PSCG is produced. After exposure with an oblique incision over the posteromedial tibia, the hamstring tendons are released for later re-attachment and the medial collateral ligament is released slightly. The PSCG is then used to perform the OW-HTO with protection of the posterior neurovascular structures by a retractor placed posterior to the medial collateral ligament. The final fixation of the osteotomy is achieved with a low-profile locking plate and a femoral head allograft wedge.
Project description:Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OW-HTO) is an excellent surgical option for patients with varus knee osteoarthritis. Medial collateral ligament (MCL) release and posterior neurovascular structure protection during OW-HTO are steps that often induce stress and nervousness during surgery, especially for surgeons in the earlier stages of their learning curve. While is it well-known that the MCL should be released during OW-HTO, the standard retraction techniques pose challenges in visualization and instrument placement in the surgical field. We present our technique, which illustrates an alternative method to manage the MCL and safely protect the neurovascular structures using a second and more posterior surgical window during OW-HTO.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study evaluated the medial joint stability after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) releasing the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) without cutting and repairing. METHODS:Twenty-one patients who performed HTO were enrolled. After an L-shaped incision was made in the pes anserinus, the sMCL was released from the distal portion during surgery. After plate fixation, the sMCL was reattached and the pes anserinus was repaired underneath the plate. Plate removal was performed after 31.1?±?14.2?months. Before HTO, a valgus force of 40?N was exerted at extension for reference values. Before and after plate removal, a valgus force of 40?N was exerted at extension and at a flexion position of 20°. Medial stability was evaluated by measuring the joint line convergence angle (JLCA). RESULTS:The JLCAs in the extension state before HTO and plate removal were 1.64°?±?1.15° and 1.83°?±?1.36°, respectively; there was no significant difference (p?=?0.198). There was also no significant difference in JLCA before HTO and after plate removal (p?=?0.835). There was also no significant difference in JLCA before and after plate removal both at a knee extension and flexion position of 20° (p?=?0.348 and p?=?0.456, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Releasing the sMCL without cutting and repairing the pes anserinus underneath the plate during medial open wedge HTO could facilitate the maintenance of medial joint stability.
Project description:Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OW-HTO) is an effective surgical intervention for medial-compartment knee osteoarthritis. However, the osteotomized gap might be a disadvantage in OW-HTO because it can cause problems such as delayed bone union or loss of correction. These issues can be minimized by using autologous bone graft in the osteotomized gap, which is known to be the fastest and most clinically satisfactory gap filler. The primary mechanical stability of the osteotomy site in OW-HTO is essential for early weight bearing after surgery. Therefore, we introduce the combination of a cylindrical autologous bone grafting technique and a metallic block insertion for faster bone union and better primary stability of the site in OW-HTO. We expect that the described procedure will enable early postoperative weight bearing and, thereby, allow an early return to normal function.
Project description:Osteophytes are physiological bony outgrowths that develop at the margins of the articular surfaces during the progression of osteoarthritis; they are associated with active endochondral bone formation processes and expressions of various growth factors. We believe they could be a source of bone grafts as a result of a potentially strong osteoinductive effect. Moreover, osteophytes can be easily harvested by arthroscopy in patients undergoing open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OW-HTO) for medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. Therefore, we have been using osteophyte autografts for osteotomy gaps in OW-HTO with positive preliminary results indicating rapid bone healing of osteotomy sites. In this technical note, we introduce a technique for harvesting autologous osteophytes by arthroscopy and implanting them into the gap formed after OW-HTO. We expect that autologous osteophyte grafting can be a useful method for accelerating bone union and therefore enabling weight bearing from an early stage after surgery, which will lead to an early return to social activities.
Project description:High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although it is well-known that the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) should be released during HTO, there is still no agreement on performing its reattachment. Considering the function of the sMCL, after its release during HTO, increased medial joint instability may be expected. We present a technique for sMCL reattachment that prevents medial gapping development and maintains nearly native pressure on the medial compartment of the knee joint by matching the tension on the sMCL to the size of the osteotomy gap. This technique is suitable for any correction angle.
Project description:High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a valid treatment option for young active patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthrosis (OA) and varus deformity. Sometimes medial OA is combined with symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Although isolated HTO (with possible delayed ACL reconstruction) might be indicated in the older population, young active patients may require combined HTO and ACL reconstruction. In addition, an abnormally increased tibial slope may predispose to ACL reconstruction failure and should be addressed for a successful ACL revision. The combination of HTO and ACL reconstruction produces good results, with resumption of normal daily activities, as well as recreational sports, and does not seem to increase the risk of complications compared with isolated HTO. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe our indications, planning, and technique for opening wedge HTO fixed with a spacer plate and anatomic soft-tissue (autograft or allograft) ACL reconstruction, with proximal extracortical suspension and distal interference screw fixation.
Project description:Increased tibial slope can be a cause of recurrent instability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. This article presents a technique for an anterior closing-wedge osteotomy for slope correction. The indications for this procedure are patients with recurrent instability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a neutral leg axis or slightly varus deformity and a posterior slope of more than 12°. The exposure of the anterior aspect of the tibia is best made through an anterior approach approximately 1 to 2 cm medial to the tibial tuberosity. Hohmann retractors are placed from the medial and lateral sides behind the proximal tibia. The osteotomy lines are marked with 2 converging Kirschner wires with the use of an image intensifier. The entry point of the first Kirschner wire is just below the most inferior fibers of the patellar tendon. The hinge of the osteotomy should be just below the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament. The osteotomy is performed with an oscillating saw. The posterior cortex of the tibia should be left intact. After removal of the anterior base wedge, the osteotomy is closed by manual pressure. Osteosynthesis is performed with a lag screw from the tibial tuberosity to the distal tibia and an angular stable plate fixator.
Project description:High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is used in the treatment of varus knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in young and active patients. At times, a concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency is found, and there is no conclusive evidence comparing the osteotomy options for an ACL-deficient knee despite the popularity of medial opening-wedge (MOW) HTO in varus KOA with ACL deficiency. To minimize the incidence of an unnecessary ACL reconstruction with MOW-HTO, we developed an intraoperative laximetry-based selective technique for transtibial ACL reconstruction concomitant with MOW-HTO using a sterilizable metal laximeter. To successfully use the device required for this procedure, surgeons must understand the proper techniques. Hence, this Technical Note aims to give a comprehensive description of the technique.
Project description:Medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) is now attracting increased attention as a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis. However, the healing rate after root repair by the suture anchor technique or the pull-out technique is still low. Here we report on a technique of MMPRT repair using suture anchor combined with arthroscopic meniscal centralization and open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). The purposes of this technique are (1) to distribute the meniscal hoop tension between the root repair site and the centralization site and (2) to reduce the load on medial meniscus by OWHTO. The routine exposure for OWHTO with superficial medial collateral ligament release creates good visualization for arthroscopic root repair. The first anchor is inserted on the medial edge of the medial tibial plateau, and the second anchor is inserted on the root attachment through a posteromedial portal. After tying the knots, OWHTO could be performed without interference between the suture anchors and the screws of the plate for fixing the osteotomy. Although further follow-up is required, this technique could improve the outcomes after root repair, as well as have some technical advantages.
Project description:Medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) is usually performed with proximal tuberosity osteotomy or setting the osteotomy line proximal to the tuberosity. However, OWHTO can result in patellofemoral complications due to postoperative patella infera. A new OWHTO technique, biplanar osteotomy with a distal tuberosity osteotomy, was reported in 2004 to prevent postoperative patella infera. To ensure that the 2 osteotomy lines maintain perpendicular, we describe the OWHTO procedure with a distal tuberosity osteotomy technique using a TriS Medial HTO Plate System (Olympus Terumo Biomaterials Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and a right angle guide we developed. In this Technical Note, we describe the procedure and advantages, risks, and limitations, as well as the pearls and pitfalls based on our experience.