Janthinobacterium tructae sp. nov., Isolated from Kidney of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
ABSTRACT: This study presents a novel Janthinobacterium strain, SNU WT3, isolated from the kidney of rainbow trout. A phylogenetic study using 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the strain is closely related to Janthinobacterium svalbardensis JA-1T. However, biochemical analysis found differences in D-xylose adonitol, N-acetylglucosamine, arbutin, and cellobiose. As for genome-to-genome distance and average nucleotide identity values calculated between strain SNU WT3 and other related strains such as J. lividum EIF1, J. svalbardensis PAMC 27463, and J. agaricidamnosum BHSEK were all below the cutoff value between species. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain SNU WT3 and other close relatives indicated the results of J. lividum DSM 1522T (47.11%) and J. svalbardensis JA-1T (38.88%) individually. The major fatty acid compositions of strain SNU WT3 were cylco-C17:0 (41.45%), C16:0 (33.86%) and C12:0 (5.87%). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol. The quinone system was composed mainly of ubiquinone Q-8. The genome of strain SNU WT3 consists of 6,314,370 bp with a G + C content of 62.35%. Here, we describe a novel species of the genus Janthinobacterium, and the name Janthinobacterium tructae has been proposed with SNU WT3T (=KCTC 72518 = JCM 33613) as the type strain.
Project description:Janthinobacterium lividum is a Gram-negative bacterium able to produce violacein, a pigment with antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Janthinobacterium lividum colonizes the skin of some amphibians and confers protection against fungal pathogens. The mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. In order to identify the advantages for the bacterium to colonize amphibian skin we sequenced Janthinobacterium lividum strain MTR, a strain isolated from Cajón del Maipo, Chile. The strain has capnophilic behavior, with growth favored by high concentrations (5 %) of carbon dioxide. Its genome is 6,535,606 bp in size, with 5,362 coding sequences and a G?+?C content of 62.37 %. The presence of genes encoding for products that participate in the carbon fixation pathways (dark CAM pathways), and the entire set of genes encoding for the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle may explain the capnophilic behavior and allow us to propose that the CO2 secreted by the skin of amphibians is the signal molecule that guides colonization by Janthinobacterium lividum.
Project description:We present the draft genome sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. strain PC23-8, a bacterium isolated from freshwater stream sediment downstream from acid mine drainage. The 6.4-Mb genome sequence of this strain contains several secondary metabolite gene clusters, including one similar to the cyclic peptide jagaricin, synthesized by Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum.
Project description:We present a draft genome sequence of Janthinobacterium lividum strain ID1246, isolated from within a rainbow trout hatchery raceway. <i>Janthinobacterium</i> spp. are well-known producers of antimicrobial compounds. Due to the unique isolation source, this genome may yield novel biosynthetic gene clusters.
Project description:The draft genome sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. strain SLB01, a violacein-producing psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from the diseased sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis, was determined. We identified five genes encoding VioA, VioB, VioC, VioD, and VioE proteins related to violacein biosynthesis that were like those identified in published Janthinobacterium lividum strains MTR and RIT308.
Project description:<i>Janthinobacterium</i> spp. are normally considered non-pathogenic, and few pathogenesis-related studies have been reported. Here, we report the first isolation of <i>Janthinobacterium lividum</i> in Korea as a pathogenic bacterium infecting rainbow trout. Mass mortality was observed at one rainbow trout hatchery, and dead fish were necropsied. Gram-negative, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria that grew on Cytophaga agar were isolated. A specific violet pigmentation was observed after 7 days of cultivation, and the species were characterized on the basis of the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Because no research has focused so far on the pathogenicity of these bacteria, our study was directed to their pathogenic role based on infection-induced histopathology. Examination of stained tissue sections revealed severe renal bacteraemia and tubule degeneration. Other tissue sections, including sections from the liver and the spleen, were relatively clear. The measured half-maximal lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) was approximately 3 × 10<sup>5</sup> colony-forming units/fish, suggesting that this bacterium may be an opportunistic pathogen in rainbow trout fisheries. Since the bacterium commonly dwells in soil and most water for rainbow trout fisheries in Korea is supplied from ground water, the bacteria may naturally flow into the aquatic environment. Therefore, recognition of any pathogenic role of <i>J. lividum</i> is important for the prevention of disease in aquaculture.
Project description:Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches.
Project description:In the present investigation, five strains of <i>Janthinobacterium</i> obtained from Rohtang Pass, Himachal Pradesh, India along with one strain of <i>Bacillus decolorationis</i> (IARI-SL-13) were screened qualitatively and quantitatively for their ability to solubilize K at different temperatures ranging from 5 to 30 °C. All the selected strains do not produce violet colonies, instead produced pink or red coloured colonies. In a plate assay, among all the strains tested, <i>Janthinobacterium</i> sp. IARI-R-81 was most efficient in solubilization of K at lower temperatures of 5 and 10 °C and was closely followed by <i>Janthinobacterium lividum</i> (IARI-R-71). <i>Janthinobacterium</i> sp. IARI-R-70 did not produce any detectable halo zones at all temperatures except 10 and 25 °C. Quantitative analysis revealed that all the selected pigment-producing strains could solubilize potassium-bearing mineral at low temperature (5 °C). <i>J. lividum</i> IARI-R-50 strain was most efficient in solubilizing K (29.87 ± 1.22 µg K/mL) from its mineral at 5 °C. This strain was typical as it solubilized almost the same amount of K both at 5 and 30 °C indicating its capability to adapt to different temperatures. All other strains showed a significantly higher concentration of solubilized K at 30 °C as compared to other temperatures tested. The non-pigmented <i>B. decolorationis</i> showed solubilization only at 25 and 30 °C and the concentration of K solubilized at 30 °C was significantly higher than at 25 °C. There was no correlation between pigment production and solubilization of potassium. This is the first report depicting solubilization trait of members of genus <i>Janthinobacterium</i> and confirms its evolutionary relatedness to Collimonads.
Project description:A light pink coloured bacterial strain ERGS5:01 isolated from glacial stream water of Sikkim Himalaya was affiliated to Janthinobacterium lividum based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and phylogenetic clustering. Whole genome sequencing was performed for the strain to confirm its taxonomy as it lacked the typical violet pigmentation of the genus and also to decipher its survival strategy at the aquatic ecosystem of high elevation. The PacBio RSII sequencing generated genome of 5,168,928 bp with 4575 protein-coding genes and 118 RNA genes. Whole genome-based multilocus sequence analysis clustering, in silico DDH similarity value of 95.1% and, the ANI value of 99.25% established the identity of the strain ERGS5:01 (MCC 2953) as a non-violacein producing J. lividum. The genome comparisons across genus Janthinobacterium revealed an open pan-genome with the scope of the addition of new orthologous cluster to complete the genomic inventory. The genomic insight provided the genetic basis of freezing and frequent freeze-thaw cycle tolerance and, for industrially important enzymes. Extended insight into the genome provided clues of crucial genes associated with adaptation in the harsh aquatic ecosystem of high altitude.
Project description:We report here the complete genome sequence of Janthinobacterium svalbardensis PAMC 27463 isolated from a freshwater lake on Barton Peninsula on King George Island, Antarctica. The genome consists of a chromosome with 6,274,078 bp which contains 5,585 genes, including 121 RNA genes.
Project description:We have explored the microbial community in a nonpermafrost, cold Alaskan soil using both culture-based and culture-independent approaches. In the present study, we cultured >1000 bacterial isolates from this soil and characterized the collection of isolates phylogenetically and functionally. A screen for antibiosis identified an atypical, red-pigmented strain of Janthinobacterium lividum (strain BR01) that produced prodigiosin when grown at cool temperatures as well as strains (e.g., strain BP01) that are more typical of J. lividium, which produce a purple pigment, violacein. Both purple- and red-pigmented strains exhibited high levels of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The prodigiosin pathway cloned from J. lividium BR01 was expressed in the heterologous host, Escherichia coli, and the responsible gene cluster differs from that of a well-studied prodigiosin producer, Serratia sp. J. lividum BR01 is the first example of a prodigiosin-producer among the beta-Proteobacteria. The results show that characterization of cultured organisms from previously unexplored environments can expand the current portrait of the microbial world.