The impact of nutrition education on knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding iron deficiency anemia among female adolescent students in Jordan.
ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a crucial health issue and the most common nutritional deficiency-related problem that affects many adolescents worldwide. Considering its link with the lack of appropriate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP), it could be preventable. The aims of this study were (1) assessing hemoglobin levels of female adolescent students, (2) examining their knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding IDA, and (3) evaluating the effect of a nutrition education program on the same. A quasi-experimental design (pretest-posttest control group) involving 363 students from four public secondary schools in Jordan was used. Two schools formed the intervention group (n = 194) and two formed the control group (n = 169). Blood tests for hemoglobin levels and self-report questionnaires were the measures employed. A month-long nutrition education program was conducted with the intervention group. The results revealed that 44.5% of the sample had mild anemia, and 10% had moderate anemia. In terms of knowledge, attitude, and practice, 52.4% exhibited adequate knowledge, 45% engaged in healthy practices, and 42.7% had a positive attitude toward IDA. The intervention group's total KAP scores were significantly higher than the control group (p ? .05) post-program. Additionally, the total KAP scores within the intervention group showed significant increase from pre- to post-test (p ? .05). It can be concluded that structured educational intervention effectively improves knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding IDA among adolescent females. Health care professionals must not only be oriented about this health problem among this age group, but also be supported to enable their intervention within a school setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Few studies regarding Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards medicines among school teachers have been carried out in Nepal. Obtaining baseline KAP is important to note deficiencies and plan appropriate interventions. School teachers have to know about medicines as they can be an important source of information about rational and safe use of medicines. The department of Clinical Pharmacology, KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, conducted a study regarding KAP of school teachers about medicines before and after an educational intervention from April 2011 to December 2011. METHODS: The study was done in selected schools of Lalitpur district. Teachers were selected on a voluntary basis after obtaining written informed consent. Gender, ethnic or caste group, native place, age, educational qualifications, subject taught were noted. An educational intervention using a combination of methods like presentations, brainstorming sessions, interactive discussions using posters and distribution of information leaflets about the use of medicines was conducted. The KAP and overall scores among subgroups according to gender, age, level of education, subject, ethnicity, type of school (primary vs. secondary and government vs. private school) were studied. KAP and overall scores before and after the intervention was compared using Wilcoxon signed ranks test as the scores were not normally distributed. RESULTS: A total of 393 teachers participated before and after the intervention. The median (interquartile range) knowledge, attitude and practice scores before the intervention were 63 (10), 23 (5) and 270 (48) respectively while the overall score was 356. The median knowledge, attitude and practice scores after the intervention were 71 (10), 28 (5) and 270 (48) respectively while the overall score increased to 369. Maximum possible score of knowledge, attitude and practice were 100, 40 and 320 respectively. Scores improved significantly for knowledge (p<0.001), attitude (p<0.001) and total scores (p<0.001) but not for practice (p=0.528). CONCLUSION: The intervention was effective in improving knowledge and attitude of the teachers. More studies among school teachers about their knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines are required in Nepal.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pediculosis caused by head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation is still an important health problem in schoolchildren, especially girls, worldwide, including in Thailand. Although pediculicidal agents effectively kill head lice, the re-infestation rate is still high. Thus, prevention is an important strategy for any sustainable control program. We aimed to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a health education program for increasing knowledge, changing attitudes and promoting preventive practices to reduce prevalence of pediculosis among school girls in Amphoe Muang, Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand.<h4>Methodology</h4>Six schools were selected using multistage simple randomization and were allocated into intervention or control groups. A total of 267 girls was enrolled from these schools. A "knowledge, attitude and practice" (KAP) questionnaire, consent forms and health education materials were constructed and tested by experts and in one pilot school before the main investigation. Baseline prevalence of adult lice and nits was determined. The health education package was given only to the intervention group. The KAP questionnaire was re-evaluated at two months after intervention.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, the prevalence and intensity of head lice infestation, and the KAP scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. After re-evaluation at two months, the KAP score was significantly greater in the intervention group. A significant decrease of the infestation rate from 59% to 44% was observed in the intervention group, whereas infestation increased in the control group (from 56% to 65%). The incidence of new cases in the intervention group (6.14%) was lower than in the control group (12.62%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings indicated that the newly-established health education package is an effective tool for increasing KAP and reducing head lice infestation in school girls. Efforts to combat pediculosis in schoolchildren elsewhere may consider including this, or a similar, health education package in their programs.
Project description:The risk of development of active TB in HIV-infected individuals is 20-37 times higher than those that are HIV negative. Poor knowledge of TB amongst people living with HIV has been associated with high transmission.To determine the effectiveness of a new health education intervention module in improving knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding tuberculosis among HIV patients in General Hospital Minna, Nigeria.A randomized control trial was carried out from July 2015 to June 2017. A random number generating program was used to allocate 226 respondents into 2 groups. The intervention group received health education regarding tuberculosis using the developed module. The control group received the normal services provided for HIV patients. Data were collected from December 2015 to September 2016 at baseline, immediate post intervention, three, six and nine months. The outcome measures were knowledge, attitude, and practice.There was no significant difference with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, KAP of the respondents in the intervention and control group at baseline. However, there was significant improvement in knowledge in the intervention group compared to the control group, group main effect (F = (1,218) = 665.889, p = 0.001, partial ?2 = 0.753, d = 5.4); time (F = (3.605, 218) = 52.046, p = 0.001, partial ?2 = 0.193, d = 1.52) and interaction between group with time (F = (3.605, 218) = 34.028, p = 0.001, partial ?2 = 0.135, d = 1.23). Likewise, there was significant improvement in attitude, group main effect (p = 0.001, d = 1.26) and time (p = 0.001, p, d = 0.65). Similarly, there was improvement in practice, group main effect, time, and interaction of group with time (p < 0.05).The health education intervention program was effective in improving KAP regarding tuberculosis among HIV patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The COVID-19 pandemic has become a great threat to public health, which has greatly impacted the study and life of undergraduate students in China. This study aims to perform a survey of their knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) associated with COVID-19.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional survey was designed to gather information regarding the COVID-19 related KAP among undergraduates during the home isolation in the outbreak. Subjects were recruited from 10 universities in Shaanxi Province, China. Enrollees voluntarily submitted their answers to a pre-designed questionnaire online.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 872 subjects (female, 534; male, 338) were enrolled with ages from 17 to 25?years old. This cohort included 430 medical and 442 non-medical students, 580 freshmen and 292 higher school year students. There were 453 from public schools and 442 from private school, residing in 28 regions and provinces at the time of study. Results showed that appropriate knowledge was acquired by 82.34% subjects; the levels were significantly higher in undergraduates from public universities and medical majors than those from private schools and non-medical majors (p<0.05). 73.81% subjects reported positive attitudes; females showed significantly higher levels of positive attitudes than males (p<0.05). Proactive practice was found in 87.94% subjects. Using a common scoring method, the overall scores for Knowledge, Attitude and Practice were 4.12?±?0.749 (range: 0?~?5), 8.54?±?1.201 (range: 0?~?10), and 8.91?±?1.431 (range: 0?~?10), respectively. There was a positive correlation between attitude and practice (r?=?0.319, p?<?0.05) in the whole study group. Total KAP score was 21.57?±?2.291 (range: 0?~?25), which was significantly different between gender groups and major groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Most undergraduates acquired necessary knowledge, positive attitude and proactive practice in response to COVID-19 outbreak; but their KAP scores significantly varied by gender, major and school types.
Project description:Objective:To evaluate the effect of a school-based tobacco program in preventing initiation of tobacco use among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Methods:We used a quasi-experimental controlled design. Four intervention and four control schools were selected from the regional education registry. A baseline questionnaire was administered to all grade 7 students before implementing the tobacco prevention program, Dentists Fighting Nicotine Dependence (DFND). The intervention group (n =379) received the DFND program whereas the control group (n = 255) received the regular tobacco program administered by the Department of Education. The program was delivered by trained health educators over 5?weeks. Pre- and post-test surveys (immediate and 2-year post-intervention) were collected. Study outcomes were current tobacco use, tobacco knowledge, attitude towards not using tobacco, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) of tobacco use. Covariates included sex, parent education, academic performance, absenteeism, student allowance, and religiosity. Data were analyzed using a two-level hierarchical mixed models. Results:In the immediate post-test, 597 participants (intervention, n = 366; control, n = 231) were surveyed. There was no difference in tobacco use between intervention and control schools, however, the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores for knowledge (? = 1.27, SE = 0.27, P?<?.01) and attitude toward not using tobacco (? = 5.17, SE = 2.48, P?<?.05) after adjusting for covariates. At 2-year post-intervention, 463 participants (intervention, n = 289; control, n = 173) were surveyed. There were no differences in tobacco use, knowledge, attitude or PBC between intervention and control groups. Conclusions:Our program did not impact tobacco use. In the short-term, the program significantly improved knowledge and attitude towards not using tobacco. These effects decayed 2 years post-intervention without additional programming. Increasing the effectiveness of DFND may be achieved by expanding curriculum content and practice time throughout the school years and by targeting high-risk adolescents within the program.
Project description:Objectives:To explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of Chinese nurses regarding nursing interruptions and related factors. Methods:A total of 6,400 nurses from 31 hospitals in China were investigated by using the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Questionnaire of Nursing Interruptions. The questionnaire consists of three dimensions, knowledge, attitude and practice, containing 10, 9 and 7 items, with full score of 50, 45 and 28, respectively. Results:The mean overall KAP score regarding nursing interruptions of Chinese nurses was 74.05 ± 16.65 (range: 26-123), with scores for the knowledge, attitude, and practice component being 21.74 ± 9.80, 34.83 ± 6.98, and 17.49 ± 4.97, respectively. Among the nurses, 70.8% of them experienced an average level of KAP toward nursing interruptions while 15.5% were at a poor level. The knowledge, attitude, and practice of nursing interruptions were better in chief nurses, managers, nurses with a master degree or above, nurses ever received training, and nurses with a strong agreement to leadership compared to nurses in other groups (P < 0.05). In addition, employment type, professional title, position, standardized training and leaders' attention were predictors of KAP in nurses. Conclusion:Chinese nurses have a moderate level of KAP regarding nursing interruptions. Leaders' attention, standardized training, position, professional title and employment type could predict nurses' KAP state of nursing interruptions. Thus, a targeted training program should be implemented for clinical nurses by nursing leaders, with a particular focus on feasibility and professionalism.
Project description:Problems such as hospital malnutrition (?40% prevalence in the UK) may be managed better by improving the nutrition education of 'tomorrow's doctors'. The Need for Nutrition Education Programme aimed to measure the effectiveness and acceptability of an educational intervention on nutrition for medical students in the clinical phase of their training.An educational needs analysis was followed by a consultative process to gain consensus on a suitable educational intervention. This was followed by two identical 2-day educational interventions with before and after analyses of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP). The 2-day training incorporated six key learning outcomes.Two constituent colleges of Cambridge University used to deliver the above educational interventions.An intervention group of 100 clinical medical students from 15 medical schools across England were recruited to attend one of two identical intensive weekend workshops.The primary outcome measure consisted of change in KAP scores following intervention using a clinical nutrition questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures included change in KAP scores 3 months after the intervention as well as a student-led semiqualitative evaluation of the educational intervention.Statistically significant changes in KAP scores were seen immediately after the intervention, and this was sustained for 3 months. Mean differences and 95% CIs after intervention were Knowledge 0.86 (0.43 to 1.28); Attitude 1.68 (1.47 to 1.89); Practice 1.76 (1.11 to 2.40); KAP 4.28 (3.49 to 5.06). Ninety-seven per cent of the participants rated the overall intervention and its delivery as 'very good to excellent', reporting that they would recommend this educational intervention to colleagues.Need for Nutrition Education Programme has highlighted the need for curricular innovation in the area of clinical health nutrition in medical schools. This project also demonstrates the effectiveness and acceptability of such a curriculum intervention for 'tomorrow's doctors'. Doctors, dietitians and nutritionists worked well in an effective interdisciplinary partnership when teaching medical students, providing a good model for further work in a healthcare setting.
Project description:The massive flood in Malaysia's east coast in December 2014 has placed Kelantan in a possible dengue outbreak risk. At this point, community awareness is essential in preventing disease spread. However, no data on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dengue in Kelantan have existed in relevance to flood disaster, although such information is necessary for the vector control programs. The purpose of this study is to assess the KAP regarding dengue among school children from flooded and unflooded areas and to evaluate the effectiveness of the dengue health education program in improving their KAP level. A school-based pre- and post-tests design was utilized in this study whereby a booklet on dengue was distributed during the interphase of the tests. The information collected was on the socio-demographic, KAP and the source of dengue information. We statistically compared the KAP between the two study sites and the pre- and post-test scores to evaluate the health education program. A total of 203 students participated in the survey, and 51.7% of them were flood victims. When comparing the baseline KAP, the respondents from the unflooded area had higher knowledge scores compared to those from the flooded area (P<0.05), while non-significant differences were observed in the attitude and practice between the two study areas (P>0.05). The health education program significantly improved knowledge and practice in the flooded area and knowledge only in the unflooded area (P<0.05). The multinomial regression analysis suggests that age and dengue history are the primary determinants that influence the high practice level in both areas. We suggest the need to increase routine dengue health education programs to all age groups targeting both high and low dengue risk areas, and the necessity to ensure the translation of positive knowledge and attitude changes into real dengue preventive practices.
Project description:Background: In Fiji, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Chronic kidney disease (CKD) are amongst the top four causes of premature mortality, disability and death. This study aims to identify the determinants of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in T2DM patients with CKD in Fiji in 2018. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Sigatoka Sub-divisional Hospital (SSH) in Fiji in July-August, 2018 using a self-structured questionnaire to test KAP of 225 patients. The inclusion criteria were confirmed T2DM patients (Fijian citizens) with CKD, aged 30 years or above and attending Special Out-Patient's Department (SOPD) at SSH. Independent t-test and ANOVA was used to test differences between demographic variable and practice score while non-parametric tests were used for knowledge and attitude. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regressions were conducted. All tests were set at 5% level of significance. Results: From 249 questionnaires distributed, 225 responded thus response rate was 95%. The mean KAP level was high: knowledge, 23.3/30 (SD±3.25); attitude, 23.1/30 (SD±2.73) and practice, 7.1/10 (SD±2.04). A high level of knowledge was seen in those with university-level education (p<0.001), unemployed (p=0.05) and high average monthly income (p=0.03). Those aged 61-70 years had a 0.53-point lower attitude score (p=0.05) than other age categories, while those >70 years had a 1.78-point lower attitude score (p=0.01) than other age categories. Fijians of Indian descent (FID) had lower attitude (p=0.002) and higher practice (p=0.001) scores. Conclusion: Patients with both T2DM and CKD at SSH have high levels of KAP. The determinants of KAP have been shown and thus, this study identified high-risk groups for low KAP, which can become the focus of future public health intervention.
Project description:Background: Evaluating the impact of a nutrition education program could provide insight into the effectiveness of an intervention. Researchers tested the hypothesis that a theory-based contextual nutrition education program (NEP) would improve the nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and dietary practices (KAP) of teachers and learners. Methods: Twenty three teachers who taught nutrition in Grades 4-7 (treatment school, n = 12) and 681 learners (treatment school, n = 350) participated in the study. In this quasi-experimental study, two primary schools were randomly selected to implement a contextual NEP. The nutrition KAP were assessed using previously validated questionnaires. The treatment school teachers taught nutrition using a developed nutrition education manual, while the control school teachers taught nutrition in the usual manner. Random effects Generalized Least Squares regression estimated the difference in the teachers' and learners' KAP for the treatment and control schools; p = 0.025 for a one-tailed test. Results: At post-implementation, the treatment school teachers' had higher total nutrition knowledge mean score (85.5% ± 8.2, p = 0.003) compared to the control school. Within the treatment school, total nutrition knowledge mean score of the teachers improved by 14.1%, p ? 0.001. Learners in the treatment school had higher total nutrition knowledge (53.2% ± 16.9, p = 0.002) and nutrition attitude (63.9% ± 19.7, p = 0.001) scores compared to learners in the control school. Within the treatment school, learners' total nutrition knowledge and nutrition attitudes scores increased by 4.9%, p ? 0.001 and 6.9%, p ? 0.001, respectively. The dietary practices of the teachers and the learners, and the nutrition attitudes of the teachers in the treatment school showed no significant within school improvement or in comparison with the control school (p > 0.025). Conclusions: The NEP led to the improvement in the teachers' and the learners' nutrition knowledge and the learners' nutrition attitudes. However, no significant improvement in the dietary practices of either teachers or learners was found.