Strain Characterization of Streptococcus suis Serotypes 28 and 31, Which Harbor the Resistance Genes optrA and ant(6)-Ia.
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis causes disease in pigs and is implicated increasingly in human disease worldwide. Although most clinical cases are associated with serotype 2, infections by other serotypes have sometimes been reported. Here, we sequenced the genome of a multidrug-resistant S. suis serotype 28 (strain 11313) and a multidrug-resistant S. suis serotype 31 (strain 11LB5). Strain 11313 was apathogenic in mouse infection models, whereas strain 11LB5 displayed ganglion demyelination, meningeal thickening, congestion, mononuclear cell infiltration, massive proliferation of cortical glial cells, and bacteria (>104 CFU/g) in the spinal cord and ganglia in mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry found that the heavily infiltrated glial cells were astrocytes. Strain 11313 harbored the resistance genes ant(6)-Ia, erm(B), optrA, tet(l), tet(o), and strain 11LB5 harbored the resistance genes ant(6)-Ia, erm(B), tet(40), tet(o/w/32/o), aac(6')-aph(2?). Mouse studies showed that strain 11LB5 exhibited a similar virulence to serotype 2 strain 700794, highlighting the need for surveillance of the other serotype S. suis isolates, in addition to serotype 2, in farms. This is the first report of the aminoglycoside resistance gene ant(6)-Ia in S. suis from animals. This suggests that S. suis might serve as an antibiotic resistance reservoir, which spreads the resistance gene ant(6)-Ia or optrA to other streptococcal pathogens on farms.
Project description:Linezolid and vancomycin are among the last-resort antimicrobial agents in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections. Linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant (LVR) Gram-positive bacteria may pose severe threats to public health. In this study, three optrA- and vanG-positive Streptococcus suis strains were isolated from two farms of different cities. There were only 1 and 343 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding region (cSNPs) of HCB4 and YSJ7 to YSJ17, respectively. Mobilome analysis revealed the presence of vanG, erm(B), tet(O/W/32/O), and aadE-apt-sat4-aphA3 cluster on an integrative and conjugative element, ICESsuYSJ17, and erm(B), aphA3, aac(6')-aph(2?), catpC194, and optrA on a prophage, ?SsuYSJ17-3. ICESsuYSJ17 exhibited a mosaic structure and belongs to a highly prevalent and transferable ICESa2603 family of Streptococcus species. ?SsuYSJ17-3 shared conserved backbone to a transferable prophage ?m46.1. A novel composite transposon, IS1216E-araC-optrA-hp-catpC194-IS1216E, which can be circulated as translocatable unit (TU) by IS1216E, was integrated on ?SsuYSJ17-3. Vancomycin resistance phenotype and vanG transcription assays revealed that the vanG operon was inducible. The LVR strain YSJ17 exhibited moderate virulence in a zebrafish infection model. To our knowledge, this is the first report of LVR isolate, which is mediated by acquired resistance genes optrA and vanG operons in Gram-positive bacteria. Since S. suis has been recognized as an antimicrobial resistance reservoir in the spread of resistance genes to major streptococcal pathogens, the potential risks of disseminating of optrA and vanG from S. suis to other Streptococcus spp. are worrisome and routine surveillance should be strengthened.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant enterococci are considered crucial drivers for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants within and beyond a genus. These organisms may pass numerous resistance determinants to other harmful pathogens, whose multiple resistances would cause adverse consequences. Therefore, an understanding of the coexistence epidemiology of resistance genes is critical, but such information remains limited. In this study, our first objective was to determine the prevalence of principal resistance phenotypes and genes among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail chicken domestic products collected throughout Japan. Subsequent analysis of these data by using an additive Bayesian network (ABN) model revealed the co-appearance patterns of resistance genes and identified the associations between resistance genes and phenotypes. The common phenotypes observed among E. faecalis isolated from the domestic products were the resistances to oxytetracycline (58.4%), dihydrostreptomycin (50.4%), and erythromycin (37.2%), and the gene tet(L) was detected in 46.0% of the isolates. The ABN model identified statistically significant associations between tet(L) and erm(B), tet(L) and ant(6)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa, and aph(3')-IIIa and erm(B), which indicated that a multiple-resistance profile of tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and kanamycin is systematic rather than random. Conversely, the presence of tet(O) was only negatively associated with that of erm(B) and tet(M), which suggested that in the presence of tet(O), the aforementioned multiple resistance is unlikely to be observed. Such heterogeneity in linkages among genes that confer the same phenotypic resistance highlights the importance of incorporating genetic information when investigating the risk factors for the spread of resistance. The epidemiological factors that underlie the persistence of systematic multiple-resistance patterns warrant further investigations with appropriate adjustments for ecological and bacteriological factors.
Project description:Characterization of 227 Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs during 2010 to 2013 showed high levels of resistance to clindamycin (95.6%), tilmicosin (94.7%), tylosin (93.8%), oxytetracycline (89.4%), chlortetracycline (86.8%), tiamulin (72.7%), neomycin (70.0%), enrofloxacin (56.4%), penicillin (56.4%), ceftiofur (55.9%), and gentamicin (55.1%). Resistance to tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolone was attributed to the tet gene, erm(B), erm(C), mph(C), and mef(A) and/or mef(E) genes, aph(3')-IIIa and aac(6')-Ie-aph(2?)-Ia genes, and single point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of ParC and GyrA, respectively.
Project description:Streptococcus suis serotype 5, an emerging zoonosis bacterial pathogen, has been isolated from infections in both pigs and humans. In this study, we sequenced the first complete genome of a virulent, multidrug-resistant SS5 strain HN105. The strain HN105 displayed enhanced pathogenicity in zebrafish and BABL/c mouse infection models. Comparative genome analysis identified a novel 80K integrative conjugative element (ICE), ICESsuHN105, as required for the multidrug resistance phenotype. Six corresponding antibiotic resistance genes in this ICE were identified, namely tet (O), tet (M), erm (two copies), aph, and spc. Phylogenetic analysis classified the element as a homolog of the ICESa2603 family, containing the typical family backbone and insertion DNA. DNA hybrids mediated by natural transformation between HN105 and ZY05719 verified the antibiotic resistant genes of ICESsuHN105 that could be transferred successfully, while they were dispersedly inserted with a single gene in different genomic locations of ZY05719(HN105) transformants. To further identify the horizontal transfer of ICESsuHN105 as a whole mobile genetic element, a circular intermediate form of ICESsuHN105 was detected by PCR. However, the effective conjugation using serotype 2 S. suis as recipients was not observed in current assays in vitro. Further studies confirmed the presence of the complete lantibiotic locus encoded in ICESsuHN105 that effectively inhibits the growth of other streptococci. In summary, this study demonstrated the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in ICE that are able to transfer between different clinical isolates and adapt to a broader range of Streptococcus serotype or species.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major causes of urinary tract infection, showing acquired resistance to various classes of antimicrobials. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug resistance and its genetic determinants for E. faecalis clinical isolates in north-central Bangladesh. Among a total of 210 E. faecalis isolates, isolated from urine, the resistance rates to erythromycin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (high level) were 85.2, 45.7, and 11.4%, respectively, while no isolates were resistant to ampicillin, vancomycin and teicoplanin. The most prevalent resistance gene was erm(B) (97%), and any of the four genes encoding aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) were detected in 99 isolates (47%). The AME gene aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia was detected in 46 isolates (21.9%) and was diverse in terms of IS256-flanking patterns, which were associated with resistance level to gentamicin. Tetracycline resistance was ascribable to tet(M) (61%) and tet(L) (38%), and mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of both GyrA and ParC were identified in 44% of isolates. Five isolates (2.4%) exhibited non-susceptibility to linezolide (MIC, 4 ?g/mL), and harbored the oxazolidinone resistance gene optrA, which was located in a novel genetic cluster containing the phenicol exporter gene fexA. The optrA-positive isolates belonged to ST59, ST902, and ST917 (CC59), while common lineages of other multiple drug-resistant isolates were ST6, ST28, CC16, and CC116. The present study first revealed the prevalence of drug resistance determinants of E. faecalis and their genetic profiles in Bangladesh.
Project description:The genetic support for tet(W), an emerging tetracycline resistance determinant, was studied in two strains of Streptococcus suis, SsCA and SsUD, both isolated in Italy from patients with meningitis. Two completely different tet(W)-carrying genetic elements, sharing only a tet(W)-containing segment barely larger than the gene, were found in the two strains. The one from strain SsCA was nontransferable, and aside from an erm(B)-containing insertion, it closely resembled a genomic island recently described in an S. suis Chinese human isolate in sequence, organization, and chromosomal location. The tet(W)-carrying genetic element from strain SsUD was transferable (at a low frequency) and, though apparently noninducible following mitomycin C treatment, displayed a typical phage organization and was named ?SsUD.1. Its full sequence was determined (60,711 bp), the highest BLASTN score being Streptococcus pyogenes ?m46.1. ?SsUD.1 exhibited a unique combination of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes. Besides tet(W), it contained a MAS (macrolide-aminoglycoside-streptothricin) fragment with an erm(B) gene having a deleted leader peptide and a cadC/cadA cadmium efflux cassette. The MAS fragment closely resembled the one recently described in pneumococcal transposons Tn6003 and Tn1545. These resistance genes found in the ?SsUD.1 phage scaffold differed from, but were in the same position as, cargo genes carried by other streptococcal phages. The chromosome integration site of ?SsUD.1 was at the 3' end of a conserved tRNA uracil methyltransferase (rum) gene. This site, known to be an insertional hot spot for mobile elements in S. pyogenes, might play a similar role in S. suis.
Project description:In this study, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AR) as well as the abundance and diversity of plasmids were determined among multidrug resistant (MDR) enterococci from surface water in GA, USA. A total of 51 enterococci isolates were screened for the presence of 27 AR genes conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, kanamycin, streptomycin, lincomycin, Quinupristin/Dalfopristin (Q/D), and tetracycline. A plasmid classification system based on replication genes was used to detect 19 defined Gram-positive plasmid replicon families. Twelve genes were identified as conferring resistance to erythromycin and tylosin (erm(B) and erm(C)), kanamycin (aph(3')-IIIa), streptomycin (ant(6)-Ia), lincomycin (lnu(B)), Q/D (vat(E)), ciprofloxacin (qnrE. faecalis), and tetracycline (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), tet(O) and tet(S)). Twelve different rep-families were identified in two-thirds of the isolates. While AR genes commonly found in human and animals were detected in this study among environmental enterococci, resistance genes could not be determined for many of the isolates, which indicates that diverse AR mechanisms exist among enterococci, and the understanding of AR mechanisms for environmental enterococci is limited. Diverse rep-families were identified among the enterococci recovered from the aquatic environment, and these rep-families appear to be quite different from those recovered from other sources. This work expands knowledge of AR gene reservoirs and enterococcal plasmids across a wider range of environments.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) species from wild birds in Spain, as well as to analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype and the virulence gene content. During 2015-2016, tracheal samples of 242 wild birds were collected in different regions of Spain for staphylococci recovery. The species identification was performed using MALDI-TOF. The antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype was investigated by the disk diffusion method and by PCR, respectively. The presence of the virulence genes lukF/S-PV, tst, eta, etb, etd and scn was investigated by PCR. Moreover, CoNS carrying the mecA gene were subjected to SCCmec typing. Of the tested animals, 60% were CoNS-carriers, and 173 CoNS isolates were recovered from the 146 positive animals, which belonged to 11 species, with predominance of S. sciuri (n = 118) and S. lentus (n = 25). A total of 34% of CoNS isolates showed a multidrug resistance phenotype, and 42 mecA-positive methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) were detected. The isolates showed resistance to the following antimicrobials (percentage of resistant isolates/antimicrobial resistance genes detected): penicillin (49/ blaZ, mecA), cefoxitin (24/ mecA), erythromycin and/or clindamycin (92/ erm(B), erm(C), erm(43), msr(A), mph(C), lnu(A), lsa(B), vga(A) and sal(A)), gentamicin and/or tobramycin (5/ aac(6')-Ie-aph(2?)-Ia, ant(4')-Ia), streptomycin (12/str), tetracycline (17/ tet(K), tet(L), tet(M)), ciprofloxacin (4), chloramphenicol (1/ fexA), fusidic acid (86/ fusB, fusD) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1/ dfrK). None of the isolates harbored the lukF/S-PV, eta, etb, etd and scn genes, but two S. sciuri isolates (1%) carried the tst gene. Wild birds are frequently colonized by CoNS species, especially S. sciuri. We identified scavenging on intensively produced livestock and feeding on landfills as risk factors for CoNS carriage. High proportions of MRCoNS and multidrug resistant CoNS were detected, which coupled with the presence of important virulence genes is of concern.
Project description:Chlamydia suis is an endemic pig pathogen, belonging to a fascinating genus of obligate intracellular pathogens. Of particular interest, this is the only chlamydial species to have naturally acquired genes encoding for tetracycline resistance. To date, the distribution and mobility of the Tet-island are not well understood. Our study focused on whole genome sequencing of 29 C. suis isolates from a recent porcine cohort within Switzerland, combined with data from USA tetracycline-resistant isolates. Our findings show that the genome of C. suis is very plastic, with unprecedented diversity, highly affected by recombination and plasmid exchange. A large diversity of isolates circulates within Europe, even within individual Swiss farms, suggesting that C. suis originated around Europe. New World isolates have more restricted diversity and appear to derive from European isolates, indicating that historical strain transfers to the United States have occurred. The architecture of the Tet-island is variable, but the tetA(C) gene is always intact, and recombination has been a major factor in its transmission within C. suis. Selective pressure from tetracycline use within pigs leads to a higher number of Tet-island carrying isolates, which appear to be lost in the absence of such pressure, whereas the loss or gain of the Tet-island from individual strains is not observed. The Tet-island appears to be a recent import into the genome of C. suis, with a possible American origin.
Project description:Streptococcus suis strains isolated from porcine endocarditis and tonsils in the Tokai area of Japan during 2004-2007 and 2014-2016 (n=114) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of selected resistance genes. No strains showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, meropenem, vancomycin, and levofloxacin. High resistance to tetracycline (80.7%), clindamycin (65.8%), erythromycin (56.1%), and clarithromycin (56.1%) was observed. In chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, there was a trend towards increased resistance between the first (2004-2007) and second (2014-2016) periods. tet(O) and erm(B) genes were the most frequently detected, and tet(M) and mef(A/E) genes were only detected in strains isolated during 2014-2016. These results indicate that chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim resistance, and tet(M) and mef(A/E) genes emerged in S. suis of this area after 2014.