Lymphovascular invasion, race, and the 21-gene recurrence score in early estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and Black race are associated with poorer prognosis in early breast cancer (EBC). We evaluated the association between LVI and race, and whether LVI adds prognostic benefit to the 21-gene recurrence score (RS) in EBC. Women with ER+ HER2- EBC measuring up to 5?cm, with 0-3 involved axillary nodes, diagnosed between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2014, who underwent surgery as first treatment and had available RS, were identified in the NCDB database. Bivariate associations between two categorical variables were examined using chi-square test. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the association of LVI, race, and other covariates with overall survival (OS). 77,425 women, 65,018 node-negative (N0), and 12,407 with 1-3 positive (N+) nodes, were included. LVI was present in 12.7%, and associated with poor grade, RS 26-100, and N+ (all p?
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Black race is associated with worse outcomes in early breast cancer. We evaluated clinicopathologic characteristics, the 21-gene recurrence score (RS), treatment delivered, and clinical outcomes by race and ethnicity among women who participated in the Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment.<h4>Methods</h4>The association between clinical outcomes and race (White, Black, Asian, other or unknown) and ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic) was examined using proportional hazards models. All P values are 2-sided.<h4>Results</h4>Of 9719 eligible women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, node-negative breast cancer, there were 8189 (84.3%) Whites, 693 (7.1%) Blacks, 405 (4.2%) Asians, and 432 (4.4%) with other or unknown race. Regarding ethnicity, 889 (9.1%) were Hispanic. There were no substantial differences in RS or ESR1, PGR, or HER2 RNA expression by race or ethnicity. After adjustment for other covariates, compared with White race, Black race was associated with higher distant recurrence rates (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.60, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.07 to 2.41) and worse overall survival in the RS 11-25 cohort (HR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.06 to 2.15) and entire population (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.90). Hispanic ethnicity and Asian race were associated with better outcomes. There was no evidence of chemotherapy benefit for any racial or ethnic group in those with a RS of 11-25.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Black women had worse clinical outcomes despite similar 21-gene assay RS results and comparable systemic therapy in the Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment. Similar to Whites, Black women did not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy if the 21-gene RS was 11-25. Further research is required to elucidate the basis for this racial disparity in prognosis.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate the association between lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and clinical outcome in organ-confined, node-negative urothelial cancer of the bladder (UCB) in a post hoc analysis of a prospective clinical trial. To explore the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) on outcome in the subset of patients whose tumours exhibited LVI.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Surgical and tumour factors were extracted from the operative and pathology reports of 499 patients who had undergone radical cystectomy (RC) for pT1-T2 N0 UCB in the p53-MVAC trial (Southwest Oncology Group 4B951/NCT00005047). The presence or absence of LVI was determined by pathological examination of transurethral resection or RC specimens. Variables were examined in univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models for associations with time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS).<h4>Results</h4>Among 499 patients with a median follow-up of 4.9 years, a subset of 102 (20%) had LVI-positive tumours. Of these, 34 patients had pT1 and 68 had pT2 disease. LVI was significantly associated with TTR with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.77; number of events (EV) 95; P = 0.01) and with OS with a HR of 2.02 (95% CI 1.31-3.11; EV 98; P = 0.001) after adjustment for pathological stage. Among 27 patients with LVI-positive tumours who were randomised to receive adjuvant chemotherapy, receiving MVAC was not significantly associated with TTR (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.16-3.17; EV 7; P = 0.65) or with OS (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.11-1.83; EV 9; P = 0.26).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our post hoc analysis of the p53-MVAC trial revealed an association between LVI and shorter TTR and OS in patients with pT1-T2N0 disease. The analysis did not show a statistically significant benefit of adjuvant MVAC chemotherapy in patients with LVI, although a possible benefit was not excluded.
Project description:To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and to determine whether there is a differential effect of race and examine survival outcomes according to race, 18,295 breast invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) patients were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database, which includes White patients (n=15,936), Black patients (n=1,451) and patients of other races (including American Indians/Alaskan Natives and Asian/Pacific Islanders) (n=908). The Black ILC patients presented a higher rate of advanced histological grades and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages, a higher rate of lymph node (LN) involvement and a lower rate of progesterone receptors (PR)-positivity than the White patients and other races. The five-year overall survival (OS) and five-year breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) were worst in the Black patients among these patients (85.5%, 76.0% and 87.7%, P<0.01; 91.1%, 84.4% and 91.6%, P<0.01). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the risk hazards ratios (HR) of death for patients of the White, Black and other races. Among these patients, the Black patients had the worst survival outcomes in five-year OS and BCSS outcomes (HR=1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) :1.20-1.51, P<0.01; HR=1.39, 95%CI:1.21-1.61, P<0.01, respectively). After a 1:1:1 matching of the three groups, the Black patients still presented worse survival outcomes in BCSS compared to White patients (HR=1.88, 95%CI: 1.14-3.10, P=0.013), however, there was no difference in OS (HR=1.35, 95%CI: 0.93-1.96, P=0.111). Difference in outcomes may partially explained by difference in histological grades, AJCC stage, LN and PR status among the three groups. In conclusion, this study revealed that the Black patients had worse five-year OS and BCSS than White and other race patients.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preoperative anemia on the prognosis of patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).A total of 620 patients with UTUC were retrospectively analyzed. Anemia was decided by preoperatively measured hemoglobin values based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the relationship between anemia and survival outcomes. The meta-analysis part was performed according to PRISMA guidelines.The median follow-up was 51 (range: 1-168) months. A total of 246 patients had preoperative anemia in our cohort. Anemia was found to be related to high-grade (P < .001), sessile architecture (P = .001), advanced T stage (P < .001), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (P = .006), and worse chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage (P = .012). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that patients with preoperative anemia had worse overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and disease recurrence-free survival (RFS) (all P < .001). Multivariable Cox analyses found that anemia was an independent predictor of CSS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.719, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.285-2.300], RFS (HR 1.427, 95% CI: 1.114-1.829) and OS (HR 1.756, 95% CI: 1.353-2.279). Among patients without end-stage renal disease (ESRD, n = 614), the anemia was also proved to be associated with worse outcomes in multivariable Cox analysis (OS, HR 1.759, 95% CI: 1.353-2.287; CSS, HR 1.726, 95% CI: 1.289-2.311, and RFS, HR 1.431, 95% CI: 1.117-1.837). Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, and the pooled results showed that anemia was also related to worse CSS (HR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.73-2.44), RFS (HR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.30-1.90), and OS (HR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10-2.13), but not related to intravesical recurrence (HR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.75-1.82).Preoperative anemia was proved to be significantly associated with worse oncologic outcomes in patients with UTUC following RNU.
Project description:The prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in stage I/II colorectal cancer (CRC) does not reach a consensus. To systematically assess prognostic significance of LVI, databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched from inception up to 10 Dec 2016. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to determine the prognostic effects. Nineteen relevant studies including 9881 total patients were enrolled. Our results showed that LVI is significantly associated with poor prognosis in overall survival (OS) (HR=2.15, 95 % CI=1.72-2.68, P < 0.01) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR=1.73, 95% CI=1.50-1.99, P < 0.01), which is similar in stage II patients. Further subgroup analysis revealed that the significance of the association between LVI and worse prognosis in CRC patients is not affected by below factors, including geographic setting, LVI positive rate, treatment, tumor site, and quality of the study. The current meta-analysis suggests that LVI may be a poor prognostic factor for stage I/II CRC patients.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To examine (1) the trend and associated factors of Oncotype DX (ODX) use among hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) patients in 2004-2015; (2) the trend of reported chemotherapy by Recurrence Score (RS); and (3) the survival differences associated with ODX use.<h4>Methods</h4>ODX data from Genomic Health Inc. were linked with 17 SEER registries data. HR + BC cases with lymph node negative (N0) or 1-3 positive LNs (N1) from 2004-2015 were analyzed. The Cochrane-Armitage trend test, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and stratified Cox model were performed. Survival analysis was restricted to HR+/HER2- patients from 2010 to 2014, matched on propensity score.<h4>Results</h4>ODX use increased substantially from 2004 to 2015 (N0: 2.0% to 42.7%; N1: 0.3% to 27.9%). Non-Hispanic black and Medicaid insured patients had lower odds of receiving ODX. N0 patients with moderately differentiated or 2.1-5.0 cm tumor and N1 patients with well-differentiated or < 2.0 cm tumor had higher odds of using ODX. The reported chemotherapy use decreased significantly with low and intermediate RS, and increased for high RS among N0 patients. ODX use was associated with better breast cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (95% CI) N0 1.96 (1.60-2.41), N1 1.90 (1.42-2.54)] and overall survival [N0 2.06 (1.83-2.31), N1 1.72 (1.42-2.09)], especially in the first 36 months.<h4>Conclusion</h4>ODX use has increased significantly since 2004, nonetheless disparities remain, especially for racial/ethnic minorities and Medicaid insured patients. Administering chemotherapy based on ODX results has been improved among N0 patients. Patients receiving ODX had better survival than those not.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prospective phase 3 PlanB trial used the Oncotype DX® Recurrence Score® (RS) to define a genomically low-risk subset of clinically high-risk pN0-1 early breast cancer (EBC) patients for treatment with adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) alone. Here, we report five-year data evaluating the prognostic value of RS, Ki-67, and other traditional clinicopathological parameters. METHODS:A central tumour bank was prospectively established within PlanB. Following an early amendment, hormone receptor (HR)+ , pN0-1 RS ? 11 patients were recommended to omit chemotherapy. Patients with RS ? 12, pN2-3, or HR-negative/HER2-negative disease were randomised to anthracycline-containing or anthracycline-free chemotherapy. Primary endpoint: disease-free survival (DFS). PlanB Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01049425. FINDINGS:From 2009 to 2011, PlanB enrolled 3198 patients (central tumour bank, n = 3073) with the median age of 56 years, 41.1% pN+, and 32.5% grade 3 EBC. Chemotherapy was omitted in 348/404 (86.1%) eligible RS ? 11 patients. After 55 months of median follow-up, five-year DFS in ET-treated RS ? 11 patients was 94% (in both pN0 and pN1) versus 94% (RS 12-25) and 84% (RS > 25) in chemotherapy-treated patients (p < 0.001); five-year overall survival (OS) was 99 versus 97% and 93%, respectively (p < 0.001). Nodal status, central/local grade, tumour size, continuous Ki-67, progesterone receptor (PR), IHC4, and RS were univariate prognostic factors for DFS. In a multivariate analysis including all univariate prognostic markers, only pN2-3, central and local grade 3, tumour size >2 cm, and RS, but not IHC4 or Ki-67 were independent adverse factors. If RS was excluded, IHC4 or both Ki-67 and PR entered the model. The impact of RS was particularly pronounced in patients with intermediate Ki-67 (>10%, <40%) tumours. INTERPRETATION:The excellent five-year outcomes in clinically high-risk, genomically low-risk (RS ? 11) pN0-1 patients without adjuvant chemotherapy support using RS with standardised pathology for treatment decisions in HR+ HER2-negative EBC. Ki-67 has the potential to support patient selection for genomic testing.
Project description:While many studies have evaluated the relationship between BMI and breast cancer outcomes, it is unclear whether this relationship is consistent between early breast cancer (BC) and advanced BC. The study included 5099 patients with HER2 positive early BC (EBC) and 3496 with HER2 positive advanced BC (ABC). In the EBC cohort, higher BMI was associated with worse overall survival (OS) (HR [95% CI]: overweight = 1.30 [1.13-1.51]; obese = 1.37 [1.14-1.64], P = < 0.001), and worse disease-free survival (overweight = 1.10 [0.98-1.24]; obese = 1.20 [1.04-1.39], P = 0.061). In contrast, for the ABC cohort, higher BMI was significantly associated with improved OS (overweight = 0.85 [0.76-0.96]; obese = 0.82 [0.72-0.95], P = 0.014), and progression-free survival (overweight = 0.91 [0.83-1.01]; obese = 0.87 [0.77-0.98], P = 0.034). In this large high-quality dataset, higher BMI was independently associated with worse survival in EBC, paradoxically in ABC higher BMI was independently associated with improved survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with early breast cancer (EBC) achieving pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) have a favorable prognosis. Breast surgery might be avoided in patients in whom the presence of residual tumor can be ruled out with high confidence. Here, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) in predicting pCR and long-term outcome after NACT. METHODS:Patients with EBC, including patients with locally advanced disease, who had undergone CE-MRI after NACT, were retrospectively analyzed (n?=?246). Three radiologists, blinded to clinicopathologic data, reevaluated all MRI scans regarding to the absence (radiologic complete remission; rCR) or presence (no-rCR) of residual contrast enhancement. Clinical and pathologic responses were compared categorically using Cohen's kappa statistic. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Overall rCR and pCR (no invasive tumor in the breast and axilla (ypT0/is N0)) rates were 45% (111/246) and 29% (71/246), respectively. Only 48% (53/111; 95% CI 38-57%) of rCR corresponded to a pCR (= positive predictive value - PPV). Conversely, in 87% (117/135; 95% CI 79-92%) of patients, residual tumor observed on MRI was pathologically confirmed (= negative predictive value - NPV). Sensitivity to detect a pCR was 75% (53/71; 95% CI 63-84%), while specificity to detect residual tumor and accuracy were 67% (117/175; 95% CI 59-74%) and 69% (170/246; 95% CI 63-75%), respectively. The PPV was significantly lower in hormone-receptor (HR)-positive compared to HR-negative tumors (17/52?=?33% vs. 36/59?=?61%; P?=?0.004). The concordance between rCR and pCR was low (Cohen's kappa -?0.1), however in multivariate analysis both assessments were significantly associated with RFS (rCR P?=?0.037; pCR P?=?0.033) and OS (rCR P?=?0.033; pCR P?=?0.043). CONCLUSION:Preoperative CE-MRI did not accurately predict pCR after NACT for EBC, especially not in HR-positive tumors. However, rCR was strongly associated with favorable RFS and OS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The information of Oncotype DX applied in Asian breast cancer patients is limited. A recurrence index for distant recurrence (RI-DR) has been developed for early-stage breast cancer (EBC) from tumor samples in Chinese patients. In this study, we compared the prognostic performance of the Oncotype DX (ODx) recurrence score (RS) with the RI-DR for any recurrence risk type. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred thirty-eight (138) patients with hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative EBC who were previously tested with ODx were included for testing with the RI-DR. The cutoff score to partition the low- and high-risk patients was 26 for RS and 36 for RI-DR. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). RESULTS:The concordance between the RI-DR and RS was 83% in N0 patients and 81% in node-positive patients when the RS score cutoff was set at 26. With a median follow-up interval of 36.8 months, the 4-year RFS for the high- and low-risk groups categorized by the RS were 61.9% and 95.0%, respectively (hazard ratio: 10.6, 95.0% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-62.9). The 4-year RFS in the high- and low-risk groups categorized by the RI-DR were 72.6% and 98.5%, respectively (hazard ratio: 18.9, 95% CI: 1.8-138.8). CONCLUSION:This paper illustrated the performance of RI-DR and ODx RS in breast cancer women in Taiwan. There was high concordance between the RI-DR and RS. The RI-DR is not inferior to the RS in predicting RFS in EBC patients. This study will fill the gap between the current and best practice in Chinese patients.